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f.p.-hxjvi 


A COLLECTION OF 


TREATIES, ENGAGEMENTS 
^ AND SAN ADS 


RELATING TO INDIA AND 
NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES,. " 

; ^- p ’ 

COMPILED BY ’ ' ; 

.»•' 

UNDER SECRETARY TO THE GOVERNMENT OF IN^ft aGL ^^ ' 
IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT 


G. U. AITCHISON, B.C.S., 


Vol. XI 


CONTAINING 


THE TREATIES, &c„ RELATING TO ADEN AND THE SOUTH 
WESTERN COAST OF ARABIA, THE ARAB PRINCIPALITIES 
IN THE PERSIAN GULF, MUSCAT (OMAN), BALUCHISTAN 
AND THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE, 


Revised and continued up to the end of 1930 under the authority of the 
Government of India. 


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1933 

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CONTENTS 


PART I. 

TREATIES and ENGAGEMENTS delating to ADEN and the 
SOUTH-WESTERN COAST of ARABIA. 


ADEN. 

Pace. 

NARRATIVE . • 1 

TREATIES, oto., No. 

j. — Anglo-Turkish Convention respecting tlic boundaries 

of Aden, dated 9th March 1914 .... 42 

Protocols annexed to the Convention .... 43 


(1) The An dam. 

NARRATIVE 2 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

IX, — Treaty of commerce concluded with the Sultan of 

Laliej, dated Gth September 1802 .... 53 

III, — Treaty of friendship concluded with the Sultan of 

Jjafiej, dated. 2nd February 1839 .... 50 

Treaty entered into by the Sultan of Lnhej engaging 
not to permit insult or molestation on the roads to 
Aden, dated 4th February 1839 .... 57 

IV. — Bond entered into by Sultan Muhsin Fadlil of Lahej 

renewing his professions of peace and goodwill, 

dated 18th Juno 1839 57 

V. — Treaty of peace entered into by Sultan Muhsin Fndhl 

of Lahej, dated 11th February 1843 . . ' . . 5S 

VI. — Bond entered into by the Sultan of Lahej on the 
restoration of his stipend, dated 20th February 

1844 . . . . ' .00 

VII. — Treaty of commerce concluded with the Sultan of 

Lahej, dated 7th March 1849 . . . . . 01 

VIII. — Convention concluded with the Sultan of Lahej for 
an aqueduct between Shaikh Otlnnan and Aden, 
dated 7th SI arch 18G7 ...... 04 

IX. — Agreement concluded between the Abdali and the 
Haushabi regarding the Zaidn lands, dated Gth Slav 
1881 . . \ 00 

X. — Agreement entered into by the Abdali taking the 

Subeihi under their control, dated Gth Slay 18S1 . 07 

XI. — Agreement entered into by the Sultan of Lahej for the 

purchase of Shaikh Otlnnan, etc., dated 6th Febru- 
ary 1882 ....... .70 

XII. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the Haushabi 

Sultan, dated Gth. August 1S95 

XIII. — Convention concluded by the Sultan of Lahej ceding 
a piece of land for use as head-works of the water 
supply of Aden, dated lltli April 1910 . .74 

XIV.— Agroomen fc entered into by the Sultan of Lahej for 
. the control of the Subeihi, dated 27th February 1919 70 



u 


CONTENTS. 


ADEN — continued. 

(i) 'Tin: "Suiimm. 

1’aoh. 

NARRATIVE 7 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XV. — -Engagement of nmitv entered into by tho Subcihi 

Chiefs, 1830 77 

XVI. — -Agreement entered into bv certain sections of tlio 
Snboihi for the protection of the roads nt Aden, 
dated 13th May 1871 80 

XVII. — -Rond executed hy the Mansuri Chief for the good 

behaviour of the Kurnisi, dated 13th May 1871 . 82 

XVIII. — Engagement entered into hy the Atifi Chiefs for tho 
protection of shipwrecked Rritish subjects, dated 
13th May 1871 82 

XIX. — Protectorate treaty concluded with tho Atifi Chiefs, 

dated 17th Septemlrcr 1880 84 

NX. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the Barhimi Chiefs, 

dated 21st September 1880 ..... SC 


(3) Tiir. Fadhu. 

NARRATIVE 0 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

XXI. — llond executed hv the Fadldi Sultan for the good 

behaviour of his tribe, dated 8th July 1830 . . SO 

XXII. — Rond executed hy the Fadldi Sultan for tho security 

of the roads loading to Aden, dated 1837 . . .90 

XX111. — Agreement executed hy the Fadldi Sultan tendering 
tho submission of the trihe and consenting to the 
residence of one of his sons in Aden, dated 27th 
May 1807 90 

XXIV.— Ag reemont executed hy tho Fadldi Sultan fov the nholi- 
tion of transit duos in his territory dated 0th May 
1S72 91 

XXV.— A groement defining the boundaries of the Fadldi and 

Ahdali lands, dated 3rd May 1881 .... 92 

XXVI. — protectorate treaty concluded with the Fadldi Sultan, 

dated 4th August. 1S8S .93 


(4) Tin: Aquaiu. 

NARRATIVE .... 12 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

XXVII. — Engagement of peace and friendship with the Aqrahi 

Shaikh, dated 4th February 1835) .... 95 

XXX 111 . — .Vgrr-T •vriwA to ‘mT-YeVJfivp cTiVe-m'i VrAo V.x AW 

dated 12th April 1857 ...... 95 

XXIX. — Agreement executed hy the Aqrahi Shaikh regarding 

tho sale of Jobel Ihsan, dated 23rd January 1863 . 90 

XXX. — Engagement executed hy the Aqrahi Shaikh for tho 

sale of Little Aden, dated 2nd April 1809 . . 97 

XXXI. — Agreement executed hy the Aqrahi Shaikh for tho 
' purchase of land, dated 15th July 1S8S ... 99 

XXXII. — Protectorate t reaty concluded with the Aqrahi Shaikh, 
dated 15th July 1SSB 


100 



CONTENTS. 


III 


ADEN — continued. 

(5) Tiie Aueaqx. 

Page. 

NARRATIVE . . . . . . • • • • • • • 8 9 * * * * 14 

(a) The Upper Aulaqi Sultan. 

NARRATIVE 14 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXXIV. — Treaty of peaco and friendship with tho Upper Aulaqi 

Sultan, dated 18th March 1904 ..... 103 

(b) The Upper Aulaqi Shaikh. 

NARRATIVE * 4 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXXIII. — Treaty of peace and friendship with tho Upper Aulaqi 

Shaikh, dated 8th December 1903 . . . 102 

(c) The Lower Aulaqi. 

NARRATIVE U 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXXV. — Agreement executed by the Lower Aulaqi Sultan for 
the suppression of tho slavo trade, dated 14th Octo- 
ber 1855 105 

Similar Agreements executed by other Shaikhs of the 
Lower Aulaqi 10G 

XXXVI. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with the Lower Aulaqi 

Shaikhs, dated 2nd June 188S 107 


(G) Irqa. 

NARRATIVE 15 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXXVII. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with tho Shaikh of Irqa, 

dated 27th' April 1883 110 

XXXVIII. — Fresh Protectorate Treaty concluded with tho Shaikh 

of Irqa, dated 7th January 1902 .... Ill 

(7) Lower Haora. 

NARRATIVE 10 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXXIX. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with tho Shaikh of 

Lower Ilaura, dated 28th April 1888 . . . 113 

XL. — Revised Protectorate Treaty concluded with tho 

Shaikh of Lower Ilaura, dated 7tli April 1902 . . 114 

(8) Beihan. 

NARRATIVE I0 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

XLI. — Treaty of peace and friendship executed by Sbnrif 
Ahmed-bin-Muhsin of Beihan at Qnsnb, dated 29tli 
December 1903 HO 

(9) The Yaeai. 

(a) The Lower Yafai. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. * 

XLTI. — Engagement of peace and friendship executed by 

the Sultan of Lower Yafai, dated 21st February 1839 us 
XLTIT. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with the Sultan of 

tho Lower Yafai, dated 1st August 1895 . . up 



CONTENTS. 


iv 


ADEN — continued. 

(9) The Yafai — continued. 

(b) The Upper Tafai. 

Page. 

NARRATIVE . 1S 

TREATIES, etc.. No. ‘ ‘ ' ‘ : ' 

XL IV . — Treat}’ of peace and friendship concluded with the 

DJiubi section, dated lltli May 1903 . . . , 121 

XLV. — Treaty of peace and friendship concluded with the 

Mausatta section, dated 3rd July 1903 . . . 123 

XL VI. — Treaty of peace and friendship concluded with the 

Muflaln section, dated 27tli August 1903 . . . 125 

XL VI I. — Treaty of peace and friendship concluded with the 

Sultan Qalitnn bin Umar, dated 21st October 1903 . 120 

XLVII1. — Treaty of peace and friendship concluded with the 

Hndhrami section, dated 26th September 1903 . . 128 

XLIX. — Treaty of pence and friendship concluded with the 

Shnibi section, dated 6th December 1903 . . . 130 

L. — Agreement executed by the Shaibi Shaikh for the . 
protection of boundary pillars, dated 24th October 
1903 132 


(10) The Auohaei. 

NARRATIVE ... 20 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

LI. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with Sultan Qasim 

bin Ahmed, dated 19th September 1914 . . .133 


(11) The Haushaiii. 

NARRATIVE 20 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

LTI. — Bond executed by the Haushabi Sultan for the pro- 
tection of the roads leading to Aden, dated 14th 
June 1839 . . . . ... . . 135 

LlII. — Treaty of peace and friendship concluded with the 

Haushabi, dated 31st January 1839 . . . 130 

IX, — Agreement concluded between the Haushabi and the 
Abclali regarding the Zaida lands, dated 5th May 

1881 

LIV. — Agreement with Sultan Muhsin bin Ali whereby his 
, territory was restored to him under certain condi- 
tions, dated 6tli August 1895 ..... 13G 

LV. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with the Haushabi 

Sultan, dated 6th August 1895 . . . .138 

LVI. — Agreement executed by the Haushabi Sultan for the 
safety of the trade routes in Ids territory, dated 
24th September 1914 ...... 140 


(12) The Alawi. 

NARRATIVE • 23 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

LVH. — Protectorate Treaty concluded with the Alawi Shaikh, 

dated 16th July 1895 142 

LVIIT. — Agreement executed by the Alawi Shaikh for the 
protection of the trade routes in his territory, ' 
dated July 1914 143 



CONTENTS. 


V 


ADEN — c.onlin ual. 


(J Axiiuatk ok Diiat.a. 

Pack. 

NARRATIVE * 25 

TREATIES, ot«., No. 

L3X. — Agreement uxcetded by the Amir of Dhabi for tno 
protection of the roads to Aden, dated 2nd October 

1SS0 • • 1 ' ,r > 

LX. — Treaty of peace and friendship concluded with t he 

Amir of Dhabi, dated 23th November 11)0-1 . . Mii 

LXi. — Agreement executed by the Qutoibi Shaikh for the 

protection of the trade routes in his territory, dated 
dune 1015 . . MS 


(14) T’iik AVauhm. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

LXll. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the AVahidi Sultan 

of Bit- Ali, dated 30th April 1833 .... MV) 

LXill. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the AVahidi Sultan 

of Balaliaf. dated .‘Kith April 18S8 .... lot) 

LXI V. — Fresh Protectorate treaty concluded with the AVahidi 

Sultan of Balaliaf, dated 15th 3d a roll 1805 , . 152 

LXAX — Fresh Proteetorate treaty concluded with the AVahidi 

Sultan of Bir Ali, dated 1st June 180(3 . , . 151 


(la) Tm: KArmiit. 


NARRATIVE 30 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

JjXVI. — Agreement between the Entilin' and Qaiti hy which 
the Kathiri agreed to accept the treaty of IASS 
between the Qaiti and the British Government and 
also aeeepted the arbitration of the British (!ov- 
, eminent in the .settlement of future disputes, dated 

1013 IC7 


(1.0) Sor.TAX.m: ok Mukaixa. 


NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

T,XA 7 1T. — Engagement executed liy the Nnrjih «f Mukalla for 
thi>aholition of the slave trade, dated 14th Mav 
180-'! 

LXAM1I. — Engagement executed by the Napih of Mukalla for 
the aholitioii of the slave trade in his territory, 
dated 7th April 187.3 

LXI X .—Engagement, executed hy the Jemadar of Sliihr for 
the abolition of the slave trade, dated 17th Novem- 
ber 1870 ..... 

LXX. — Agreement granting a stipend to the Naoih of 
Mukalla, dated 2!Mh May 1882 

LXXT. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the .Temadar of 
Sliihv and Mukalla, dated 1st May 18, 3, S 

LX VI. —Agreement between the Qaiti and Die Kathiri, dated 


:u 


too 

101 

HR 

102 

ItM 


157 



CONTENTS. 


vi 

ADEN — concluded. 

(17) SOQOTIU AND QlSHN. 

I Page 


NARRATIVE .35 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

LXXII. — Agreement executed by the Sultan .of Soqotra for the 

storage of coal, dated 1834 . . . . 1GG 


LXXIII. — Agreement granting a stipend to the Sultan of 
Soqotra for the protection' of shipwrecked sailors, 
etc., dated 23rd January 1876 ..... 1G6 

LXXIV. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the Sultan of 

Soqotra and Qisliin, dated 23rd April 1886 . . 167 

LXXV. — Protectorate treaty concluded with the Malm Sultan, 

dated 2nd May 1888 ....... 169 


(18) Yemen. 

NARRATIVE ■ 36 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

LNXVI. — Treaty concluded with the Imam of Sanaa, dated 15th 

January 1821 ' . . . 171 

LXXVII. — Commercial treaty concluded with the Governor of 

Mocha, dated 1st September 1840 . . . .175 


(19) The Idiusi. 


NARRATIVE 40 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

LXXVIII. — Treaty of friendship concluded with Sayyid Muham- 
mad bin Ali, dated 30tli April 1915 . . ,177 

LXXTX. — Supplementary agreement concluded with Sayyid 
Muhammad bin Ali recognising the Farsan Islands 
as forming part of the Idrisi’s domains, dated 22nd 
January 1917 178 



CONTENTS. 


Vll 


PART II. 


TREATIES 


and ENGAGEMENTS it bating to the ARAB 
CIPALITIES in the PERSIAN GHEE. 


PRIN- 


NARRATTVE 


PERSIAN CULE. 


Paof.. 

181 


(1) Tnr, Waititabts and Nejd. 

NARRATIVE . 182 

TREATIES, -etc., No. 

I. — Declaration of tho Wahhabi Amir engaging not to 
make any aggression on the Arab tribes in alliance 
with the British Govern meat, dated 21st April 18GG 200 
jl. — Treaty with Bin Sand, the Ruler of Nejd, acknowledg- 
ing his independence and agreeing to render him 
aid in certain contingencies, dated 26th December 

1915 200 

• ITT.— Treaty between the Government of Iraq and the 
Sultan of Nejd composing the difficulties which had 
arisen betweon them, dated 5th May 1922 . . 20S 

Protocol laying down the boundaries between the two 
countries, dated 2nd December 1922 . . . ,211 

Protocol regarding the allegiance of tribes outsido the 
boundaries and in regard to customs, dated 2nd 
December 1922 . . . . , , . .212 

IV. — Convention between Nejd and Kuwait laying clown tho 
boundaries between tbe two countries, dated 2nd 

December 1922 213 

V. — Agreement between the Sultan of Nejd and the Irnq 
Government for the regulation of tribal matters 
and for setting up a tribunal to deal with tribal 
raids between tho two countries, dated 1st Novem- 
ber 1925 (Tho Bahra Agreement) . . . ,214 

Correspondence relating to the above agreement . 217 

VI. — Agreement betweon the British Government and the 
Sultan of Nejd defining relations between Nejd and 
Trans-Jordan, dated 2nd November 1925 (Tho Had da 

Agreement) 221 

Correspondence relating to tbe above agreement . . 225 

VTT. — Treaty between the British Government and the King 
of llejav, and Nejd cancelling tho Treaty of Decem- 
ber 1915 and defining afresh tho relations between 
tho two parties, dated 20th May 1927 (Tho Treaty 

of Jeddah) 227 

Correspondence relating to tho above treaty . 229 


(2) Bahrain. 


NARRATIVE 


TREATIES, etc., No. 

VIII. — Agreement executed by the Shaikhs of Bahrain en- 
gaging not to permit the sale of property procured 
by plunder and piracy in Bahrain, dated 5th Febru- 
ary 1820 


XIX. — General Treaty with tho Shaikh of Bahrain for tho 
cessation of plunder and piracy by land and sea. 
dated 23rd February 1820 


190 


233 


24S 



CONTENTS 


VJ11 


PER S I A N GULF — continued. 

(2) Baiihain — continued. 

Vac.k. 

TREATIES, do., No. 

XXI If. — Engagement- entered into by i 1m Shaikh of Bahrain 
tor tin* abolition of tin; African slave trade in bis 

ports, dated 8th May 1817 252 

IX. —Engagement entered into by tin* Shaikh of Rahrain 
for the more effectual suppression of tin; slave trade, 

dated loth May 185(5 234 

X. — Convention with the Shaikh of ilahraiu engaging to 
abstain from war. piracy and slavery by sea on 
condition of British protection, dated 3 1st Muv 
1801 . . . . . . . 234 

X 1 . —Agreement executed by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa and 
the principal persons in Rahrain declaring Muham- 
mad bin Khalifa to have forfeited all claim to the 
chiefship of Rahrain, dated tith September 18GS . 23G 

XII. — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Rahrain under- 
taking to abstain from entering into negotiations or 
making treaties with any foreign power, dated 22nd 
December 1880 ........ 237 

XIII. — Agreement executed by the .Shaikh of Bahrain 

promising to enter into no agreement with any 
foreign power, to disallow the residence within his 
territory of the agent of any foreign power and not 
to cede, sell or mortgage any part ot his territory, 
dated Kith March 1802 238 

XIV. — Agreement executed bv the Shaikh of Rahrain prohi- 

biting the importation and exportation of arms into 
and trom his territory, dated 20th April 1808 . . 238 

XXXIX. — Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Bahrain not to 
respond to overtures for pearling concessions and 
sponge fishing in respect of the hanks over which 
ho possesses rights, dated 1011 .... 203 

XI’. — Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Bahrain in regard 
to the establishment of a wireless telegraph installa- 
tion at Bahrain, dated 10th dune 1012 . . , 23!) 

XVI . —Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Bahrain in regard 

to the exploitation of oil, dated 14th May 1014 . 23!) 

(2) Tkuciai. Ait.\)i Shaikhs or Oman. 

NARRATIVE 107 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XVII. — Agreement executed by the Qawasim engaging to 
respect the flag and propertv of the British, dated 
Gth February 1S0G . 23!) 

XVII I . — Preliminary engagements concluded with the Shaikh 

of Shargah, dated Gth January 1S20 .... 210 

Similar engagement concluded with the Shaikhs of 
Ras-al-Klmimah, Dibai, Aim Dhabi and Zyah , 211 

XIX. — General Treaty with the Arab Shaikhs for the cessa- 
tion of plunder and piracy by land and sea, dated 

; 8th January 1S20 24a 

XX. — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Ras-nl-Khnimali 
for the detention and search of Arab vessels en- 
gaged in the slave trade, dated 17th April 1S3S . 240 

Similar agreements executed by the Shaikhs of Ajman, 

Dibai and Aim Dhabi ...... 24!) 

XXT. — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Ras-al-Klmimah 
for the confiscation of Arab vessels found within 
certain limits engaged in the slave trade, dated 

3rd July 1830 _ 24!) 

Similar agreements executed by the Shaikhs of Dibai, 

Abu Dlmhi and Uinin-al-Qniwain .... 250 



CONTENTS. 


IX 


BEBSIAN GULP — continued. 


(3) Tsuciat, Attau SnAiuns of Oman — continued. r 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

XXTJ. — -Agreement executed by tho Arab Shaikhs tor preserv- 
ing the maritime peace of the Gulf for a period ot 
ten years, dated 1st June 1813 ..... 250 

XXIT1.— Engagement executed by the Shaikh of Jtns-al- 
Ivliaimali aiul Sharia h for the abolition of tbc 
African slave trade in his ports, dated 30th April 

1847 . 251 

Similar engagements executed by the Shaikhs of 
Dibai, Ajman, Umm-al-Qaiwain and Abu Dhabi . 252 


XXTV. — Agreement executed by the Arab Shaikhs for main- 
taining in perpetuity the maritime peace of the 

Gulf, dated 4th May '1853 252 

XX. — Engagements entered into _hv the Shaikhs of Ras-al- 
Kliaimah, Umm-al-Qaiwain, Dihai, Ajman and Abu 
Dhabi for the more effectual suppression of the slave 
trade, dated ]85fl . . . . . • • 23*1 

XXV. — Engagement entered into by the Arab Shaikhs for the 
protection of the Telegraph Lines and Stations along 
the coast, dated 1SG4 ...... 254 

XXVI. — -Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi en- 
gaging not to commit any breach of the maritime 
peace, dated 16th September 1SG8 .... 254 

XXVI ! . — ■Agreement executed by the Shaikh of A1 Qatar en- 
gaging not to commit any breach of the maritime 
peace, dated 12th September 18GS .... 255 

XXVIII. — -Agreement entered into by the Shaikh of Slinrgah for 
the suppression of the slave trade, dated 26th 

February 1873 £50 

XXIX. — Agreement entered into by the Shaikh of Aim Dhabi 
for the suppression of the slave trade, dated 5th 
March 1873 250 


XXX. — -Agreement executed by the. Shaikh of Abu Dhabi pro- 
mising not to enter into any agreement with any 
foreign power, not to admit t-lm agent of any foreign 
government and not to cede, sell or mortgage any 
part of his toiritory, dated 6th March 1892 . *. 25G 

Similar agreements executed by the Shaikhs of Dibai, 
Ajman, Shavgah, Ras-nl-Khaimah and Uinm-nl- 

f~\ • * 


XXXI. — Agreements executed hv the Shaikhs of Dibai. 

Shargah, Umm-al-Qaiwain, Ajman and Abu Dhabi 
binding themselves to prohibit the importation and 
exportation of arms into and from their respective 
territories, dated 1902 

XXXIX. — Undertaking given by the Arab Shaikhs agreeing not 
to respond to overtures for pearling concessions and 
sponge fishing in respect of the banks over which 
they possess lights, dated 1911 .... 

XXXII.— Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Shargah agreeing 
to the construction of a lighthouse on Tamb IslamT 
dated 13th October 1912 ' 

XXXIII.— Treaty between the British Government and the 
Shaikh of Qatar undertaking obligations and accept- 
ing privileges similar to those of tbo Trucial Shaikhs 
dated 3rd November 191G ..... 

XXXIV.— Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Shargah in re- 
G^rd to the exploitation of oil, dated 17th February 

Similar undertaking given by tile Shaikh of Ras-al- 
Kuaimah .... 


207 


2G3 


258 


258 


2G1 

201 



X 


CONTENTS. 


PERSIAN GULP — concluded. 

(3) Tjidciat. Auau Shaikhs of Oman — concluded, 
TREATIES, otc., No. 

XXXV. — Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Dibai in regard 
to tho exploitation of oil, dated 2nd May 1922 
Similar undertakings given by the Shaikhs of Abu 
Dhabi, Ajiuun and Unnn-al-Qaiwain 


(4) Kuwait. 


NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXXVI. — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Kuwait agree- 
ing not to alienate any part of his territory, dated 

23rd .January 1899 * 

XXXV 11. — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Kuwait en- 
gaging to prohibit tho importation and exportation 
of arms into and from Kuwait, dated 24th May 
1900 . . . 

XXXVI TI . — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Kuwait en- 
gaging not to allow the establishment of a post office 
by anv foreign government, dated 2Sth February 

1904 

XXXTX. — Undertaking given by the Shaikh of Kuwait agreeing 
not to respond to overtures for pearling concessions 
and sponge fishing in respect of the banks over 
which ho possesses rights, dated 29th July 1911 , 

XL. — Undertaking given by tho Shaikh of Kuwait in regard 
to the establishment of a wireless telegraph installa- 
tion at Kuwait, dated 2Gth July 1912 
XL1. — Agreement executed by the Shaikh of Kuwait in re- 
gard to the exploitation of oil, dated 27tli October 

1913 

XL! I. — Extract from a letter from the Political Resident in 
tho Persian Gulf to. the Shaikh of Kuwait contain- 
ing certain assurances given to him by the British 
Government, dated 3rd November 1914 . 

IV. — Convention between Kuwait and Nejd laying down 
tho boundaries between tho two countries, dated 
2nd December 1922 ....... 

XLIII. — Memorandum from tho High Commissioner for Iraq 
to tho Political Agent, Kuwait, informing tho Shaikh 
of Kuwait of the recognition by the British Govern- 
ment of the Iraq-Knwait frontiers, dated 19th April 
1923 


Pagf.. 

201 

201 

202 

2G2 

202 

203 

203 

204 

204 

205 

213 


20G 



CONTENTS. 


XI 


PART III. 

TREATIES and ENGAGEMENTS delating to OMAN (MUSCAT). 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 

Page. 

NARRATIVE 269 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

I. — Agreement with the Imam of Muscat for tho exclusion 
of the French from his territories, dated 12th Octo- 
ber 179S • 287 

II. — Agreement by tho Imam of Muscat for tho residence 
of a British Agent at Muscat, dated 18th January 
1800 2S8 

III. — Treaty with tho Imam of Muscat for tho suppression 

of tho slave trade in his dominions, dated 4th 
September 1S22 ....... 2S9 

Additional requisition for the suppression of the slave 
trado with Christian countries, dated 9th Septem- 
ber 1822 201 

Translation of a letter from tho Sultan of Muscat 
engaging to apprehend British subjects engaged in 
tlie slave trado, dated 18th August 1815 . . • 292 

IV. — Treaty of commerce concluded with tho Sultan of 

Muscat, dated 31st May 1839 292 

Form of Declaration made on the part of tho British 
Government previous to exchange of tho ratifica- 
tions, dated 22nd July 1810 297 

Form of Declaration made on the part of tho Muscat 
Government previous to exchange of tho ratifica- 
tions, dated 22nd July 1810 • 29S 

Ratification of tlio Sultan of Muscat to the treaty of 
commerce, dated 22nd July 1810 .... 299 

V. — Additional articles concluded with the Sultan of 
Muscat for tho suppression of tho foreign slave 
trado, dated 17th December 1839 . . . 299 

VI. — Treaty concluled with tho Sultan of Muscat prohi- 
biting the export of slaves from His Highness’ 
African dominions, dated 2nd October 1845 . . 300 

VTJ. — Rules for regulating tho duties to he levied on goods 
transhipped in vessels in tho ports of Muscat, dated 
1S46 301 

VIII. — Deed executed by tho Sultan of Muscat ceding to the 
British crown tho Kuria Muria islands, dated 14th 
June 1851 302 

IX. — Letter to the Sultan of Muscat regarding tho in- 
dependence of Zanzibar, dated 2nd April 1801 . 303 

Letter from the Sultan of Muscat accepting tho 
award regarding Zanzibar, dated 15th May 1861 . 301 

- X. — Agreement between Great Britain and Franco en- 

gaging to respect tlio independence of Muscat and 
Zanzibar, dated 10th March 1862 .... 304 

XT.. — Agreement concluded with tho Sultan of Muscat for 
the construction of telegraph lines within His High- 
ness’ territory, dated 17th November 1S64 . . . 305 

XII. — Convention concluded with the Sultan of Muscat for 
tlio construction of telegraph linos in His High- 
ness’ territory in Arabia and Makran, dated 10th 
Jauuary 1865 . .... 306 



CONTENTS. 


xii 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — continued. 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XIII. — Agreement concluded with the Sultan of Muscat for 

the effectual suppression of the slave trade, dated 
14th April 1S73 . . 

XIV. — Agreement concluded with the Sultan of Muscat re- 

garding jurisdiction over subjects of Indian States 
residing in Muscat, dated 1873 . 

XV. — Letter from the Sultan of Muscat regarding the levy 
of duty from distressed vessels putting into the ports 
of Muscat, dated 10th February 1875 . • 

XVI. — Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 
between Great Britain and Muscat, dated 19th 

March 1891 

XVII. — Agreement by the Sultan of Muscat regarding the 
cession of territory, dated 20th March 1891 . 

XVIII. — Undertaking given by the Sultan of Muscat regard- 
ing the coalfields at Sur, dated 31st May 1902 
XIX. — Undertaking given by the Sultan of Muscat to adhere 
to the Arms Traffic Convention of 1919, dated 17th 

February 1921 

XX. — Undertaking given by the Sultan of Muscat regard- 
ing the exploitation of oil in his territory, dated 

10th January 1923 

XXT. — Agreement for the prolongation of the Muscat Com- 
mercial Treaty of 1891, dated 11th February 1929 . 


Sohar. 


NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXIT. — Treaty of Peace concluded between the Sultan of 
Muscat and the Chief of Sohar, dated 23rd Decem- 
ber 1839 . . . . • • 

XXIII. — Engagement entered into by the Chief of Sohar for 
the abolition of the African slave trade, dated 22nd 
May 1849 


Page. 

SOS 

SO!) 

309 

310 

317 

318 

319 

319 

319 

285 

320 

322 



CONTENTS. 


X1U 


TEE 


ATIES, E 


PART IY. 

N Ct A GEMENTS ax n SAN ADS ukt.atixg to 
BALTS’ CHISTAN . 


NARRATIVE 


BALUCHISTAN. 


Pacif.. 

323 


Kat.at Agency. 


(I) Kalat. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

I. — Engagement concluded between the British Govern- 
ment and the Khnn of Kalat, dated ‘28tli March 1839 
]J. — Treaty entered into by the Khan of Kalat acknow- 
ledging allegiance, and submission to the British 
Government, dated Gth October lSdl 
HI. — Treaty entered into by the Khan of Kalat for an 
annual subsidy from the British Government, dated 

14th May 1854 

Schedule showing the amount of duty leviable on 
merchandise passing through Kalat territory . 

V. — Agreement with the Khan of Kalat’s Naih in Koch 
for the protection of the telegraph line, dated 24th 

January 13G2 

Note in explanation of the words “ Gwadar Bandar ”, 
dated 1st February 1862 ...... 

VI. — Agreement- executed by the Khan of Kalat for the 
definition of the boundaries of Kalat territory, dated 

21st August I8G2 

V1.I.— -Convention with the Khan of Kalat for the extension 
of the telegraph through His Highness’ dominions 
m Makran, dated 20th February 18G3 . 
Additional clause regarding the telegraph line through 
Makran territory, dated 23rd March 1803 

VIII. — Agreement executed by the Khnn of Kalat’s Naih in 
Kech for the protection of the telegraph line from 
Gwadar to the Bahu boundary, dated 11th Febru- 
ary 1S69 . . . , * . 

XI.— Heed executed by the Khan of Kalat regarding the 
protection of the telegraph line from Kalat, dated 
29th August 1870 

XII. — Treaty of friendship and amity concluded with the 
Khan of Kalat, dated Sth December 187G . 

XIII. — Snnad from the Khan of Kalat ceding lands with full 

jurisdiction thereon for the Kandahar State Rail- 
way, dated IGth June 1880 , 

XIV. — Agreement executed by the Klmii of Kalat for the 

lease to the British Government of the Quetta 
Niabat, dated Sth June 18S3 . 

XX. — Deed executed by the Ivlian of Kalat ceding full 
jurisdiction to the British Government over the 
lands required for the Mushkaf-Bolan Railway, 
dated 189 4 . , 

XXII.— Agreement regarding the demarcation of the boun- 
dary between Persian Baluchistan and Kalat dated 
24th March 189G ’ . 

Description of pillars, etc, 


325 

350 

351 

352 
354 


357 

35 " 


357 


353 

360 


360 


362 


362 


364 


305 


370 


371 

373 



CONTENTS. 


siv 


BALUCHISTAN — continued. 
Kalat Agency — continued. 


(1) Kalat — continued. 


Page. 


TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXVI. — Agreement executed by the Klian of Kalat trans- 
ferring to the British Government the Nuslfki Dis- 
trict and Niabat in perpetuity, dated 1st July 1899 377 

XXVIII. — Agreement executed by the Khan of Kalat trans- 
ferring to the British Government the Niabat of 
Nazirabad, including the Manjuti land, dated 17th 
February 1903 37 9 


XXIX. — Deed executed by the Khan of Kalat ceding full 
jurisdiction to the British Government over the 
lands required for the Nusliki Railway, dated 12th 

May 1903 . . .381 

XXX. — Agreement between the British Government and the 
Persian Government under which Great Britain 
withdrew the claim to Mirjawa while the Persian 
Government undertook to permit the British post 
at Padalia to procure water from the Mirjawa side, 
dated 13th May 1905 . . . . . .381 


(2) Mahran. 


NARRATIVE 332 

Ferso-Kalat Frontier. 

NARRATIVE 333 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXII. — Agreement regarding the demarcation of the boun- 
dary between Persian Baluchistan and Kalat, dated 

24th March 1896 371 

Description of pillars, etc. ... ... 373 


Mahran Telegraph Line. 

NARRATIVE 335 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

IV. — Agreement executed by the Jam of Las Bela for the 
protection of the telegraph line through his terri- 
tory, dated 21st December 1861 355 

V. — Agreement with the Khan of Kalat’s Naib in Keeli 
for the protection of the telegraph line, dated 24th 

January 1862 357 

Note in explanation of the words “ Gwadar Bandar ”, 
dated 1st February 1862 367 

VII. — Convention with the Khan of Kalat for the extension 
of the telegraph through his Highness’ dominions 
in Makran, dated 20tli February 1863 . . . 35S 

Additional clause regarding the telegraph line 
through Makran territory, dated 23rd March 1863 . 360 

VIII. — Agreement executed by the Khan of Kalat’s Naib in 
Kech for the protection of the telegraph line from 
Gwadar to the Babu boundary, dated lltli February 
1869 360 

XI. — Deed executed by the Khan of Kalat regarding the 
protection of the' telegraph line from Kalat, dated 
, 29th August 1870 


362 



CONTENTS. 


■ XV 


BALUCHISTAN-- continued. 

Kaiat Agenct — concluded . 

(2) Mcihran — continued. 

Mcikran Telegraph Line — continued. 

Page. 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXV.— Agreement executed by Mir Mahmud Khan, Kalmati, 
of Pasni for the 'protection of the telegraph line in 
Pasni, dated 13th June 1899 377 

IX. — Agreement executed by the Chiefs of Balm and 
Dashtyari for the protection of the telegraph line, 
dated 1S09 ........ 3G0 

X. — Agreement executed by tho Chief of Giah for the 
protection of the telegraph line, dated 5th March 
1869 • 361 


(3) Las Bela. 


NARRATIVE .339 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

IV. — Agreement executed by the Jam of Las Bela for the 
protection of the telegraph line through his terri- 
tory, dated 21st December 1861 355 

XVIII. — Memorandum of conditions subscribed to by Jam Ali 
Khan of Las Bela on his succession to the Chief- 

ship, dated 18S9 369 

XXIII. — Conditions agreed to by Mir Kamal Khan,. Jam of 
Las Bela, on his succession to the Chiefship, dated 

2nd May 1896 375 

XXVII. — Conditions agreed to by Mir Kamal Khan, Jam of Las 
Bela, relative to the administration of Las Bela, 

dated 25th May 1901 378 

XXXII. — Conditions agreed to by Mir Ghulam Muhammad 
Khan, Jam of Las Bela, relative to the administra- 


tion of Las Bela, dated 29th April 1925 . . 386 

(4) Kharan. 

NARRATIVE .34] 

TREATIES, etc., No. 


XVI. — Agreement executed by tho Sardar of Kharan under- 
taking to do certain tribal service in consideration 
of an annual payment of Rs. 6,000, dated 6th June 

1835 368 

XXXI. — Conditions agreed to by Sardar Muhammad Yakub 
Khan on his succession to the Chiefship of Kharan, 
dated 21st October 1909 . . . . . 382 

(5) The Bolan Bass. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XIV. — Agreement executed by the Khan of Kalat for the 
lease to tho British Government of tho Quetta 

Niabat, dated 8th June 1883 365 

XX. — Deed executed by tho Khan of Kalat ceding full 
jurisdiction to tho British Government over the 
lands required for the Muslikaf-Bolan Raihvav 
dated 1894 370 


51 


B 



XVI 


CONTENTS. 


BALUCHISTAN — concluded. 

Siiii Agency. 

Thr. Marri anti llugli Tribal ('.inmlrij. 

Page. 

NARBATTVE 343 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XVI T. — Agreement executed bv Snrdar Mchrulln Kb an the 
Marri Tunmndar ceding to the British Government 
Ills rights to petroleum and all other mineral oils, ' 
dated 24th October 1835 3GS 


Biutikti Bai.voiiistan anh Agency Tekiutouies. 


NARRATIVE 347 

Loralai , Zhab and Chagai Agencies. 

NARRATIVE 347 

TBEATTES‘,otc., No. 


XV. — Settlement made between Snrdar Shnhhnz Khan and 
the Maliks of Zhob, Bori and the Musa Klicl for 
the regulation of their relations with tho British 
Government, dated 22nd November ]884 . . . 3GG 

XTX. — Petition from the Bargha Shiranis, including Hari- 
pal, on being taken into service in connection with 
the opening of tho Gonial Pass, dated 21st January 

1890 370 

XXT. — Agreement entered into by the Barglin nnd Lnrghn 
Shiranis on the settlement of their boundary line, 

dated 1895 371 

XXTV. — Agreement entered into by the Suliman Khcl Ghil- 
zai whereby the sections of the tribe in Zhob 
were to pay grazing fees for their animals while 
within the British border and to be responsible for 
tho good behaviour of their sections while within 
the Zhob tract, dated 22nd March 1897 . . . 375 



CONTENTS. XVli 

PART V. 


TREATIES, ENGAGEMENTS and SAN ADS delating to the 
NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE. 


NARRATIVE 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER. PROVINCE. 
Introduction. 


Pagf 


. 3S7 


I. — Hazara District. 


NARRATIVE 


(1) Swathis. 


394 


TREATIES, etc.. No. 

I. — Agreement entered into liy the Allaiwal jirga for the 
future maintenance of friendly relations and for the 
surrender of stolen property, dated 1st June 1875 . 402 

TT. — Agreement entered into by the Nandiliari _ jirgn 
engaging to prevent their clan from committing 
offences in British territory, dated 14th November 

1888 402 

III. — Agreement entered into by the Tikriwal jirga for the 
good behaviour of their clansmen, dated 14th 
November 1888 403 


(2) Yvsafzai. 


NARRATIVE 


395 


TREATIES, etc.. No. 

IV. — Agreement entered into by the Utmanzai of Kabal 
and Kaya pledging themselves not to permit the 
Hindustani Fanatics from settling in their territory, 
dated 12th September 1861 ..... 403 

V. — Agreement entered into by the Utmanzai engaging not 
to permit the Hindustani Fanatics from settling in 
their territory, dated 0th January 1864 . . . 405 

VT. — Agreement entered into by the Mndda Kliel engaging 
not to permit the Hindustani Fanatics from settl- 
ing in their territory, dated 9th January 1864 . 400 

VII. — Agreement entered into by the Amazai engaging not 
to permit the Hindustani Fanatics from settling in 
tlioir territory, dated 11th January 1864 . . . 400 

VIII. — Agreement entered into by the Hassanzai engaging 
not to permit the Hindustani Fanatics from settl- 
ing their territory, dated the 2nd January 

1864 ", 407 

IX. — Agreement entered . into by the Hassanzai jirga 
acknowledging their responsibility for Hasliim Ali 
Khan or their chief, whoever he may ho, dated 9th 
. November 1888 ....... 407 

X. — Agreement entered into by the Akazai jirga engag- 
ing to make reparation for past offences and with- 
drawing their claim to Shahtut, dated 19th October 

1888 40S 

XT. — Agreement entered into by the Hassanzai and Akazai 
at Seri on their submission to the British Govern- 
ment, dated 29th May 1891 4 0 p 

- 15 2 



xviii 


CONTENTS. ■ 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE — continued. 

I. — Hazara District — continued. 

(2) Yusajzai — continued. 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XII. — Agreement entered into by the Mad da Ivhel at Seri 
on tlieir submission to the British Government, 

dated 3rd June 1891 

XIII. — Agreement entered into by the headmen of the 
Parian' at Ogiii on their submission to the British 
Government, dated 12th June 1891 

(3) Tanaolis. 


NARRATIVE 


II. — Dir, Swat and Cm trad Agency. 


(1) Chitral. 


NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

I. — Agreement between the Melitar of Chitral and the 
Maharaja of Kashmir acknowledging his subordi- 
nation to Kashmir, dated 1878 .... 

H. — Agreement entered into by the Melitar of Chitral re- 
garding his relations with the inhabitants of 
Mastuj and Laspur, dated 2nd April 1914 

III. — Agreement entered into by the Melitar of Chitral for 

the prevention of char as smuggling into British 
India, dated 1926 ....... 

IV. — Agreement entered into by the Melitar of Chitral 

undertaking to supply local produce to the British 
troops stationed in Chitral, dated 1st March 1928. 


NARRATIVE 


(2) Dir. 


TREATIES, etc., No. 

V. — Agreement entered into by the Khan of Dir undertak- 
ing to keep open the Chitral road from Chakdarra 
to Asliret, dated 12th September 1895 

VI. — Agreement between the Nawab of Dir and the Khan 

of Nawagai defining the boundaries of their 
respective jurisdictions, dated 13tli October 1898 . 

VII. — Agreement entered . into by the Nawab of Dir 

defining the boundaries of bis territories and under- 
taking not to interfere with, or commit aggression 
on, any tribes beyond those boundaries, dated 

December 1898 

VIII. — Agreement entered into by the Azzi Khel, one of the 
river sections of the Akozai clan, binding themselves 
to exclude the “ Mad ” faqir and enemies of Gov- 
ernment from ^lioir limits, dated 5th December 1898 
Similar agreement entered into by the Jinki Khel of 
the Akozai clan, dated 16th December 1898 
Similar agreement entered into by .the Nipki Khel, 
Shamizni aud Sebujiiis of the Akozai clan, dated 
24th December 1898 . 

IX. — Agreement entered into by the Nawab of Dir accept- 
ing compensation for grazing and other rights 
enjoyed by Dir on the Chitral side of the Dir- 
Chitral boundary, dated 1900 


Page. 

411 

412 

400 

414 

427 

428 

429 

429 

417 

430 

431 

432 

433 

433 

434 

434 



CONTENTS. 


XIX 


NOUTH-W EST FRONTIER PROVINCE— continued. 

XI. — Dm, Swat and Cuitral Agency — continued . 

(2) Dir — continued, _ 

' Page. 


TREATIES, etc., No. 

X. — Agreement entered into by Badshah Khan of Dir 
renewing tho agreement executed by his lather and 
submitting to certain new conditions, chiefly con- 
cerned with the Dir timber trade, dated the 13th 

. April 1905 . 435 

XI. — -Terms agreed to by tho Nmvab of Dir and the Wali 
of Swat in regard to their future boundaries and 
mutual relations, dated 20th Juno 1922 (Tho Adinzai 
Agreement') . 437 

XII. — Agreement entered into by Shah Johan Khan of Dir 
renewing the agreement executed by his father, 
dated 13th May 1925 436 

Agreement between Shah Johan Khan and his brother 
Alamzoh Khan, dated 11th April 1925 . . . 441 

Murasila from Shah Jctinn Ivlian io the Political 
Agent, Malakand, dated 12th April 1925 . . 443 

Settlement between the jirgas of tho Dir State and 
of Swat regarding Kar-wa-Begar and the timber 
trade, dated 14th April 1925 ..... 444 

XIII. — Issue of instructions to the Nawab of Dir and tho 
Wali of Swat confirming existing boundaries and 
prohibiting hostilities between Dir and Swat, dated 
December 1930 446 


(3) Swat. 


NARRATIVE . 420 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XIV. — Tonus acceded to by the Sam Ranizai on being 

allowed to re-settle in their country, dated 1S53 . 446 

XV. — Agreement entered into by the Khan Kind section of 
tho Akozai Yusafzai and tho Bar and Sam ltanizni 
undertaking to protect the road from Peshawar to 
Ghitral running through their limits, dated 12th 
September 1895 44 7 

XVI. — Agreement entered into by the Khan and Khan Khcl 
of Lower Swat agreeing to abandon their right to 
tolls, dated 12th September 1S95 .... 448 

XVII.— -Agreement executed by the Musa Khel section of 
Akozai Yusafzai and other tribes of Upper Swat 
expressing their unconditional submission to tho 
British Government, dated 22nd August 1897 . 448 

XVIII.— Agreement entered into by the Utmau Khel iirgn of 
Agra arranging terms of peace with the Rnnir.ni and 
undertaking to protect and he responsible for the 
safoty of Government survey parties, dated 21st 
April 1907 . .449 

XI.— Terms agreed. to by the Wali of Swat and the Nawnh 
of Dir m regard in their future boundaries and 
mutual relations, dated 20th June 1922 (The Adinzai 
Agreement) 

XIX.— Agreement of mutual friendship between the British 
Government and the Wali of Swat, dated the 3rd 
May 192G 


450 


CONTENTS. 


XX 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER. PROVINCE — continued. 
II. — Dir, Swat and Ghitral Agency — concluded. 


(3) Swat — continued. 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XX. — Agreement entered into by tbe Khan Kliel and other 
jirgas of Lower Swat for tlio exclusion of outlaws 
from their territories, dated 15th December 1926 . 

XIII. — Issue of instructions to the Wali of Swat and the 
Nawab of Dir confirming existing boundaries and 
prohibiting Hostilities between Swat and Dir, dated 
December 1930 


Page. 


451 


440 


(4) Buncr. 

NARRATIVE 423 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

XXI. — Agreement entered into by the Bunerwals for the dis- 
bandment of their force and the expulsion of the 
Hindustani Fanatics from Rimer, dated December 
1863 452 


NARRATIVE 


(5) Baja ur. 


424 


(6) Kohistan. 

NARRATIVE 425 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXII. — Agreement entered into by tbe jirga of the Ganvi tract 

regarding the timber trade, dated 7th April 1928 . 452 

I 

III. — Peshawar District. 

(1) Yusafzai, 

NARRATIVE 454 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

Part I. — IV. — Agreement entered into by the Utmauzni of Kabul 
and Kaya pledging themselves not to permit the 
Hindustani Fanatics from settling in their territory, 
dated 12th September 1861 ..... 403 

Part I. — VII. — Agreement entered into by the Amazai engag- 
ing not to permit the Hindustani Fanatics from 
settling in their territory, dated lltli January 1864 400 

The KUudu Kliel and Gliamlawal. 

NARRATIVE 450 

(2) Utinan Kliel. 

(a) Gis-Border. 

NARRATIVE 450 

(b) Trans-Border. 

NARRATIVE 457 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

I. — Agreement executed by tlie Ambahar hitman Kliel for 
their future good behaviour, dated 6th January 

1909 . . . . 467 


CONTENTS. 


XXI 


NOllTH- WEST Fit ON T J EH P HO V JNCE — con tinned. 


, i 


i .• 


111. — Pjjsuawau Distinct — con tinned-. 
(3) Gaduns or Jcuhtns. 


NARRATIVE 


Pack. 
. 453 


TREATIES, etc., No. . , , „ , 

Part I. — IV. — Agreement entered into by the Solar clan ol tho 

Gaduns pledging themselves not to permit the 

Hindustani Fanatics from sottling in their limits, 
dated 12th September 1801 ..... 103 

II. — Agreement entered into by the Mansur clan of tho 
Gaduns pledging themselves not to permit the 

Hindustani Fanatics from settling in their limits, 
dated 2nd October 18(51 ...... 101 

III. — Agreement entered into by tho Sahir clan of the 

Gaduns pledging themselves not to permit the return 
of tlic Hindustani Fanatics to any part of their 
territory, dated Gth January 18(51 .... 108 

IV. — Agreement entered into by 'the Mansur clan of tho 

Gaduns pledging themselves not to permit tho re- 
turn of the Hindustani Fanatics to any part of their 
territory, dated Gth January 1861 168 


(4) Mohvuuids. 

NARRATIVE 10'J 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

V. — Agreement executed by the Jlalimzai clan engaging 

to pay a yearly tribute, dated 12th July 1852 . 109 

VI.— Sauad granted to Muhammad Aklihar Khan confer- 
ring on him the Chicfship of Lalpura, dated 12tli 
January 1880 .169 

VII. — Agreement entered into by the Musa lvhel of Mitai on 
the grant of lungi allowances to representative 
Malihs, dated 1st November 1902 .... 109 

VIII. — Agreement entered into by the Tarakzai on receiving 
an addition to their allowances in consideration of 
their protecting the head-works of the Kabul Rivor 
Canal, dated 1904 470 

IX. — Agreement entered into by tho Tarakzai undertaking 
full responsibility for the protection of the Kabul 
Rivor Railway, dated IStli December 1905 . . 470 

X. — Terms accepted by the Mohmand jirgas as a conso- 

cpicneo of extensive raiding by them, dated July 1917 171 

XI.— Engagement entered into b.v the Musa lvhel of Mitai 
for tho maintenance of friendly relations with Gov- 
ernment, dated 7th December 1927 .... 471 


NARRATIVE 


(5) Safis. 


165 


(6) Afridis. 

NARRATIVE ' . 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XII.— Agreement entered into bv the Maliks of tho Hassan 
Khel and the Ashu Khoi sections of the Adam Khel 
Afridis regarding their futuro good conduct, dated 
15th Novombor 1853 



XXII 


CONTENTS. 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE — continued. 
I. IT. — PiisiiMVAH Diktiikt — continued. 


(G) Ajridis — continued. 


TREATIES) etc., No. 

XIII. — Agreement entered into by the Maliks of tbo Ilnssnn 
Khcl section of the Adam Khel Afridis regarding 
their future good conduct, dated Sth April 18G7 
Part V. — VII. — Agreement entered into by the Maliks of the 
Hasson Kliel and Ashti Khel sections of the Adam 
Khel Afridis engaging not to harbour outlaws from 
British territory, dated 21st May 1923 . . . 


Page 


473 


511 


IV. — IvmiiF.ii Agency. 

NARRATIVE 47 4 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

I. — Agreement entered into by the Aka Khel Afridis 
engaging not to commit depredations in British 
territory, dated Jlth January 1856 . . . 478 

II.— Agreement entered into by the Zaklcha Khel Afridis 
engaging to be responsible for crimes committed by 
the tribe, dated 13th August 1857 .... 479 

III. — Agreement of submission entered into by the Kuki 

Khel Afridis, dated 14th August 1S57 . . . 481 

IV. — Agreement entered into by the Zakklin Khel Afridis 

engaging to be responsible for crimes committed by 
tiio tribe, dated 21th August 1857 .... 4S2 

V — Agreement entered into hv the Maliks of the Sepali 
and Kamarai engaging to be responsible for tbo 
crimes of their own and other tribes, dated 24th 

April 18G1 4S4 

VI. — Engagement executed by the Maliks of the Basi Khel 
section of the Aka Khel and the Akhorwal sub-divi- 
sion of the Hasson Khel division of the Adam Khel 
and of the Galai Afridis regarding the Kalamsada 

lands, dated 25tli April 18G7 484 

VII. — Agreement entered into bv the Kamarai, Kuki Khel 
Malikdin Kliel, Qnnibar Khel, Sepali and Znkkha 
Khel and by the Lonrgi Shimvnris accepting respons- 
ibility for the Khylier Pass, dated February ISSI . 485 

VIII. — Tonus offered to the Tvhybor Afridi elans by the 
British Government on the renewal of friendly 
relations with them, dated 7th October 1898 . 487 

Written statement of acceptance of the terms h.v the 
Maliks of the Khylier Afridis. dated 2Gth October 

1893 4SS 

IX. — Agreement executed by the Maliks of the Aka Khel 
Afridis on the grant of an allowance for the protec- 
tion of the Peshawar border between Bara’ and 
Ivaclia Garhi, dated 18th October 1902 . . . 4S9 

X. — Agreement entered into by the Mullagoris on the 
increase of their allowances on account of the 
construction of a road through their country, dated 

1st November 1904 ' . 4S9 

XT. — Agreement entered into by the Shinwaris and 
Shilmanis regarding the increase of their allowances 
on account of the construction of a road through 
their country, dated 7th June 190G . . , 490 

XTI. — Agreement entered into by the Zakklin Khel and the 
other elans of the Ooln- Khel accepting responsibility 
for the future good behaviour of the Tirnh Znklrn 
Kliel, dated 28th February 1908 




400 


CONTENTS. 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE — continued. 

V j ! , . ' ( 

IV. — KnviiKii Agency — continued. 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XIII. — Agreement entered into hy the Afridis undertaking to 

arrest and hand over to Government the persons 
responsible) for the Eon Ikes and Ellis outrages should 
they enter their limits, dated 13t.h Slay 1923 

XIV. — Agreement entered into by the Malikdin Khel and 

Qatnhar Jvhel promising active co-operation in tho 
exclusion of the outlaws responsible for tho Foulkes 
and Ellis outrages from Tirah Adam Khel country, 
dated 1th April 1921 ....... 

XV. — Agreement entered into by the Tirah Jownkis and the 
Kalla Khel section of tho AH Khel Ashu Khel 
undertaking to arrest and hand over to Govern- 
ment the persons responsible for the Foulkes and 
Ellis outrages should they enter their limits, dated 
5th April 1921 


V. — Kohat Distinct. 


NARRATIVE 


(1) Afridis. 


TREATIES, etc., No. 

I. — Agreement entered into hy the Pitao Jowakis accept- 
ing responsibility for crimes committed in the Kohnt 
district, dated 26th December 1S51 . . . . 

II. — Agreement entered into hy the Galai Afridis for the 
security of the . Kolia t Pass, dated 1st December 

1853 

HI. — Agreement entered into by the Pitao Jowakis for tho 
security of the Kohnt Pass, dated 3rd December 1853 
IV. — Agreement entered into by the Swori Jowakis of Bori 
engaging not to commit depredation in British terri- 
tory, dated 1.1th January 1851 . 

Part III. — XII. — Agreement entered into by the Maliks of the 

Hassan Khel and Ashu Khel sections of the Adam 
Khel Afridis regarding their future good conduct, 
dated lath November 1853 . 

Part TIT. — XT1I. — Agreement entered into by the Maliks of tho 

.Hassan Khel section of the Adam Khel Afridis re- 
garding their future good conduct., dated 8lh April 
18G7 . 

Part TV. — VI. — Engagement executed by the Maliks of the Galai 

Afridis and of the Basi Khel section of the Aka Khel 
and the Akhonvnls regarding the Kalamsada lands, 
dated 25th April 18(57 ...... 

V. — Agreement entered into by the Jowakis on the grant 
to them of tho tribal allowance, dated 1892 

VI.— Agreement entered into by the Galai and Akbonvals 
regarding the construction of a metal road through 
their limits in the Kolia t. Pass, dated 18th Septem- 
ber 1899 . . . . 

Tart IV. — XIII. — Agreement entered into by the Afridis under- 

taking to arrest and hand over to Government tho 
persons responsible for the. Foulkes and Ellis out- 
rages should they enter their limits, dated 13th May 
1923 

VTI.— Agreement entered into by the Adam Khel Afridis on 
their harbouring and giving passage to the outlaws 
responsible for the Foulkes and Ellis outrages, dated 
9,1st, Aim- 109.1 


xxiii 

Page. 

491 

492 

492 

193 

503 

504 
500 

507 

472 

473 

484 

r»09 

510 

491 


511 



xnv 


CONTENTS, 


TREATIES, 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER CEO VINCE— untUi'iiai. 

i 

V. — Kojiat Disinter ■■■ruiilinnril. 


I 

(1) .1 Jritlh — continued. 


etc.. No. 

V 1 1 1 . — Agreement entered into Iiy the Uulai and Akhorwid 
Ita.ssan Kliel for tin- safety of tin* Kolmt Pass road, 
dak'd Juno 1920 ....... 


Paoi*. 


r>! 


IX. - Agreement entered into Iiy tin* (lalai and Akhorwal 
ilassjin Kind regarding tin? salt* of Mills bombs, 
dated Jum: 1920 ....... 61*5 


( 2 ) Orahzni. 

NARRATIVE HR 

TREATIES, oto., No. 

X. — Agreement entered into liv tin* Uiz.oli and Firoz Kind 
divisions of tin* DaulatV.ai clan engaging to main- 
tain a post in tlio Kolmt Pass, dated 3rd December 

1853 513 

XI. — Agreement entered into l*y tin- Sipaii division of the 
Muhammad Kind elan for the protection of the 
K oh at Pass, dated tith December 1853 . . . 51 -t 

XI l. — Agreement entered into hy the Etman libel division 
of the Duulatzai clan engaging to maintain a post 
in the Kolmt Pass, dated 22mi March 1855 . . 515 

Xlil. — Agreement entered into hy the Ratlin Kliel division 
of the isntaih-.ni elan regarding their future good 
conduct, dated 20th September 1855 . . . 510 

XIV. — Agreement entered into hv the l'lman Kind and the 
Alisher/.ai for their general good conduct and the 
regulation of their intercourse with the Rritish 
Government, dated 2nd August 1858 . . . 517 

XV. — Agreement entered into hy the Alisherzai regarding 

their future good conduct, dated 25th March 1870 . 518 

XVI. — Agreement entered into hy the liar Muhammad Kliel, 

Abdul Aziz Kind ai.nl Muni Kind divisions of the 
Muhammad Kind elan regulating their intercourse 
with the British Government, dated 2nd April 1872 510 

XVII. — Agreement entered into bv the Sipali division of the 
Muhammad Kind clan regulating their intercourse 
with the British Government, dated 10th May 1872 521 

XVI IT. — Agreement entered into by the Akliel division of the 
lsmailzai elan regarding tribal service and the 
maintenance of order within their limits, dated 25tli 

May 1891 522 

XIX. — Agreement entered into by the Rubin Kind division 
of the lsmailzai clan regarding tribal service and the 
maintenance of order within tlnir limits, dated 1st 

Juno 1891 523 

XX. — Agreement- entered into by the Bar Mulmmmad Kliel 
and Muni Ivliel divisions of the Muhammad Kliel 
clan on the grant to them of allowances for protect- 
ing the border and maintaining two towers, dated 

June 1893 523 

XXI. — Agreement entered into by the Sturt Kliel clnn for 

protecting the border, dated 29th June 1893 . . 621 

XXII. — Agreements entered into by the Babin Kliol proprie- 
tors on the acquisition of certain rights in two 
springs at Fort Lockhart, dated 22nd June 1899 . 525 

XXIII. — Agreement entered into hy the Firoz Kliel division 
of tho Danlatzai i clan for the replacement of tribal 
chaukidars hy Border Police at the Kotal Post, 
dated 7tli November 1S99 520 


CONTENTS. 


NOITJL'H-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE— continued. 
V. — KonAT District — concluded. 

(2) Orahzav — continued. 


TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXIV. — Agreement entered into by the Utman Khel and Bizoti 
divisions of the Daulatzui elan for the replacement 
of tribal cliaukidars by Border Police at tho Kota l 
Post, dated 7th November 1S9D .... 

XXV. — Agreement entered into by tho Sipah division of the 
Muhammad Khel clan for the replacement of tribal 
chaukidars by Border Polico at the Kotal Post, 
dated 7th November 1899 ...... 

XXVI. — Agreement entered into by the AH Khel liamsaya clan 
on the grant to them of an allowance, dated 30tli 
J uno 1902 

XXVII. — Agreement entered into by the Malla Khel Jmmsaya 
clan on the grant to them of an allowance, dated 
11th August 1903 

Part IV. — XIII. — Agreonient entered into by tho Orakzai under- 
taking to arrest and hand over to Government the 
persons responsible for the Foulkes and Ellis out- 
rages should they enter their limits, dated 13th May 
1923 

XXVIII. — Agreement entered into by the Ali Khel liamsaya clan 
binding themselves to exclude from their limits the 
outlaws responsible for the Foulkes and Ellis Out- 
rages and to help the Afridi laslikar despatched 
against tho Tirah Jowakis, dated 5th April 1924 

XXIX. — Agreement entered into by the Mamuzni division of 
tho Lashkarzai binding themselves to excludo from 
their limits the outlaws responsible for the Foulkes 
and Ellis outrages and to help the Afridi laslikar 
despatched against tho Tirah Jowakis, dated 5th 
April 1924 

XXX. — Agreement entered into by the Sunni Oralczai and 
the Afridis for the restoration to the Shiahs of the 
land occupied by them before 1927, dated 28tli 
March 1930 


NARRATIVE 


(3) liangash. 


TREATIES, 


etc., No. 

XXXI.-— Agreement entered into by tho Biland Khel Bangash 
on tho grant of an allowance to them, dated March 


VI. — Kurram Agenov. 
(1) Turis. 


NARRATIVE 
TREATIES, etc., No. 


II. 


-Treaty onterod into by tho Turis for tho mainton 
anco of tho peace of the border, 9th March 1853 


-Treaty entered into by the Turn’s regarding then 
futuro conduct, dated 12th May 1855 

TII.— 1 Treaty entered into by the Turis binding thomselve 
to respect British territory and to refrain fron 
aggression on tho Wazir tribes, dated 3rd Decembe: 


'AHX 
XX \ 

Page. 

520 

527 

527 

52S 

491 

528 

529 

529 

502 

530 

531 

539 

.539 


540 



XXVI 


CONTENTS. 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE — continued. 

i 

VI. — Kubkam Agency — continued. 


(1) Turis — continued. 

Page 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

IV. — Letter from Major Conolly to the Amir of Kabul re- 
garding the restoration of Hariob and the Jajis to 
the Amir’s rule and the maintenance of the indepen- 
dence of the Turis inhabiting the Kurram Valley, 

dated 3rd September 18S0 540 

Proclamation issued to the Maliks and people of the 
Turi tribe recognising their independence . . 641 


(2) Orahzai. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc.. No. 

Part V. — XIV. — Agreement entered into by the Utman Khel 
and the Alishcrzai for their general good conduct, 

dated 2nd August 1858 

Part V. — XV. — Agreement entered into by the Alisherzai re- 
garding their future good conduct, dated 25tli 
March 1870 

V. — Agreement entered into by the Alisherzai acquiescing 
in the construction and undertaking the protection 
of a road passing through their limits, dated 12th 
December 1902 


VI. — Agreement entered into by the Samil Massuzai on the 
grant to them of an allowance, dated 25th February 

1903 

VII. — Agreement entered into by the Dilmarzai sub-division 
of the Gar Massuzai on the grant to them of an 
allowance, dated 13th April 1903 . 

VIII. — Agreement entered into by the Mastu Khel sub-divi- 
sion of the Gar Massuzai on the grant to them of 
an allowance, dated 13th October 1904 
Part IV. — XIII. — Agreement entered into by the Orakzai under- 
taking to arrest and hand over to Government the 
persons responsible for the Foulkes and Ellis out- 
rages should they enter their limits, dated 13th May 

1923 . 

IX. — Agreement entered into by the Alisherzai on the grant 
to them of annual and lungi allowances, dated 8tli 
September 1923 ........ 


634 

517 

518 

542 

542 

543 

544 

491 

544 


NARRATIVE 


(3) Zaimusht. 


TREATIES, etc.. No. 

Part V. — XIV. — Agreement entered into by the Zaimusht for 
the regulation of their intercourse with the British 
Government, dated 2nd August 185S 
V. — Agreement entered into by the Zaimusht acquiescing 
in the constructing and undertaking the protection 
of a road passing through their limits, dated 12th 

December 1902 

X. — Agreement entered into by the Zaimusht on the grant 
to them of an annual allowance, dated 30th January 
1903 


530 


517 


542 

545 


(4) Chamkannis. 

NARRATIVE 637 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XI. Agreement entered into by the Chamkannis undertak- 

ing to exclude from their limits the leaders of the 
gang responsible for tlio Ellis outrage, dated 15th 
May .1923 546 


CONTENTS. 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE — continued. 
VII. — Bannu Distwct. 

(1) Wash ' s . 


NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. T 

X. — Agreement entered into by the Hathi Ivhol Umarziu 
sub-divisions of the Shin Khcl, the Muhammad Khel, 
the Bizan Kliel and the Bnkka Khel and Jani Khcl 
sub-divisions of the Wali Khcl Alunadzai for the 
regulation of their Frontier responsibility, dated 
April 1872 

U. — Agreement entered into by the [Tmarzai clan of the 

Alunadzai Wazirs undertaking to protect the Bannu- 
Tlial road, dated 2nd April 1904 
Similar Agreement entered into by the Sperkai, the 
Bizan Khel, the Ivliunia Khel, the Rliujnl Khel, the 
Gnngi Khel and the Muhammad Khel, dated 1004 . 

HI. — potition from the Maliks of the Bakka Khel and Jani 
Khel sections regarding the consolidation of their 
territories in the Tochi Valley and Bannu, dated 
19th May 1922 . 

Part IX. — XVII. — Agreement entered into by the Jani Khel for 
tho protection of the Lower Shaktu trade route, 
dated November 1927 ...... 

(2) Bhitannis. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

Part X. — I. — Agreement entered into by the Bhitannis on their 
accepting Pass responsibilities, dated 2nd Febru- 
ary 1876 

Part X. — II.— -Agreement entered into by the Bhitannis reaffirm- 
ing their Pass responsibilities, dated 27th March 
1879 

IV. — Agreement entered into by the three divisions of the 
Dhanna clan accepting Pass responsibility, dated 

81st March 1883 

Part X. — III. — Conditions^ proposed to and accepted by the 
Bhitannis in regard to service and redistribution of 
pay and siladari allowances, dated 1890 . 

Part X. — IV. — Agreement entered into by the Bhitannis, re- 
newing and extending the Agreement of 1890, 
dated 1907 

V. — Agreement entered into by the Dhanna clan on the 

restoration and increase of their allowances, dated 
20th May 1919 

VIII. — Nouth Wazitmstan Agency. 

(1) Wazirs. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

• I.— Agreement entered into by the Kabul Khel Wazirs 

engaging to be responsible for raids in British terri- 
tory, dated 1854 

II.— Agreement entered into by the Headmen of the Kabul 
Khel Wazirs engaging to pay compensation for a 
raid on Thai,' dated 1869 . . . 

Ill .—Agreement entered into by the Headmen of the Saifali 
section of the Kabul Khel Wazir.s engaging to re- 
store all stolen property and to refuse shelter to 
criminals, dated 1871 . f 


-"srix 

Page. 

547 

550 

553 

553 

554 

612 

549 

623 

623 

554 

624 

626 

556 

555 

563 

563 

564 



..Ill 


CONTENTS. 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE — continued. 

VIII. — North Waziristan Agency — continued. 

(1) Wazirs — continued. 

Pack 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

TV . — Agreement, executed by tbe Mnlikshalii section of tbe 
Kabul Kliel promising good behaviour, dated 2nd 

April 1894 5G6 

Similar agreement signed by tbe Mianiai and Paipali 
sections of tbe Kabul Khel Wazirs, dated 2nd April 

1894 5 G7 

V. — Agreement entered into by tbe Madda Khel sub-divi- 
sion of tbe Ibrahim Khel on receiving new allow- 
ances in return for good behaviour and territorial 
responsibility, dated 7th October 1901 . . . GG7 

VI. — Agreement entered into by tbe Tori Khel and Madda 
Khel sub-divisions of Ibrahim Khel and tbe Mobmit 
Khel including tbe Hassan Khel sub-division for the 
opening and safeguarding of tbe Idak-Thal and 
Bannu-Spinwam roads, dated 1904 . . . 508 

VII. — Agreement entered into by tbe Kabul Kliel, Bilaud 
Khel and Madda Kliel for the opening and safe- 
guarding of the Tdalc-Tbal and Bannu-Tbnl roads, 

dated 8th April 1904 509 

VIII.-— Agreement entered into by tbe Madda Kliel sub-divi- 
sion of tbe Ibrahim Kliel on tbe grant to them of 
an additional m alibi allowance, dated 10th July 

1908 570 

IX. — Petition presented by tbe Mobmit Kliel, Tori Kliel 
and Kabul Khel asking Government to take over 
certain area in the neighbourhood of Razmak and 
to grant them increased allowances, dated 12th May 

1922 571 

Reply to the above petition given by tbe Resident in 

Waziristan 574 

X. — Agreement entered into by the Madda Khel sub-divi- 
sion of tbe Ibrahim Kliel on tbe grant of increased 
allowances, dated 26th August 1922 . . . 57G 

XI. — Agreement entered into by the Mannar Kliel sub-divi- 
sion of the Ibrahim Khel on the grant of increased 
allowances, dated 26th August 1922 . . . 577 

XII. — Agreement entered into liy the Tori Kliel for the lease 
to Government of the Razmak camp site, dated 24th 

May 1926 578 

Part TX. — XVII. — Agreement entered into bv the Tori Khel re- 
garding the opening of the Lower Shaktu trade 
route, dated November 1927 ..... 613 

(2) Damrs. 

NARRATIVE 501 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XITT. — Agreement entered into by tbe Headmen of the Daurs 
regarding their future good behaviour, dated 20th 
February 1872 ....... 57S 

IX. — SouTn Waziristan Agency. 

(1) Maksuds. 

NARRATIVE 582 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

1, — Agreement entered into bv the Shaman Khel clan of 
tbe Mahsud Wazirs regarding their future good 
behaviour, dated 19tli June 1861 .... 590 

Similar agreements executed by the Alizai and 
Bahlolzai clans, dated 27th June 1861 . . 59 j 


CONTENTS. 

NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE— continued. 
IX.— South Wazimstan Agency — continued. 

(1) Malisiufc — continued . 


xxix 


Pace. 


TREATIES, etc., No. _ , _ 

II —Agreement entered into by the Shaman Enel clan or 
the Mahsrnl Wnzirs regarding then- futnro good 
behaviour, dated 28th April 1873 .... 591 

III. — Agreement entered into by the Bahlolzai clan of the 

Mahsud Wazirs regarding their future good 
behaviour, dated 2Gth April 1874 .... 594 

IV. — Petition presented by the Malilts of the three Mahsud 

clans accepting servico from Government for guard- 
ing and keeping open the Gomal Pass, dated 19th 
January 1890 . . . . • . . . - 097 

V. — Agreement entered into by a combined Jirga of the 
whole Mahsud tribe on the re-grant to them of their 
allowances, dated 5th April 1902 .... 597 

. VI. — Agreement entered into hv a full Jirga of the Mahsud 

tribe on the restoration of their allowances, dated 
10th August 1917 598 

VII. — Announcement made to a tribal Mahsud Jirga in Tank 
regarding the policy of Government, dated 5th 
November 1921 599 


VITT. — Petition presented by a full Mahsud Jirga suing for 

peace, dated 14th July 1922 000 

Similar petitions presented hy the Shaman Khel, the 
Alizni and the Bahlolzai clans, dated 15th July 1922 002 

IN. — Answer to the Mahsud petition by the Resident in 
Waziristau including an announcement of an in- 
crease of the annual tribal allowances, dated 1922 . 002 

N.— Terms of general settlement offered to the Jnlal Khel, 

dated February 1923 GOO 

XI. — Petition submitted by the Abdullni accepting tbo terms 

imposed upon them, dated 21st February 1923 . 000 

XII. — Reply to the petition of the Abdullni confirming their 
acceptance of the terms imposed upon them, dated 
22nd February 1923 _ . . . . , . COS 

XTIT. — Announcement made to the Mahsud Jirga at Tauda 
China of the future policy of Government particular- 
ly as regards the construction and. protection of 
roads, dated 23rd March 1923 .... COS 

XIV. — Statement made by the three Mahsud clans jointly 
undertaking to guarantee the safetv of the Sarn*- 
rogha-Razmak road, dated 25th September 1924 . 010 

NV— Undertaking given by the Slmhi Khel division of the 
Alizai for the safety of the Sararogha-R azmnk 
road, dated 26th September 1924 . . cl] 

XVI.— Agreement entered into hy the Abdnr Rahman Khel 
fortbe surrender of certain rifles, dated 1st May 
1925 

XVII.— Agreement entered into hy the Slmhi Khel for the 
protection of the Lower Shaktu trade rente, dated 
29th September 1927 P22 

XVIII.— Agreement entered into by the entire Mahsud Jirga 
regarding the construction of the Tauda China-Wan a 
road within Mahsud limits, dated 23rd July 1929 . 013 



XXX 


CONTENTS. 


NORTH-WEST FRONT! ER PROVINCE— concluded. 


IX. — South AYaziristan Agency — concluded. 

(2) 1 Yazirs. 

NARRATIVE 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XIX. — Announcement made to the Wann Wazirs regarding 
allowances and tribal responsibility, dated 8tli 

November 3021 

XX. — Announcement made to the Ahniadzai Wazirs of 
Sbakai granting them amnesty for past offences, 
dated 13th November 1021 


Pace. 

587 


G15 

017 


(3) Ghihni. 

NARRATIVE OSS 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

XXI. — Agreements entered into by tlm Dotanuis regarding 
the pavmont. of lirni in the AVnna Agency, dated 
Mill January 1902 . . . . . . . G17 

XXII. — Agreement entered into by the Rnleman Ivliel regard- 
ing tlio payment- of lirni, dated lltli January 1902 . G1S 


X. — l)i:iu Ismah. Kuan District. 

(1) Bhilannis. 

NARRATIA r E 019 

TREATIES, etc., No. 

I. — Agreement entered into by the Bbitanni clans 
accepting Puss responsibility on the Tank and 
Bannu frontiers, dated 2nd February 187G . . G23 

II. — Agreement entered into by the Bbitanni clans renew- 
ing their responsibility for certain Passes, dated 27th 

March 1879 623 

III. — Conditions proposed to and accepted by the Bbitanni 
clans in regard to service and redistribution of pay 
and siladari allowances, dated 1890 .... G24 

IA r . — Agreement entered into by tiie Bbitanni clans renew- 
ing and extending their agreement for Pass 
responsibility, dated 1907 ..... G26 

Part VII. — V. — Agreement entered into by the Tatta and Wnrnspun 
clans on tlio restoration and increase of their allow- 



nncos, dated 5tli March 1919 

. 557 

NARRATIVE 

(2) Ghihai. 

. G20 

NARRATIVE ' ’. 
TREATIES, etc., No. 

(3) Shiranis. 

. G20 


A r . — Petition and engagement presented by tlio Shirani 
Jirga acknowledging tlieir responsibility for crimes, 
dated 13th July 18S3 628 


VI. — Petition presented by tlio Larglia Sliiranis accepting 
servico for guarding and keeping open the Gomal 
Pass, dated 4th February 1890 .... G29 

Vlf. — Agreement entered into by the Larglia Sliiranis re- 
garding their future behaviour and their Pass 
responsibility, dated 23rd March 1S91 . . , 630 

VIII. — Petition presented by the Larghn Sliiranis expressing 
their willingness to pay revenue, dated 4th March 
1899 ......... 632 

IX. — Terms accepted by the Larglia Sliiranis on the 

restoration of their allowances, dated 1919 . . 633 


CONTENTS. 


XXXI 


APPENDICES. 


ADEN. 

1. — Agreement signed by the Hausliabi Sultan in conjunction with the 
Alawi and Quteibi Shaiks and the Amir of Dhala fixing the rates to 
be levied on merchandise, 1888 


Page. 

i 


XI. — Agreement made between the Naqib of Mukalla and the Qaitis, 18/3 . 
1X1. — Agreement made between the Qaiti and the Waliidi Sultans, 1'JlO 


PERSIAN GULF. 

I— An Act (12 and 13 Vic., Cap. LXXXIV) for carrying into effect En- 
gagements between Her Majesty and,' certain. Arabian Chiefs in the 
Persian Gulf for the more effectual suppression of the slave trade, 
dated 1st August 1849 xl 

II, — Translated purport of an order from His Royal Highness Tamasp 

Mirza Moyaed-ed-Dowlah, 1855 xxu 

III. — Translation of the Articles of Agreement for the re-lease of Bandar 
Abbas entered into, sealed and signed by Hajeo Ahmed, Vizier, on 
the part of His Highness Saiyid Salim, Sultan of Muscat, with His 
Majesty the Shah of Persia, dated 4tli August 1868 .... xxv 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 

I. — Treaty of Amitj’ and Commerce between the United States of America 

and the Sultan of Muscat, dated 21st September 1833 . . . xxvii 

II. — Treaty of Commerce between the Imam of Muscat and the King of the 

French, dated 17th November 1844 . xxix 

III. — An Act (11 and 12 Vim, Cap. CXXVIII) for carrying into effect the 

Agreement between Her Majesty and the Imam of Muscat for the 
more effectual suppression of the slave trade, dated 15tli September 
1848 xxxiv 

IV. — Commercial Declaration between Holland and Muscat, dated 27th 

August 1877 xxxix 


SOHAR. 

V. — An Act 116 and 17 Vic., Cap. XVI) for carrying into effect the Engage- 
ment between Her Majesty and the Chief of Sohar for the more 
effectual suppression of the slave trade, dated 9th May 1853 . . xl 


BALUCHISTAN. 

I. — Translation of, a Memorandum drawn up by His Highness the Khan of 
Kalat regarding the settlement of his quarrel with his Sardars and 
presented by him to Major R. Sandeman, Deputy Commissioner, on 
special duty, in Darbar, on the 6th June 1876 . . . . xlv 

II. — Rules for the guidance of the Sardars and Naibs in conducting tho 
civil administration of the Kalat State assented to by His Highness 
the Khan of Kalat on 1st August 1876 xlvii 

III. — Memorandum of proceedings of a jirga regarding the periodical settle- 
ment of cases arising between the subjects of Persian Baluchistan 
and Kalati Makran, dated IGtli February 1902 .... xliy 

IV- — Memorandum of an arrangement come to in conversation between the 
Governor-General of Kerman and Persian Baluchistan and tho Poli- 
tical Agent, Kalat, on the subject of the importation of breech- 
loadmg rifles and ammunition into British and Persian Baluchistan 
dated 8th March 1902 ’. lii 

Index to the Volume .... , 


Xl 


C 




PART L 


Treaties and Engagements 

relating to 

Aden and the South-Western Coast of Arabia. 


O N tire expulsion of tire Turks in 1630, tire greater part of southern 
Arabia fell into the hands of tire Imams of Sanaa. About 1730 
tbe latter were expelled from Aden and other districts by the native 
Arab tribes, who assumed independence. 

Tire tribes and con Federations in the region within the sphere of 
British influence are treated irr tbe following order:-? — ■* " 

(1) tbe Abclali (Sultanate of Lalrej), 

(2) the Subeihi, 

(3) the Uadlili, 

(4) the Aqrabi, 

(5) the Aulaqi (Upper and Lower), 

(6) Irqa , 

(7) Lower Huura, 

(8) Beihan, 

(9) the Tafai (Lower and Upper), 

(10) the Audliali, 

(11) the Harrshabi, 

(12) tbe Alawi, 

(13) the Amiri (Ami rate of Dlrala), 

(14) the Wahidi, 

(15) the Kathiri (in XEadlrramaut), 

(16) the Qaiti (Qa’aiti) (Sultanate of Mukalla), 

(17) Soqotra (Sultanate) and the Mahvi (of. Qishn), 
and these are followed by (18) Yemen and (19) Asir (tbe Idris!), 

In 1903-0o a line of demarcation separating the province of Yemen 
from the territory of tribes in direct treaty relations with Ilis Majesty’s 



2 


ADEN — The Abdali. 


Government was fixed by an Anglo-Turkish Commission appointed for 
the purpose, and tlie agreement arrived at was ratified by tbe Anglo- 
Turkisb Convention signed in London on 9tli March 1914 (No. I). This 
Convention was ratified on tbe 3rd June 1914. 

A new chapter in the history of the Aden Protectorate may be said 
to have commenced with the outbreak of the Great War. The Turks 
shifted their headquarters from Sanaa to Taiz — close to the frontier of 
the Aden Protectorate — shortly after their entry into the war in Octo- 
ber 1914. By April 1915 they had fixed their outposts on the vul- 
nerable points of the demarcated frontier on the Hausliabi and Amiri 
border. These Chiefs called upon Aden for assistance under the Pro- 
tectorate treaties, but none could be given. In June 1915 the Turks 
pushed their troops into the Protectorate. The Abdali Sultan made an 
effort to stop their advance on the hills of Nobat Dukeim, but the Turkish 
machine guns broke the morale of the Abdali riflemen who fell back 
on Lahej, which was occupied by the Turks on the 5th July 1915. A 
military deadlock then ensued for 31 years till the Armistice in Novem- 
ber 1918, when the Turkish troops evacuated Lahej. 

After the withdrawal of the Turks from Arabia in 1919 the Imam of 
... Sanaa gradually extended his rule over the Yemen to include the Tikama 
(coastal tracts) as far as JVlidi inr". Ah aiortli’Wml also niaintaiiieirk number^, 
of garrison posts in the region under British protection. In the summer 
of 1928, in consequence of operations by the Hoyal Air Force, the posts 
in Amiri territory and in the Shaibi section of the Upper Yafai were 
evacuated but the Imam still occupies the northern portion of Upper 
Yafa and the highland portion of the Audhali tribe. 

(1) The Abdalt. ■ 

The district inhabited by this tribe is known as Lahej, and their 
Chief as Sultan of Lahej. The boundary on the west is undefined; 
the north-east boundary runs from Nolmt Dukeim to near Bir Aweidein, 
and thence towards Imad, leaving a strip of land on the sea-coast belong- 
ing to the Fadlili, and meeting the eastern British limit. [Sec ’ the 
Shaikh Othman Agreement of 18S2 (No. XI).] , 

The Abdali are now the most peaceable of all the tribes in south- 
western Arabia. • 

The first political intercourse with the Chiefs of Aden took place 
in 1799, when a naval force was sent from Great Britain, with a detach- 
ment of troops from India, to occupy the island of Perim and prevent 
all communication of the French in Egypt with the Indian Ocean, by 
way of the Red Sea. The island of Perim was found unsuitable for 
troops, and the Sultan of Lahej, Ahmed bin Abdul Karim, received the 
detachment for some time at Aden. He proposed to enter into an 



ADEN — The Abdali. 


3 


alliance aiul to grant Aden as a permanent station, but the otter wa. 
declined. A Treaty (No. II) 'was, however, concluded with the builan 
in 1802 by Admiral Sir Home Popliam, who was instructed to enter 
into political and commercial alliances with the Chiefs oil the Arabian 
coast of the Red Sea. 

Prom that time there was little or no intercourse with Aden till 
1837, when attention was drawn to the plunder and maltreatment of 
the crews of British vessels wrecked on the Aden coast. The most 
notable case was that of the Deria Dowlut, the crew of which were 
stripped and barbarously treated. Captain Haines, who was then em- 
ployed in the survey of the Arabian coast, was instructed to demand 
satisfaction. He was at the same time to endeavour to purchase Aden 
as a coaling- depot for the steamers plying between India and the Red Sea. 
Sultan Muhsin, who had succeeded his uncle, Sultan Ahmed, in 1827, 
at first denied all participation in the plunder; hut, finding the British 
Commissioner firm in his demands, he eventually consented to give up 
part of the property and pay compensation for the rest. A draft treaty 
for the cession of Aden was laid before the Sultan, to which he gave 
his verbal consent and promised formally to agree after consulting his 
Chiefs. In this draft the amount of compensation to he paid for Aden 
was left undetermined, hut it was afterwards arranged that an annual 
payment of 8,700 crowns should he made. Oh the 22nd January 1838 
Sultan Muhsin sent a letter under his seal,* engaging io make over 
Aden, after two months, but stipulating that his authority over bis 
people in Aden should be maintained after the cession. To the con- 
tinuance of the Sultan’s jurisdiction the British Agent objected. The 
Sultan replied that he was willing to abide by the terms first offered? 
but, if these were not accepted, his letter of the 22iul January should 
be returned to him. Negotiations were at this stage when a plot was 
laid by Ahmed, the Sultan’s soil; to seize the Agent and rob him of 
his papers, and delivery of the property stolen from the wreck of the 
Deria Dowhit was also refused. Preparations were therefore made 
to coerce the Sultan. On the 19th January 1839 Aden was bombarded 
and taken, and the Sultan and his family fled to Lahej. On the 2nd 
• February peace was made (No. Ill) in the Sultan’s name by his son-im 
law, and on the IStli June the Sultan himself signed a Bond (No. IY), 
engaging to maintain peace and friendship with the British Government, 
who agreed to pay him and his heirs 6,500 dollars a year, and likewise 


At pages 282 and 283 of a Collection of Treaties, published by Mr. Hughes 
Thomas in l8ol under the authority of the Government of Bombay, an extract 
from a letter of the Sultan of Lahej, dated 23rd January 1838, is given which 
purports to complete and conclude the transaction for the transfer of Aden to 
the British Government. The facts, however, arc, ns stated in the text— that 
, m r , fc S K' • ot . tll ! ! .! c {i er the Sultan desired that the negotiations should bo 
broken off if Ins jurisdiction in Adeti Were not admitted: micf the bargain owing 
to tlie subsequent course of events, wns never concluded. The title of the ’British 
Government to Adeii rests exclusively on conquest, and not on purchase. 



A1)KN- J7if Abdnli. 


4 

to pay the stipends which tlu> Snltnii was hound lo give to the Fadldi, 
\ nfai, Hnuslmbi and Amiri tribes. Fence, Iimvinvi', was soon after 
broken hy an unsuei-e-Iul attempt made by Sultan Muhsin in Novem- 
ber JS’I!) to rota!;o Aden, and the payments were therefore stopped. A 
second at I aide made in May 18-10 wa*. also unsuccessful, and the repulse 
of a third attach in duly of the same year completely disheartened the 
Arabs for a time. In I XI- - ! Sultan Muhsin came to Aden and sued for 
peace. An Kngagement (No. V) was made on the 11th February ISM. 
which (lie British tfovernment considered in the light of an agreement 
to be observed between the Political Agent and the Sultan, but not of 
n treaty to be formally ratified. In February ISM, a monthly stipend 
of alt dollars was restored to the Sultan with a year’s arrears and, 
before this was paid, another Agreement (No. VI) was taken from him, 
binding him faithfully to observe his engagements, 

Sultan Muhsin died on the .‘SOth November 18-17, leaving nine sous. 
11«' was suereoded by his eldest son, Ahmed, who died on the 18th 
.1 miliary 18-10, when his next blot her, Ali bin Muhsin, .succeeded. Short- 
ly after his neee-don to power, a Treaty (No. VI li of peace, friendship 
and commerce, which was under negotiation with his predecessor, was 
concluded with him. Among its other provisions, this treaty .stipulated 
for tlo> lc.-tnration of the monthly stipend which had been stopped hi 
consequence of the share taken by the late Chief, Sultan Muhsin, in 
an attach on Aden in August 1810. 

Halations with the new Chief remained on a fairly satisfactory feeding 
till 1S‘>7. when, taking umbrage tit some fancied wrongs, he entered 
upon a course of open hostility to the British Government, lie was com- 
pletely defeated by an expedition whieh m a relied against him in 18'>8, 
and (lie peace which followed remained unbroken till his death in ISlid. 

His son, Fmllt l (Fa’/.l) bin Ali, was elected by the tribes and elders 
to .succeed him in the government, hut no sooner bad he assumed the 
management of affairs than intrigues were set on bud by other members 
of the family with a view to his displacement. Ultimately an arrange- 
ment was elfected, through the mediation of the Itesident at Aden and 
with the consent of the young Chief, by which he was succeeded in the 
government of the country hy his uncle. Fail hi bin Muhsin, fourth son 
of Sultan Muhsin. For the assistance rendered hy Sultan Fadhl bin 
Muhsin in supplying forage and means of transport for the troops em- 
ployed against the Fadhli tribe in ISO*), he was presented with A, OIK) 
dollars. 1 

In 18b7 the Chief consented (No. VI II.) to the construction of an 
aqueduct for the supply of water from the Shaikh Otliman wells to Aden, 
a distance of six miles. 

In 1878, in consequence of repeated applications by the Sultan of 
Lahej, for the protection of (he British Government against the Turks, 



ADEN — The Abdali. 


5 


who had demanded his. submission, had occupied a part of Zaida and 
Shakaa, and had sent troops to support his rebellious brother Abdulla, 
a fore, 3 of British and Indian Infantry with three guns marched to 
A1 Hauta, the capital of Lahej, to protect the Sultan. After some 
negotiations the Turkish troops evacuated Lahej and Shakaa, and the 
Sultan’s two brothers and nephew surrendered unconditionally and were 
conveyed as State prisoners to Aden, while their forts were dismantled. 
They were subsequently released and retired to Mocha. Sultan Ladlil 
bin Muhsin died in July 1874, and was succeeded by his nephew, Lad LI 
bin Ali, who had resigned the Chief ship in Lis favour in 1863. The 
payment of the usual annual stipend of 6,492 dollars was continued to 
the latter, the amount being increased in 18S2 to 19,692 dollars (see 
No. XI). 

In 1877 the Sultan of Lahej was granted a permanent salute of 9 
guns. 

In July 1881 an Agreement (No. IX) was concluded between the 
Abdali and the Hausliabi, by which a portion of the Zaida lands taken 
from the latter tribe in 1873 was restored to them, and a cause of 
constant mutual irritation was thus effectually removed. In 1881 the 
Abdali entered into an Agreement (No. X) by which the Subeihi were 
placed under their control, the stipends previously received by the latter 
being made payable to the Abdali. 

On the 7th Lebruary 1882, by a Treaty (No. XI) with the Abdali 
Sultan, arrangements were made for the purchase, by the British Gov- 
ernment, of some 35 square miles of territory attached to Shaikh Othman, 
between the'Hiswa and Imad; the salt-pits at Shaikh Othman and the 
aqueduct between that place and Aden at the same time became British 
property. Between May and July 1SSG the Abdali Chief made repeated 
complaints of the hardships entailed by the Subeihi Agreement, from 
which he wished to withdraw entirely. In August he reported that one 
of his garrisons had been massacred, and that all the others were sur- 
rounded by the Subeihi, and craved assistance in rescuing them. The 
Resident despatched 50 sabres of the Aden troop (which had been raised 
in 1805 for police purposes) to support him, and also lent him rifles and 
ammunition. These proceedings resulted in the safe withdrawal of the 
garrisons; but from this date the Subeihi agreement became practically 
inoperative, and the various Subeihi tribes resumed tlieir old position 
of independent relations with the Aden Residency. 

At the close of 1.886 the Abdali bought back from the Hausliabi the 
lands referred to in the Zaida Agreement (sec No. IX), and the Resident 
thereupon intimated to both Chiefs that articles 1 and 2 of that agree- 
ment were held to be cancelled, with the exception of the words per- 
mitting the Hausliabi to erect a house at A1 Anad. 



0 ADEN — The Abdali. 

o J U 1 ?? 4 ; mvin ? to the ]leay y texes Ie vied on qafilalis by the Hauslmbi 
bultan Muhsm bin Ali, the Abdali entered Hatishabi territory and its 
Sultan fled. He was repudiated by bis Shaikhs and, at their request, 
Sultan Fadhl bin Ali made suitable arrangements for administering 
their country and protecting the trade routes. The. ^-Hatishabi Sultan 
eventually gave himself up at Lahej and on the 6th August 1895 signed 
an Agreement (Ho. XII) by which his territory was restored to him 
under certain guarantees. 

On the 27th April 1898 Sultan Fadhl bin Ali died. He was suc- 
ceeded by his cousin, Ahmed Fadhl, to whom the payment of the usual 
annual stipend was continued. 

In April 1899, owing to continual robberies by the Subeihi, the 
Abdali were given permission to occupy Has al Arab, Turan and Am 
Hija in the Subeihi country, In November the Abdali raised a force 
against the Atifi section in consequence of an attack made by the latter 
on Dar nl Kudeimi. The Atifi then submitted, In 1902 the Sultan 
again raised a force to suppress the Subeihi. After a few skirmishes he 
returned to Lahej. 

In September 1906 the Rijai Shaikh signed an agreement formally 
acknowledging himself as the vassal of the Abdali. 

In 1910 a Convention (3STo. XIII) was executed with the Sultan, by 
which he ceded to Government a piece of land on the left hank and 
eastward of Wadi As-Sagkir for use as keadworks of the water supply 
of Aden. The Convention was ratified on the 17th March 1911. It, 
however, became a dead letter, as the scheme has been abandoned. 

In March 1914 Sultan Sir Ahmed Fadhl died. He Was succeeded 
by his cousin, Ali bin Ahmed to whom the payment of the Usual annual 
stipend was continued. 

In July 1915 a Turkish force under General Said Pasha from the 
Yamen attacked and captured Lahej which they retained till the end 
of the war. The Sultan, whose irregular troops were Unable to offer 
successful resistance, abandoned his country to the enemy and retired 
with the British troops which had been hastily despatched to defend 
Lahej. The Sultan died at Aden from Wounds received during the 
attack on Lahej . 

His successor Sultan Abdul Karim is the sou of a former Chief, 
Fadhl bin Ali. His election took place in Aden, where he was a refugee 
till the end of the war. He Was formally installed in his capital on 
the 14th December 1918, after the surrender of the Turkish garrison 
at Lahej .to the British, and was granted a sum of £10,000 by His 
Majesty’s Government as a mark of tlieir friendship and appreciation 
of his loyalty, and to enable him to re-establish the administration of 
his country. The stipend paid to his father was continued to him. 


ADEN — The Abdali and the Subeihi. 


7 


In 191S Sultan Abdul Karim was granted a personal salute of 11 
guns. 

In February 1919 the Subeilii were again placed under the control 
of the Abdali (No. XIY). 

The ratification of this agreement, has been postponed by His Majesty’s 
Government until after the final settlement of the future political status 
of Arabia. The agreement, although only in partial operation during 
recent years has had the effect of strengthening the influence of the 
Sultan of Laliej in the Subeihi area. 

In January 1919, in consequence of incursions by the Imam into the 
Protectorate and the resulting danger to Lahej, a force of British troops 
was sent to garrison Nobat Dukeim. It was withdrawn in J uly 1922 
but a small detachment of Indian troops was left at Habil. This was 
withdrawn in April 1928. 

The Sultan visited India in 1922 and England in 1924 when he was 
received by His Majesty the King, together with his son Fadlil. He 
visited India again in 1930. 

The Resident convened the first Conference of ruling chiefs of the 
Protectorate in April 1929. The Conference was held at Lahej under 
the Presidency of the Abdali Sultan and was reconvened in December 
1930. 

The gross revenue of the tribe is estimated at Rs. 2,75,000 a year, 
and the population amounts to about 35,000. 

(2) The Stjbeihi. 

The Subeihi are a large tribe occupying the country bordering on 
the sea from Ras Imran to Bab al Mandeb, who owe -allegiance to 
no paramount Chief, but are divided into a number of petty clans. 
In 1839, after the capture of Aden, several Engagements (No. XY) were 
arranged with Chiefs of this tribe; but until 1871 the only Chiefs enjoy- 
ing stipends from the British Government were the heads of the Dubeini 
and Rijai clans. In that year the Mansuri clan attacked and plundered 
a caravan coming into Aden. A detachment of the Aden troop, whicli 
had been raised in 1SG5 for police purposes, was despatched against them, 
and an action ensued in which one of the Chiefs and most of his party 
were killed. Eventually, in 1871, the Subeihi Chiefs came into Aden 
and tendered their submission : they also entered into Engagements 
(No. XYI) to preserve the peace of the roads, to restore plundered 
property, and to abolish transit duties and taxes on the roads passing 
through their territories, in return for monthly stipends.* An additional 
Engagement (No. XYII) was also signed in 1S71 by the Mansuri Chief, 
by which he admitted his responsibility for the good behaviour of the 
Kuraisi. 


* The Mansuri $25, Maklidumi $30, and Rijai $40, 



ADEN — The Subeihi. 


s 


A separate Engagement (No. XYIII) was made in 1871 with the 
Atifi sub-division of the tribe, by which they agreed to afford protec* 
i,on lo shipwrecked seamen of any nation, and to protect and send to 
Aden deserters from the garrison and shipping. 

An expedition despatched in 1S7S by sea and land was successful in 
putting a stop, tor the time, to the depredations committed by the 
Barhimi, a sub-tribe of the Subeihi, but on the recrudescence of disorder 
the whole tribe was put under the control of the Ahdali (see The Abdali, 
Agreement No. X). In 1886, however, as detailed above in the account 
of the Ahdali, the Subeihi agreement became inoperative, the various 
Subeihi tribes resumed their old position of independent relations with 
the Aden Residency, and their stipends were restored to them. 

In 1SS9 Protectorate Treaties (Nos. XIX and XX) were made with 
Hie Atifi and Barhimi. These were ratified on the 26th February 1890. 

In April 1899, owing to continual robberies by the Subeihi, the 
Abdali Sultan was given permission to occupy It as al Arab, Turan and 
Am Rijn. In November the Atifi attacked an Abdali post, but when the 
Abdali collected a large force tbc Atifi submitted. 

In 1909 Muhammad Salih .Tatar, the late Native Assistant Resident, 
took refuge among the Mansuri and Makhdumi and incited them to 
plunder. 

In 1902 the Abdali collected a large force and several skirmishes 
took place in Subeihi country. The Subeihi continued to plunder during 
1904. 

In March 1904 Captain Warneford .was murdered at Am Rfja on 
his way to join the Boundary Commission as political officer. By May 
the boundary was demarcated. No opposition was experienced from any 
tribe, except the Khalifi, Atawi and Jazeri. 

A postal sowar carrying Government mails was shot by a raiding 
party of Atifi near Shaikh Othman in January 1906. The greater 
part' of the mails was recovered, but the tribesmen, foiling to surrender 
the offenders as they were called upon to do, were prohibited from enter- 
ing Aden and payment of their stipend was suspended. 

Salih Ba lTo Mara the Eijoi, murderer of Captain Warneford, was 
shot by a dependant of the Mansuri Shaikh in March 1906. 

In July 1906, a dhow flying Italian colours was wrecked and pillaged 
off the Barhimi coast. The Barhimi Shaikh was ordered to pay compen- 
sation- but he having failed to do so, the amount, Us. 2,450, was paid 
by Government and subsequently deducted from his stipend. 

Some of the Subeihi clans, notably the Dubini and Eijai, took part 
in the looting of Shaikh Ollunan after the capture of Lahej by the 

Turks in 1915. 


ADEN — The Subeihi and the Fadhli. 


9 


In February 1919, an Agreement (see No. XIV) was concluded with 
the Ahdali Sultan placing the Sulieihi again under his general control. 
The agreement has been put into partial operation during recent years. 

In September 192T a large force of Immnic troops invaded Subeihi 
territory in the neighbourhood of Turan, but retired as the result of 
warnings of air action. 

In December 1928, when a curtailment of doles and entertainment 
to the chiefs was effected, the tribesmen became restive and resorted to 
their old tactics of murder and pillage. They were ordered to cease 
and to make restitution for their offences and, on their refusing to do so, 
air action was taken against the more guilty parties. The tribesmen 
eventually made their submission. 

The gross revenue of the tribe is estimated at Its. 8,000 a year, and 
the population at 20,000. 


(3) Till’ Fabhi.i. 

The Fadhli, with whom an Engagement (No. XXI) was concluded 
by the British Government in July 1839, after the capture of Aden, 
are one of the most powerful and warlike tribes near Aden. Their pos- 
sessions lie to the north-east of that settlement, and extend for a hundred 
miles along the coast from tbe eastern limits of the Ahdali near Imad 
to the western, boundary of the Aulaqi at Maqatin. The Sultan of 
Laliej for many years paid annual subsidies to the neighbouring 
tribes, including the Fadhli, through whose territory the trade 
of the country passed, and these payments were at first continued 
by the British Government on' condition of the Chiefs remaining in 
friendly alliance. Owing, however, to the weakness of the character of 
Sultan Ali bin Muhsin of Laliej, through whom it was the early policy 
of the British Agent to transact all business with the Arabs of the 
country round Aden, the neighbouring tribes ventured for some years 
to perpetrate a series of atrocities upon individual British officers and 
others, which the Sultan was quite unable to prevent or punish. His 
efforts, indeed, to procure compliance with the demands of the British 
Government for satisfaction for these outrages brought on him the 
hostility of his rivals, the Fadhli tribe, who had sheltered some of the 
murderers, and who endeavoured to stir up the neighbouring tribes to 
hostilities with the British. The stipend of the Fadhli Chief, which 
had been assigned to him by the engagement of 1839, was stopped till 
lie should expel the criminals who had taken refuge with him. This 
he did and, on the restoration of his stipend, lie voluntarily signed an 
Agreement (No. XXII) to protect the loads from Adeu through his 
texiitoiy. But the inability of the Sultan of Laliej to prevent or 



10 


ADEN — The Fadhli. 


punish crimes committed by the adjacent tribes necessitated a change 
in policy and the commencement of intercourse ivitli their Chiefs direct, 
instead of through the Sultan as medium. 

For some years after the introduction of this system the conduct of 
the Fadhli Sultan, Ahmed bin Abdulla, was satisfactory. By his be- 
haviour at the wreck of the Statclie in January 18G4 he earned the 
approbation of the British Government; but soon afterwards, either from 
dissatisfaction at the amount of the reward granted to him for his 
services on this occasion, or out of jealousy at the intimacy of British 
relations with the Sultan of Lahej, he resumed his attitude of persistent 
hostility. Within gunshot of the fortifications of Aden he plundered 
a caravan, and assembled a large force with the object of destroying 
the crops of the Abdali and defying the authority of the British Gov- 
ernment. 

A small body of troops was accordingly .despatched against him in 
December 1SG5; lie was defeated and compelled to seek safety inflight, 
while the troops entered the Fadhli country and destroyed several 
villages. The seaport of Shuqra was at first spared, in hopes that the 
punishment already administered would prove sufficient; but, some 
further outrages having been perpetrated by the Fadhli, another ex- 
pedition left Aden, destrojmd the forts inland, and returned within 
three days, thus showing the Fadhli that they could be approached 
by land or by sen. with equal facility. It was decided that either the 
Sultan or his son should enter Aden and tender unconditional submission 
before friendly relations could be resumed. All other overtimes were 
declined and, in March ‘1867, a letter was received from the Sultan 
stating his wish to send his elder son to tender the submission of the 
tribe. A safe conduct was granted and* finally a Treaty (Ho. XXIII), 
embodying the prescribed terms, was signed by the Sultan in 1SG7, the 
Resident agreeing on the part of the British Government that the past 
should be forgotten. 

This Treaty has been authoritatively declared to be the only one 
now in force. * lit accordance with article 4, a relation of the Sultan was 
deputed to reside in Aden as a permanent hostage; but, on his death 
in 1870, this article was allowed to remain in abeyance. Shortly after 
the ratification of the Treaty of 1867 the stipend of the Fadhli Sultan 
was raised from 30 dollars to 100 dollars a month. Sultan Ahmed bin 
Abdulla died in February 1870, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Haidara, who was assassinated in August 1877. His brother Sultan 
Jlusein was believed to be the murderer nnd was expelled by the tribe, 
who elected the latter’s son Ahmed to be their Chief. The succession 
was recognised by the British Government, _ In July 1S79 Sultan 
Husein, being found to.be implicated in certain intrigues, which had 
for their object a rebellion in the Fadhli country, was arrested and 


ADEN — The Fadhli. 


11 


deported to Bombay. He was liberated in December 1886, arid Mb 
conduct after bis release gave no cause for uneasiness. 

In 1872 tbe tribe agreed (No. NNIV) to abolish transit duties on 
goods conveyed to and from Aden through their territories, in con- 
sideration of which the Chief’s stipend was further increased to 180 
dollars a month. 

In 18S1 a boundary dispute, which had long caused ill-feeling 
between the Fadhli and Abdali, was terminated by the conclusion of a 
Treaty (No. ANY) defining their respective limits. 

In 1883 it was reported that the Lower Aulaqi had invaded Fadhli 
territory, and a force was despatched from Aden by sea and land to 
the assistance of the. latter. No invasion haying actually taken place, 
the force was withdrawn ; but it did take place shortly afterwards and 
resulted in complete failure. 

In 1888 territorial disputes arose between the Lower Y.afai and the 
Fadhli and the former cut off the water supply of the Naza Canal; a 
desultory strife continued for some time between the tribes with occa- 
sional short truces. 

In August 1888 a Protectorate Treaty (No. NXVI) was concluded 
with the Fadhli, which was ratified on the 26th February 1890. 

In October 1891, in consequence of the misconduct of the Fadhli, 
it became necessary to impose a fine of Rs. 1,000 upon the Sultan, and 
to suspend the payment of his stipend. The advisability of reviving 
the fourth article of the agreement of 1867, requiring the residence of 
a Fadhli representative at Aden, was also ■ taken into consideration. 
In December 1891, however, on his making full submission, the punish- 
ment was in part remitted by the Government of India. 

In 1892 and the following year desultory strife, interrupted by 
short truces, continued with the Lower Yafai over the water-supply of 
the Naza. In 1893 a truce was made for one year and was continued 
in 1894 and the following years. 

The Marqashi also gave considerable trouble . by plundering in 
British territory. The Sultan finally declared himself responsible* for 
them. 

In 1899 at the Sultan’s request his two brothers, Salih and Abdulla, 
were deported to India for conspiring against him. In 1900 Salih died 
at Karachi, and Abdulla was released. ■ 

Hostilities with the Yafai recommenced in consequence of the Sultan 
having established a new customs post .at Zanzibar, for the purpose of 
levying dues on qafilalis. All efforts to effect a reconciliation failed, 
till in 1904 the Sultan visited the Resident at Aden,. and promised to 
stop levying dues and to abandon his post at Zanzibar. 1 



12 


ADEN — The Vadhli and the Aqrahi. 


In 1906 the Sultan was reported to have commenced levying transit 
dues on qafilalis at Zanzibar. In reply to representations on the subject 
be urged that these were only tees willingly paid for escorts furnished 
to caravans beyond his own limits, and the matter was not pursued. 

Hostilities with the Lower Yafai continued intermittently. 

In March 1907 Sultan Aluned bin Husein died and was succeeded 
by his father Ilusein bin Ahmed. 

The Sultan was considered disloyal during the Great War, on account 
of an agreement which he signed with the Turks at Lahej, and hia 
stipend was stopped. After the Armistice he satisfactorily explained 
his conduct and the stipend was restored. 

In 1924 the Sultan died and was succeeded by his grandson, Sultan 
Abdul Qadir. 

In 1920 a truce was made between the Lad hi i and the Lower Yafai 
for one year. This has since been extended to four j^ears. 

In March 1927 Sultan Abdul Qadir died and was succeeded by his 
ancle Sultan Abdulla bin Husein. 

In dune 1929 the Sultan of Lahej settled the long-standing quarrel 
between the Ahl Fadhl and the Lower Yafai. Khanfar was restored to 
Lower Yafai and the Fodhli Sultan was permitted to levy dues on Lower 
Yafai exports and imports passing through his territory at a fixed rate. 

The population of this tribe is estimated at 24,000, and the gross 
revenue at Hs. 35,000 a year. 

The Fadhli Sultan is entitled to a salute of 9 guns, which was 
forma lly gazetted on the 1st January 1877. 


(4) The Aqrabi. 

The Aqrahi tribe are a subdivision of the Abdali, who, under Shaikh 
Malidi, threw off allegiance to Abdul Karim of Lahej and became 
independent about the year 1770. They inhabit the coast-line from Bir 
Aluned to Has Imran ; inland their territory extends to an undefined 
point between Bir Ahmed and Wahat. The only town, or rather village, 
is that of Bir Ahmad. An Engagement (Ho. XXYII) was concluded 
in 1839 with their Shaikh, Haidara Meluli, after the capture of 
Aden, and it was adhered to until the date of the third attack upon the 
fortress in July 1840. Thenceforward for many years their attitude 
was one of hostility. In 1850 they murdered a seaman of the Auckland. 
This necessitated the blockade of the port of Bir Ahmed, which conti- 
nued for several years, and friendly relations with the tribe were not 
resumed till 1857, when the Shaikh of the Aqrabi tribe renewed (No. 
XXYIII) his professions of peace and good will. In 1S5S Shaikh Haidara 



13 


ADEN — The Aqrabi. 

Melvcli resigned the Sliaikhship and was succeeded by his son Abdulla. 
In 18G3 an Agreement (No. XXIX) was made with him, by wlucli lie 
engaged not to sell, mortgage, or give for occupation, save to the British 
Government, any portion of the peninsula of little Aden. In return he 
Was to receive an immediate payment of 3,000 dollars, and a monthly 
stipend of 30 dollars. 

These terms were not considered entirely satisfactory by Her Majesty s 
Government, and the Resident was instructed to treat for the complete 
and unreserved acquisition of the peninsula. After tedious negotiations, 
which were further protracted by the necessity of investigating the claims 
of Other tribes to this territory, the purchase was concluded (No. XXX) 
on the 2nd April 1S69 for a sum of 30,000 dollars, the stipend of the 
Shaikh beino- at the same time raised fo 40 dollars a month. 

O 

The animosity, always latent, between the Ahdali and Aqrahi, broke 
Out in I8ST, and in August of that year the Ahdali besieged Bir Ahmed 
in a desultory fashion. Eventually, as the British limits at Al Hiswa 
were disturbed, the Resident intervened ; the Ahdali evacuated Aqrabi 
territory, and peace was restored on the Gth September. 

Negotiations were commenced in 1SST for the acquisition of a. strip 
of foreshore to connect the British limits at Al Hiswa and Bandar 
Fukum. They were brought to a satisfactory conclusion by an Agree- 
ment (No. XXXI), dated the 15th July 1888, the Aqrabi Shaikh dis- 
posing of his title for an immediate payment, of Rs. 2,000. 

In 1888 a Protectorate Treaty was concluded (No. XXXII) with the 
Aqrahi, similar to that arranged with several other tribes, and was 
ratified on the 26th February 1890, 

Shaikh Abdulla died in March 1905, and was succeeded by his son. 
Shaikh Fadhl bin Abdulla bin Haidara. 

In 1915 the Turkish commander at Lahej sent a Turkish flag to the 
Aqrahi Shaikh to he flown on his residence. The Shaikh did not do 
this, but sent it to the Resident at Aden. For this act he was vilified 
by the Turkish commander, whose letter to the Shaikh was sent by the 
latter to Aden. Shortly afterwards a party of Turks and their Somali 
mercenaries surrounded the Shaikh’s house in Bir Ahmed and he was 
taken to Lahej, where he was imprisoned in fetters for about a year, and 
then released and kept in Lahej under surveillance till the end of the 
war. The refugees from Aqrabi territory were housed and maintained 
in Aden until the end of the war. 

The Aqrabi Shaikh and his subjects were given a sum of Rs. 24,000 
With which to rebuild Bir Ahmed. 

His gross annual revenue amounts to about Rs. 2,000. His tribesmen 
iiumber about 1,000. 



14 


ADEN — The Aulaqi. 


(5) Tub Aulaqi. 

lhe Aulaqi tribe is divided into two sections, the Upper and the 
Lower An'laqi , each under an independent Chief. The Upper Aulaqi are 
again, subdivided, part being under the rule of a Sultan who resides at 
Nisab, and part governed by a Shaikh who is nearly as powerful as tlie 
Sultan, and lives at Said. 

The Aulaqi country is bounded on the north by the Beilian district, 
on the west by the Beidha district and Audhali and Fadhli tribes, on 
the south by the Sea and on the east by the Abdul Wahid tribe. The 
boundary between Upper and Lower Aulaqi is roughly the mountain 
scarp of the Kor al Aulaqi. 

(n) The U fper Aulaqi Sultan. 

In September 1879 Sultan Awadh bin Abdulla was dethroned in 
consequence of o'ld age and was succeeded by his eldest son Abdulla. 

Sultan Abdulla bin Awadh died on the 11th December 1SS7 and was 
succeeded by his son the present Sultan, Salih bin Abdulla. 

A Treaty (No. XXXIV) was concluded with the Upper Aulaqi Sultan 
on the 18th March 1904 and ratified on the 23rd April 1904. 

(h) The U 2 >pcr Aulaqi Shaikh. 

Shaikh Farid bin Nasir died on the 2nd June 1S83 and was succeeded 
by his eldest son Ruweis. 

Ruweis was deposed by his tribesmen in 1S90 and was succeeded by 
his brother Um Rasas bin Farid, who died in July 1902 and was 
succeeded by his brother the present Shaikh, Muhsin bin Farid. 

In 1889 the Upper Aulaqi Shaikh voluntarily signed an agreement 
abandoning all customary rights over the Fadlili and Abdali. 

On the 8th December 1903 a Treaty (No. XXXIII) was concluded at 
Aden with the Upper; Aulaqi Shaikh and was ratified on the 5tli Febru- 
ary 1904. 

In October 191S Shaikh Yeslam Barweis, son of the late Upper Aulaqi 
Shaikh received a Commission in the 1st Yemen Infantry as Yuzbashi 
in which he remained till its disbandment in March 1925. On the raising 
of the Aden Protectorate Levies in April 1928 he became Senior Arab 
Officer and remained so until his death in September 1929. 

The population of this tribe is estimated at 30,000. 

(c) The Lower Aulaqi. 

In October 1856 the Resident at Aden entered into an Engagement 
(No XXXV) with Sultan Munassar bin Bubakar bin Mehdi of the Lower 



is 


ADEN — The Aulaqi and Irqn . 

Aulaqi tribe, by which tlie latter bound bimselt to prohibit the im- 
portation of slaves into the country from Africa. He was murdered, 
together with his son Abdulla, in July 1SG3, and was succeeded by his 
cousin, Bubakar bin Abdulla. The authority of the Lower Aulaqi Sultan, 
over his tribe is rather limited, and Sultan Bubakar bin Abdulla was 
not always able to prevent the plunder of vessels wrecked on his coast. 
In 1871, however, he bound himself by an engagement to use his best 
endeavours to prevent such outrages in future, and to protect, and if 
possible convey to Aden, any shipwrecked seamen who might stand in 
need of his assistance. 

In 1883 dissensions broke out between the Fadhli and Lower Aulaqi, 
leading to a raid on Fadhli territory. The Lower Aulaqi were defeated 
with considerable loss. 

A Protectorate Treaty (Ho. XXXYI) was concluded with the Sultan 
in 1888, and was ratified on the 2Gth February 1890. 

In 1892 Sultan Bubakar resigned the chiefship in favour of Salih 
bin Ali bin Xasir, a distant relative. The Government sanctioned this 
arrangement and continued his stipend to his successor. Sultan Salih 
bin Ali bin Xasir resigned the chiefship in 1900, and Sultan Ali bin 
Munassar succeeded him. The latter died in 1902 and was succeeded 
by Sultan Hash- bin Bubakar. 

In 1904 some Fadhli tribesmen fired on a Lower Aulaqi dhow, and 
in consequence the old feud between the two tribes broke out again. 
There was little actual fighting, and at the end of the year a truce was 
proclaimed. 

In 1912 Sultan Hasir bin Bubakar died. He was succeeded by Sultan 
Bubakar bin Nasir. 

In 1924 Sultan Bubakar abdicated in favour of his cousin, Munassar 
bin Ali. He was recognised by His Majesty’s Government as the ruling 
chief of the Lower Aulaqi tribe, and the payment of the usual annual 
stipend was continued to him. 

In June 1929 a Greek ship, the Hermes , ran out of coal and went 
ashore about 25 miles north-east of Abwar. The Lower Aulaqi Sultan 
carried out the terms of his salvage treaty satisfactorily. 

In April 1930 Sultan Munassar bin Ali died and so far (December 
1930) no successor has been elected owing to family dissensions. 

The population of the Lower Aulaqi tribe is estimated at 15,000, and 
the gross revenue at Us, 10,000 a year, 

(G) IltQA. 

Since 1888 the Shaikh of Irqa has received a stipend. A Protectorate 
Treaty (Ho. XXXVII) was concluded with him in that year, and was 
ratified on the 26th; February 1890. 

XI 


D 



16 


ADEN Irqa, Lower Ilnur a and Leihaii. 


Shaikh Awadli bin Muhammad ba Das died in January 1901. He 
was succeeded by Shaikh Ahmed bin Awadli bin Muhammad ba Da's. A 
new Protectorate Treaty (No. XXXVIII) was concluded with the latter 
m January 1902, when his stipend was increased from 80 to 180 dollars. 

(7) Lower Hatjra. 

The Shaikhs reside at Lower Haura, a seaport about 12 miles from 
Ltqa. Since 1S8S an annual stipend has been paid to them, and a 
Protectorate Treaty (No. XXXIX) was concluded with them in that 
year. 

In May 1S95 Shaikh Abdulla bin Muhammad ba Shahid, the repre- 
sentative Shaikh, died. He was succeeded by Shaikh Said bin Abdidia 
ba Shahid who abdicated in Pebruary 1896, being succeeded bj r his 
brother, Shaikh Ahmed bin Abdulla. The latter died in March 1900, 
and was succeeded by Shaikh Saleh bin Awadli. 

A revised Protectorate Treaty (No. XL) was concluded with the 
latter in April 1902, when his stipend was increased from 50 to 180 
■dollars. 

On the 6tli October 1917 Shaikh Salih bin Awadli died. He was 
succeeded by his son, Awadli bin Salih. 

(8) Beihan. 

This district lies to the north of the Beidha district and north-west 
of the Upper Aulaqi country. It lies on either side of the Wadi Beihan, 
in the valley of which the bulk of the population reside. 

The lower portion of the Wadi Beihan is occupied by the Sharif and 
his relations together with the Bal Harith tribe and the upper portion 
by the Alii Masabein, a powerful tribe, who form the bulk of the fighting 
men in the district. 

The headquarters of the Sharif is at An Niiqub, of the Bal Harith 
at As Sedan and of the Masabein at Beihan al Qasab. 

It was not until the question of demarcating the north-eastern fron- 
tier arose that any intercourse was held with it. 

In December 1903 a Treaty (No. XLI) was concluded with Sharif 
Ahmed bin Muhsin. This treaty is considered to include the Ahl 
Masabein in its terms. He draws a monthly stipend of 30 dollars. 

In June 1930 the troops of the Imam of Sanaa who had advanced to 
the Harib district, north-west of Beihan, with headquarters at Al Joba ' 
and Darb al Ali, began to encroach on Al Ain, which is inhabited by 
Masabi tribesmen. 

The population of this district is estimated at 11,000. 



■ ADEN — The tafau 


11 


(9) TheYaEai. 

This tribe is divided into two sections, the Lower and Upper Yaf'ai . 
Their territory inland is very extensive, but the maritime districts east 
of Aden, which formerly belonged to the tribe and extended to the 
frontiers of Hadhramaut, were wrested from them by the Eadhli shortly 
before the capture of Aden. 

The Yafai are among the most travelled of the hinterland tribes, 
owing to their communications with India, Java and Borneo, where they 
trade and also serve as mercenaries. 


(i a ) The Lower Yafai. 

Soon after the capture of Aden an Engagement (No. XLII) was 
entered into in 1S39 with Ali bin Ghalib, Sultan of the Lower Yafai, 
similar to that concluded with the Abdali and Eadlili Sultans. It has 
been loyally adhered to. 

Sultan Ali bin Ghalib died in 1841 at a great age, and was succeeded 
by his son, Ahmed bin Ali. He died in September 1S73, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Ali bin Ahmed, who was succeeded by his brothel’, 
Muhsin bin Ahmed, in May 1885. The latter died in July 1891, and 
his nephew, Sultan Ahmed bin Ali, was elected as his successor. The 
Government of India sanctioned the continuance to him, with effect from 
the 20th July 1891, of the annual stipend of 250 dollars enjoyed by the 
late Sultan. 

In 1873 hostilities brohe out between the Yafai and the Eadhli, in 
consequence of the Yafai Sultan having repudiated an engagement, 
concluded on his behalf by his son and in the presence of the Resident 
at Aden, whereby he had consented to accept from the Eadhli Sultan 
a royalty of 25 dollars a year for the use of water for irrigation. Eor 
this breach of faith the stipend of the Yafai Sultan was temporarily 
withheld. 

Erom 1S88 to 1893 desultory strife, interrupted by short truces, was 
carried on with the Eadhli over the water-supply from the Naza 
channel. In 1893 a truce was made and was kept for several years. 

In 1893 Sultan Ahmed bin Ali visited Aden on his way to Mecca, 
where he died on the 27th June. He was succeeded by Sultan Bubakar 
bin Seif. 

On the 1st August 1895 a Protectorate Treaty (Ho. XLIII) was con- 
cluded with the Lower Yafai. 

In 1899 Sultan Bubakar bin Seif died. He was succeeded by Sultan 
Abdulla bin Muhsin. 

t> 2 



18 


. ADEN^—Thc Yafai. 


In 1902 llic Fadhli Sultan establislied a now customs post at 
Zanzibar and levied dues on Yafai qattahs. The Yafai retaliated by 
cutting off tbe water-supply from tlie Yaza channel. The Tadlili 
then attacked A1 Husn and Ar Rawa. In 1903 tlie Resident endeavoured 
to effect a settlement, but the Yafai Sultan refused to attend the con- 
ference. In 19 04 the Fatllili attacked Ar Rawa and Eh an far, taking 
possession of the latter and for a time no settlement was reached; while 
relations with the Lower Yafai Sultan continued strained, partly owing 
to his dissatisfaction with the position accorded to certain sections of the 
Upper Yafai, over wliom lie is inclined to assert a claim to general 
suzerainty, and partly to his dissatisfaction with the rank and precedence 
assigned to himself. 


In 191G Sultan Abdulla bin Muhsin died. He was succeeded by his 
cousin, Sultan Muhsin bin Ali, who renewed friendly relations with the 
Aden Residency, to which he paid periodical visits. 


In 1925 Sultan Muhsin bin Ali died and was succeeded by liis son, 
Sultan Aidrus bin Mubsin bin Ali. This Sultan has established his per- 
sonal authority over the whole of the Lower Yafai clans. 

In June 192G a truce of four years was concluded between the Lower 
Yafai and FadMi Sultans. 


In June 1929 the Sultan of Lnhej settled this long-standing feud and 
. restored Khanfar to the Lower Yafai. 

In November 1925 Major M. C. Lake was sent on a special Mission 
to Lower and Upper Yafai. Sultan Aidrus accorded him a warm wel- 
come and gave biin every assistance in his journey. 

In 192G Sultan Aidrus bin Mulisin was granted a personal salute of 
9 guns. 

Tbe population of Lower Yafai is estimated at 70,000, and the gi oss 
revenue at Rs. 10,000 a year; 


(b) The Upper Yafai. 

The Upper- Yafai are divided into several independent sub-sections 
Lost of which have separate Protectorate Treaties with Government. 

In 1895 Sultan Qahtan bin Umar succeeded to the titular cliiefsliip 
n the death of Sultan Muhammad bin Ali. Yery few dealings were 
eld with the Upper Yafai till 1903, when in that year it was proposed 
, demarcate the north-eastern frontier. Treaties (Nos. ALIY to ALIA) 
•ere concluded with the Dlxubi, Mausatta and Muflaln sections wi h 
„ltan Qahtan as titular chief of the whole tribe, and with the Hadh- 
,mi and Shaibi sections. In August tlie Sbaibi frontier was demar- 
, , ^ w on t } ie survey party entering the Rubiatein district, a post 
hich badbeen established at Awabil was attacked by Sultan Salih bin 



19 


ADEN — The Yaiai 

Umar, Sultan Qahtan’ s brother. The attack was repelled; but, as the 
Turks declared that any advance into the Rada district would imperil 
tlie negotiations then proceeding between the two countries, all attempts 
to demarcate the north-eastern frontier were abandoned. 

In October 1903 an Agreement (No. L) was made by Shaikh Mutahir 
AH of the Skaibi tribe, by which he undertook to look after the boundary 
pillars for a monthly stipend of 7 dollars. 

In 1904 owing to the agreement entered into with the British 
Government, Sultan Qahtan bin Umar was deposed by tribesmen headed 
by his brother, Salih. In 1905 Government sanctioned the gift to 
Sultan Qahtan of $3,000 as assistance towards effecting his rehabilita- 
tion. 

The Shaibi tribesmen have their headmen of clans, who owe a sort of 
allegiance to a stipendiary by name Shaikh Ali Mana, the Saqladi. 
The Nuqaba of Mausatta, two of whom share the stipend granted to them 
by His Majesty’s Government under the terms of their Treaty, assert 
that they have considerable influence in Shaibi; and Shaikh Ali Muhsin 
Askar, the son of Muhsin Askar (one Mausatta stipendiary), frequently 
visited the country as mediator. In recognition of his importance, Ali 
Muhsin Askar was granted an allowance of $20 a month, so long as he 
remained faithful to Government. 

In 1906 Ali Muhsin Askar, owing to a fancied slight which he asserted 
that he had received in Aden, returned to the Shaibi country and knock- 
ed down a boundary pillar. His allowance was stopped till he came 
into Dhala before the Resident and asked for pardon. 

In 1913 Sultan Qahtan died, without having succeeded in getting 
himself reinstated. He was succeeded by his son, Sultan Umar, but 
his recognition was withheld by Government who gave him one year’s 
time within which to bring about his rehabilitation, and continued to him 
provisionally the stipend paid to his father. The period was extended 
from year to year till 1919, when he abdicated in favour of his uncle 
Salih. The latter had been accepted by the Muflahi section as their 
Sultan in 1911, and in 1920 he was recognised by His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment and was granted the stipend previously paid to Sultan Umar. 

In November 1919 the Imam of Sanaa’s troops captured Slniib', 
Rubiatein, Nawa and Dhabiani. They were compelled to evacuate Shuib 
in J uly 1928 but still occupy the other three Yafai sections. 

In 1923, with a view to cheeking the advance of the troops of tlie 
Imam of Sanaa, Khan Bahadur Sayyid Husein bin Hamid el Mehdar, 
the Minister of the Sultan of Shilir and Mukalla, paid a special yisit, 
to Upper Yafa, with the approval of the Resident, and obtained the 
signatures of the Yafai Shailchs to an agreement by which they declared 
themselves bound by their existing treaties with Great Britain and 



20 ADEN — The Yafai, the Audhali and the Haushabi. 

pledged themselves to tribal unity and combination against any 
aggressors. This agreement contributed to the successful co-operation 
of the Upper Yafai tribes in the expulsion of the Imam’s forces from 
Slmibi territory in July 1928. 

Sultan Salih bin Umar abdicated in 1927 in favour of his son, Sultan 
Muhammad bin Salih, who was accorded recognition by His Majesty’s 
Government. 

The numbers of the Upper Yafai tribesmen are estimated very ap- 
proximately at 80,000. 


(10) The Audiiat.i. 

The Audhali country is of considerable extent and lies between the 
Eadhli on the south, Aulaqi on the east and Yafai on the west. 

The Sultan made overtures for treaty relations in 1902, but he was 
not at the time considered of sufficient importance to be encouraged. 

In 1903, owing to their supposed complicity with the Alii Am Saidi 
of Dathina in an attack on a British survey party, the Audhali were ex- 
cluded from Aden; but the overtures were continued, and in September 
1914 a Protectorate Treaty (No. LI) was concluded with Sultan Qasim 
bin Ahmed. He was killed in September 1928 by 7 the brothers Muham- 
mad and Husein Jabil, of another branch of the family, and was suc- 
ceeded by the son of the latter, Salih, a minor, under the regency of his 
uncle Muhammad. 

In 1923 the Imam’s troops invaded and occupied the highland portion 
of Audhali territory known as Adh Dhahir. In 1925, in consequence of 
their encroaching still further and occupying the lowland portion, known 
as A1 Kor, and the commercial town of Lodar together with the adjoin- 
ing village of A1 Kubeida where the Sultan resided, air action was 
taken against them with tribal co-operation and they were compelled to 
withdraw from the lowland portion, but are still in possession of the 
highlands. 

Ahmed, the son of the murdered Sultan, and Qasim bin Abdulla, his 
cousin, have formed a rival faction to the brothers Jabil and have 
thrown in their lot with the- Amil of Beidha, under the Imam, taking 
up their residence at Aryab in the highlands. 

(11) The. Haushabi. 

On the 14th June 1839 an Engagement (No. LII) was entered into 
with Sultan Mana bin Salam of this tribe, of the same tenor as those 
with the Abdali, the Fadlili and the Yafai. In the previous January 
a Treaty (No. LIU) of friendship and peace had been signed by two 
other Shaikhs of the Haushabi tribe with the British representative. 



ADEN — The Hausliabi. 


21 


Sultan Mana bin Salam, though more than once invited by the Abdali 
and Fadlili Shaikhs to join them in their attacks upon Aden, steadily 
declined their overtures. He died in June 1S58, and was succeeded 
by his nephew, IJbeid bin Yahya, during whose rule friendly relations 
were uninterruptedly maintained with the Hausliabi. Ubeid bin Yuliya 
died in 1863, and was succeeded by his cousin, Ali bin Mana. The 
relations of Sultan Ali bin Mana with the neighbouring Chiefs and the 
British Government were for a long time the reverse of cordial. In 1.868 
he cut obi the supply of water from a rivulet which irrigates the Lahej 
territory, and destroyed the crops on lands belonging to the Sultan of 
Lahej. An action ensued in which the Hausliabi Sultan was defeated, 
In payment of the loss suffered by the Sultan of Lahej, Sultan Ali bin 
Mana ceded to him the town of Zaida and its lands which had formerly 
belonged to Lahej, and the dispute was temporarily settled by the friend- 
ly intervention of the Resident. In October 1S69 the Hausliabi Sultan’s 
stipend was stopped in consequence of the outrages committed by him 
on the Aden road; the proximate cause of this misconduct was the tenure 
of Zaida by the Sultan of Lahej, who was therefore induced to make 
over to his rival a small portion of that district. The Hausliabi Sultan 
was not satisfied, and in 1873 commenced intrigues with the Turkish 
authorities at Taiz in the hope of thereby regaining possession of Zaida. 

' Supported by Turkish troops he held for some little time a part of Zaida, 
but on their withdrawal from the neighbourhood of Lahej he was com- 
pelled to retire. 

The Sultan of Lahej was induced by the Resident to renew his offer 
of a portion of Zaida to the Hausliabi Sultan; but, as the latter insisted 
on receiving the fort of Shakaa, which commands the rivulet and conse- 
quently the supply of water to Lahej, the negotiations failed for the 
time. They were, however, renewed with success in 1881, when, as 
recorded in the account of the Abdali, an Agreement (see Ho. IX) was 
signed by both Sultans. In 1886 this agreement was modified by the 
action of the Hausliabi Sultan in selling his lands at Zaida to the Abdali. 

Sultan Ali bin Mana died in May 1SS6, and was succeeded by his son, 
Muhsin bin Ali. 

On the 15th November 1888, the Sultan signed an Agreement 
(Appendix Ho. I) in conjunction with the Alawi and Qnteihi Shaikhs 
and the Amu of llhala, fixing the rates to he levied on merchandise. 

In 1894, owing to the heavy taxes laid on qafilahs by Sultan Muhsin 
bin Ali, the Abdali entered bis country and he was obliged to flee. 
He was repudiated by bis .Shaikhs and at their request the Ahdali Sultan 
was elected in his place. Muhsin bin Ali, having failed in his intrigues 
with the Turks, submitted to the Ahdali Sultan and accepted an asylum 
at Ar Raha with a stipend. On the 6th August 1S95 lie signed an Agree- 
ment (Ho. LIV) by which his territory was restored to him under certain 



22 


ADEN — The Haushabi. 


guarantees. On the same date a Protectorate Treaty (No. LV) was con- 
cluded with. him. 

In 3900 Muhammad hin Nasir Muqbil, a Shaikh of the Humar tribe, 
and a Turkish Mudir, built a fort in Haushabi limits which the Turks 
garrisoned. The Turkish authorities were requested to evacuate it but 
refused, and the Haushabi Sultan was given permission to drive them 
out. The attempt, however, failed, and in July 1901 a force of 500 
men was despatched from Aden. The Turks and Muhammad bin Nasir 
Muqbil’s adherents were driven from their position at Ad Dareija on 
the 2Gth July and the expedition returned to Aden. 

In 1902 several fights took place ■with the Abdali and the trade routes 
were stopped for a time. 

In 1903 the boundary commission demarcated the Haushabi frontier. 

On the 28th September 1904 Sultan Muhsin bin Ali died. He was 
succeeded by Sultan Ali Mana. 

Subsequent to the election of Sultan Ali Mana, the question of his 
relations with the Abdali Sultan had been under the consideration of 
Government. The decision was that, with the consent of both the 
Sultans, the relations agreed upon by their predecessors in 1895 should 
continue. 

From 1905 the Abdali-Haushabi relations were revived in accordance 
with the arrangements made between their predecessors in 1895, and 
became satisfactory. 

Throughout 190G the Haushabi Sultan was harassed by his Subeilii 
neighbours and an Abdali-Haushabi combination was formed against 
these marauders, resulting in the Haushabi imprisoning the leaders of 
the Jabbara section at Museimir. The Abdali assistance was, however, 
purely nominal. 

Certain Abdali working in the vicinity of the British post at Nobat 
Dukeim were attacked by Subeilii of the Jabbara section. The motive 
was to retaliate on the Abdali Sultan who had refused them presents at 
Lahej. The Subeilii retired after exchanging a few shots. 

In 1914 the Haushabi Sultan Ali Mana signed an Agreement 
(No. LVI) for the safety of the trade routes in his territory. Under the 
terms of their agreement the Haushabi Sultan was granted a monthly 
payment of 64 dollars in addition to his stipend and agreed to keep a 
force of 50 men and to maintain posts in certain named places on the 

trade route. 

In July 1915 the Haushabi Sultan joined in the Turkish attack on 
Lahej, but came to Aden at the beginning of 1919 to ask for pardon. 
He explained that he did not go over to the Turks voluntarily, but was 
compelled by them to join their forces. This explanation was accepted, 



23 


ADEN — Tho and the Alawi. 

lie was granted an amnesty and liis stipend, which liad been stopped 
during the war, was restored to liim. 

In January 1922 the troops of the Imam of Sanaa encroached on 
Haushabi territory as far as Ad Dareija and only withdrew under pres- 
sure of air action. 

In August 1922 Sultan AH Maim died and was succeeded by his son, 
Mulisin bin Ali Man a. 

The Haushabi number about 15,000. The Sultan’s gross annual 
revenue is estimated at Rs. 30,000. 

(12) The Alawi. 

The district occupied by the Alawi tribe is situated between Haushabi 
and Quteibi territory. Ho separate engagement was entered into 
with this tribe after the capture of Aden, but the. Shaikh’s stipend was 
secured through the intervention of Sultan Maua bin Salam of the 
Haushabi tribe. 

In 1ST3 a body of Turkish troops marched through the Alawi country 
and compelled their Shaikh, Seif hin Shaif, who had refused to tender 
allegiance to the Turkish authorities at Taiz, to submit, and to surren- 
der his son as a hostage. The latter was eventually released in consequ- 
ence of the remonstrances of Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Constantinople. 

Shaikh Seif bin Shaif died in March 1875, and was succeeded by his 
nephew, Said bin Salih. The latter died on the 1st April 1S92 and his 
eldest son, Shaikh Seif bin Said, was elected to the chiefsliip and was 
recognised by Government. The annual stipend of 60 dollars paid to 
the late Shaikh was continued to his successor. 

In 1888 Shaikh Said bin Salih signed an Agreement (see Appendix 
No. I) in conjunction with the Haushabi, Quteibi* and the Amiri* fixing 
the rates to he levied on merchandise. 

On the 16th July 1895 a Protectorate Treaty (No. LVII) was con- 
cluded with the Alawi Shaikh. 

In April 1898 Shaikh Seif hin Said was deposed by bis tribe. His 
cousin, Husein bin Salih, was elected Shaikh, but died the same year 
and was succeeded by Shaikh Ali Nasir Shaif, to whom the usual stipend 
was continued. 

1904-1906. The Alawi Shaikh has ever remained loyal to the British 
Government. He was given assistance to build a fort at Hamra, where 
the Quteibi had held sway prior to the advent of the British. 

The Alawi-Quteibi relations have never been good. The chief hone 
of contention is the existence of co-rights in the village of Thumeir close 

, * TliQ Quteibi and Amiri are separate small tribes owing allegiance to the 
Amir or jDlitilti, 



24 


ADEN — y/tc- AJxnvi. 


to Suleik. The Alawi Shaikh has a custom house and he is thus able to 
forego the levy of transit dues on the people of Tliumeir in consideration 
of which they pay him revenue, whereas the power of the Quteibi suffers 
from their having no right to levy dues. 

In September 1907, shortly before the withdrawal of the Political 
Agent, Dhala, the Alawi fort at A1 Hamra and the Quteibi fort at Tain 
were both razed to the ground, as a means of avoiding, as far as possible, 
any renewal of hostilities between the tribes ; but hardly had this been 
done when the Alawi Shaikh endeavoured to re-erect a fort in the vicinity 
of the demolished fort at AH Hamra. This and other acts of hostility 
naturally brought about retaliation by the Quteibi. Having assembled 
the Radfan tribes and received help from the Amir of Dhala, whose 
suzerainty he acknowledges when convenient, the Quteibi Shaikh fell 
upon and defeated the Alawi Shaikh, and dispossessed him of his terri- 
tory. The Alawi Shaikh fled to Lalrej. The Quteibi Shaikh, who had 
lost two of his sons in the fighting, at first refused to come to terms .with 
the Alawi ; but a settlement was later effected by the Abdali Sultan, by 
which the whole of the Alawi Shaikh’s country was restored to him. 

In 191.4 the Alawi Shaikh Ali Nasir signed an Agreement 
(No. LYIII) practically identical with that signed about the same time 
by the Haushabi Sultan (No. LYI), for the safety of trade routes in 
his territory. The Agreement has not been ratified. Under the terms 
of this 'agreement the Alawi Shaikh was granted a monthly payment of 
25 dollars in addition to his stipend and agreed to keep a force of 20 men 
and to maintain a post at Al Jimil. Since the agreement was signed 
the post of A1 Jimil has been demolished and A1 Jimil itself has passed 
into the hands of the Quteibi. 

In July 1920 Shaikh Ali Nasir died and was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Shaikh Abdun Nabi, to whom the payment of the stipend has been 
continued. 

In April 1923 Shaikh Abdun Nabi was arrested in his own country 
and taken to Nadira by a party of Imamic soldiers from Dhala. In spite 
of the protests sent to the Imam by the Resident at Aden, the Shaikh 
was detained till November 1924, when he was allowed to return to his 
country, which the Imam later occupied. In February 1928 Shaikh 
Abdun Nabi, with Shaikh Muqbil Abdulla, uncle of the Quteibi Shaikh, 
was kidnapped at the instigation of the Imamic authorities. They were 
subsequently released as a result of air action taken by His Majesty’s 
Government against the Zeidi forces of occupation, and the Imam’s 
troops in Alawi territory were expelled m July 1928. 

•The Alawi number 1,000. Their gross annual revenue is estimated 

at Rs. 3,000. 


ADEN — Aviiratc..o ) Dhala. 


25 


(13) Amiuate oe Dhala. 

The group of tribes ruled over by the Amir of Dhala occupies the 
district north-west of the Alawi country on the high road to Sanaa. The 
ancestors of the present Amir are said to have been Muwallads, or half 
caste slaves of the Imams of Sanaa, and to have established themselves 
as independent at Dhala about the beginning of the last century. 

On the death in 1872 of the then Amir, Shafal bin Abdul Uadi, his 
nephew, Ali bin Muqbil, was recognised by the British Government os 
his successor. In the following year he was required by the Turkish 
authorities to make his submission to the Porte, a Turkish Superin- 
tendent was appointed to Dhala, a detachment of Turkish troops was 
quartered there, and the Amir was required to give a hostage for his 
good behaviour, who was to reside at Taiz. He was afterwards sum- 
moned by the Turks to Qataba and imprisoned there, but effected his 
escape. Muhammad bin Musaid, who had been appointed Amir by the 
Turks in the place of his nephew Ali bin Muqbil, was killed, and his 
son, Abdulla bin Muhammad, was recognised by them as his successor. 
He continued to resist Ali bin Muqbil till 1878, when, Turkish support 
having been withdrawn from his rival, Ali bin Muqbil resumed his 
position as Amir of the tribes, with the loss, however, of several of his 
villages which had, some voluntarily and some under pressure, yielded 
allegiance to the Porte. 

In 1SS0 the Amir signed an Agreement (No. LIN) by which he 
became a British stipendiary, receiving 50 dollars a year. This allow- 
ance was afterwards doubled. 

In September 1886 Ali bin Muqbil died, and was succeeded by his 
cousin, Shaif bin Seif, to whom the stipend was continued. 

In. 18S1 the Quteibi tribe became restless, and began to exact dues on 
the Hardaba route. In 1884 it was found necessary to support the Amir 
with a few sabres of the Aden troop and some sappers. They destroyod 
some of the Ahl-ath-Thumeiri forts, and the Quteibi then tendered their 
submission. But they soon resumed their independent position, and it 
was not until 1888, when the Resident met the Hausbnbi, the Dhala 
Amir and others to settle a schedule of rates (see Appendix No. I) to he 
levied on qaftlalis, that the Quteibi and Ahl-ath-Thumeiri formally 
reoognised the Amir as their superior. 

The years 1889 to 1900 were marked by the continued. restlessness of 
the Quteibi, who failed to keep the settlements made in 1888, and by 
the encroachments of the Turks. 

In 1901 and the beginning of 1902, the Turks occupied Jaleila 
Mafari and Jebel Jeliaf. 



26 


ADEN — 'Aviirntr, of Dhala. 

\ 


1 Q 09 A ^^-Turlcisli boundaxy commission met at Dhala in February 
1?°?* • T " 1 ' ks 1 C ! alll f d tbe wll0le of the Shairi, JeBel Jehaf and 

dlSll ' 1C ’ S ; but ’ after a 3 r ear spent in correspondence between the 
British Government and the Porte, and the increase of the force accom- 
panying the British Commissioner, the Turkish garrisons were with- 
drawn. In March 1903 an Irade was issued at Constantinople decreeing 
the commencement of the delimitation. By October the frontier had 
been demarcated, including on the British side the Shaibi tribes, the 
Amiri villages in the Wadi As Safiya and the Humeidi and Ahmedi 
tribes. 


In November 1903 successful operations were undertaken against the 
Quteibi who had attacked tlie post at As Suleik. 

In November 1904 a further Treaty (No. LX) was concluded with 
the Amir. Under clause IX of this Treaty the Amir agreed to keep a 
force of 50 men to help him to carry out his obligations under the Treaty 
for which he was granted a monthly payment of 100 dollars in addition 
to his stipend. 

In 1900 the Shairi rebelled against the Amir. They were joined 
by the tribesmen of Jebel Jehaf, and some fighting ensued. The 
Ahmedi tribe on the river Tiban also became disaffected and refused 
to admit the Amir’s suzerainty. 

In January 1907 the main body of British troops left Dhala for 
Aden. The remaining troops and the Political Agent, Dhala, were 
withdrawn in the following September. 

On the 22nd December 1911 Amir Shaif died and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Nnsr bin Shaif, to whom was continued the stipend paid to 
his father. 


In 1915 the Quteibi Shaikh Muhammad Salih al Akkra m signed an 
Agreement (No. LXI) similar to those signed about the same time by 
the Haushabi Sultan (No. LYI) and the Alawi Shaikh (No. LVIII) for 
the safety of the trade routes passing through his territory. The rati- 
fication of this agreement was postponed. Under the terms of this 
agreement the Shaikh was allowed a monthly payment of 50 dollars. 


On the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, Amir Nasr submitted to 
the Turks when they entered the Aden Protectorate. After the war he 
wrote asking for pardon. The Abdali Sultan and the Quteibi Shaikh 
also pleaded for him. He came to Aden in November 1919 and gave 
an explanation which was accepted as satisfactory, and he was pardoned ; 
but while he was still in Aden, the Imam of Sanaa occupied Dhala. 


In January 1920 Amir Nasr, with the help of the Radfan tribes and 
with assistance in money, arms and ammunition from the Aden 
Residency, made an attack on Dhala and reoccupied it, but lost it on the 


ADEN — Amiratc of Dhala and the JVahidi. g7 

following day owing to a Zeidi conn ter-attack, the Amir taking lefuge in 
Laliej . °In i.920 His Majesty’s Government increased tlie Amir’s stipend 
to Its. 700 and in 1926 to Its. 800, in compensation for liis financial 
losses due to liis enforced exile. The extra hundred rupees, granted in 
1920, ceased in February 1928, and the increase of Us. 300 in his stipend, 
granted to him in 1920, ceased in December 1929. 

In 1920 the Imamic troops invaded the Quteibi country. The 
Quteibi Shaikh, with the help of other Itadfan tribes and assistance 
in arms and ammunition from the Aden Residency, drove them out. 
The Zeidi made repeated attempts to take the Quteibi country, but 
invariably met with strong resistance from the Radfan tribes. After 
about two years of successful resistance, however, the Quteibi Shaikh 
yielded to Zeidi pressure and went over to them in 1922 and his stipend 
was stopped. 

In November 1927 the Quteibi Shaikh Muhammad Salih al Akhram 
died and was succeeded by his grandson Shaikh Hasan Ali, who repu- 
diated his predecessor’s submission to the Imam : and the stipend was 
restored to him by His Majesty’s Government. 

In February 1928 a party of Zeidi, despatched under the orders of 
the Officer Commanding, Qataba, kidnapped the Alawi Shaikh and 
Muqbil Abdulla, uncle of the Quteibi Shaikh. They were subse- 
quently released as a result of air action taken by His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment against the Imam. 

The air action had so shaken the morale of the Zeidi that a combina- 
tion of the Radfan tribes, with the co-operation of the Royal Air Force 
and a contingent of Abdali troops, was able in July 192S to drive them 
out of the Radfan areas, as also from Dhala and Shaib. The Amir of 
Dhala was immediately reinstated in his capital and the Zeidi have 
made no attempt to recapture these places (see Yemen narrative). 

The tribesmen of the Amir number about 50,000, and the gross 
revenue is estimated at Rs. 35,000 a year. 

(14) The "Waiiim. 

The Waliidi are a Hadhramaut tribe. Their territory is bounded on 
the north and north-east by the lands of the Hainan and Buraishi tribes, 
on the north-west and west by the Upper Aulaqi, on the south-west by 
the Dhuyeibi, and on the south by the Arabian Sea. It has a sea-coast 
estimated at 50 miles in length, and includes the ports of Ras al Kalb, 
Bir Ali, Balahaf and Ras al Majdaha. The country may be divided 
into the three districts of TIabbau, Azzan and Bir Ali. 

This tribe had no dealings with the Aden Residency until, [in 
1872, one of the Waliidi Sultans visited Aden: and uninterrupted com- 



28 AiXEJl— #7ic Wahidi. 

inunication lias since been maintained between it and tbe Aden 
Residencj\. 

In 1877 Sultan Ahmed biii Husein was dethroned, and was succeeded 
by his son, Salih bin Ahmed. 

In January I STS several of the Wahidi Sultans addressed a joint 
letter to the Resident, complaining that negotiations were going on be- 
tween the Qaiti Shaikh of Siiihr and Tkalab bin Uadi bin Thalah for the 
sale of the port of Bir Ali to the Qaiti. The Wahidi desired the Resident 
to close the port of Bir Ali and hoist the British flag at Balahaf until a 
settlement was effected. The Resident advised Tlialak bin Uadi not td 
be so imprudent as to sell Bir Ali to the Qaiti. 

Sultan Salih bin Ahmed died in 1881, and waB succeeded by bis 
cousin, Abdulla bin Umar, as Sultan of Habban and Azzan. The latter 
visited Aden in 1881, and was received by the Resident. 

In the begintiing of 1SS2 Izzat Pasha was appointed Turkish 
Governor-General of Yemen, and, on his way from Baghdad to Hodeida 
to take up his appointment, visited Balahaf and Bir Ali. Ho agreement 
of any kind was concluded between him and the Sultan of Balahaf; but 
Nasir bin Abdulla, one of the Sultans of Balahaf, apprehensive that 
Balahaf might be annexed by the Qaiti Shaikh of Siiihr and Mukalla, 
obtained a Turkish flag, which was to be hoisted every Friday and on the 
approach of a foreign vessel. The Wahidi Sultan of Habban and Azzan, 
while denying all complicity in the matter, stated his inability to prevent 
the Sultan's of Balahaf from flying the Turkish flag, and proclaimed his 
readiness to go against them with British aid. 

Subsequently the Wahidi Sultan and the Sultans of Bir Ali, Balahaf 
and Majdaha all wrote almost identical letters to the Resident, praying 
for British protection. 

From, the correspondence which took place in connection with this 
incident, it appeared that the then Wahidi Sultan of Habban and Azzan 
had little, if any, control over Bir Ali, Balahaf and Majdaha. 

Abdulla bin Umar of Habban and Azzan was dethroned in 1885, 
when Hadi bin Salih of Balahaf was made the principal Sultan and 
the Wahidi were practically united under one ruler; though the title 
of Sultan continued to be borne by several subordinate Chiefs belonging 

to the ruling family. 

■ It was eventually decided to enter into closer relations with the 
Wahidi, and with this view Protectorate Treaties (Nos. LA II and 
LX III) similar to that executed by the Sultan of Soqotia, weie conclud- 
ed in 18S8 with the Sultans of Bir Ali and Balahaf. Annual stipends 
nf l2 n dollars each were at the same time granted to Sultan Mnhsin bin 
Salih of Bir Ali and Sultan Hadi bin Salih of Balahaf. 



ADEN — The Waliidi 


29 


in 1892 Sultan Hadi bin Salib of Balaliaf resigned the Sultanate 
in favour of liis younger brother, Mulisin bin Salih. The Government 
sanctioned this arrangement, and continued the stipend to Mullein bib 
Salih. 

In 1893 Sultan Muhsin bin Salih of Bir Ali died, and was succeeded 
by Sultan Salih bin Ahmed, the usual annual stipend being continued 
to him. During this year Sultan Muhsin bin Salih of Balaliaf displayed 
a refractory spirit and intrigued with foreign powers. He was driven 
from Habban by his tribesmen, but lie still continued his intrigues, for 
participation in which his brother, Ahmed bin Salih, was imprisoned at 
Aden. In the meantime another of the Sultans of Balaliaf, Salih bin 
Abdulla, was elected Waliidi Sultan; but he was overawed by the c.r- 
Sultan’s threats, and intimidated by the c.r-Sultan’s brother, Husein 
bin Salih, from hoisting the British flag. A small force was therefore 
sent to Balaliaf in November 1:894 in H. M. S. Bramble and the It. I. 
M. S. Daihonsie, which brought back Sultan Salih bin Abdulla on a 
visit to the Resident and Husein bin Salih as a prisoner. 

In March 1895 a Protectorate Treaty (No. LX1V) was concluded with 
Sultan Salih bin Abdulla, by which his stipend was increased to 300 
dollars. Husein bin Salih and Ahmed bin Salih were released. 

On the 1st June 1S9G an amended Protectorate Treaty (No. LXY) was 
concluded with the Sultan of Bir Ali and his stipend increased to 800 
dollars. 

During 1901 the Wahid i complained of Qaiti intrigues and asked 
for British protection. The IValiidi Shaikhs also requested that Muhsin 
bin Salih, the c.r-Sultan , might be recognised as titular chief; but their 
request was refused. 

In 1902 Muhsin bin Salih plundered a Qaiti sambuk containing 
specie. The Resident, proceeded to Balaliaf with a small force and, as 
Muhsin bin Salih failed to give up the plunder, the fort at Balaliaf was 
demolished, and the Resident returned to Aden, bringing with him 
Sultan Ahmed bin Salih, Muhsin’s brother, as a political prisoner. The 
port was closed against all shipping. In October the specie was restored, 
but it was not until December 1904 that Sultan Muhsin bin Salih came 
into Aden and tendered his submission, when he was forgiven his past 
misdeeds. His brother was released, and he was recognised as Sultan 
of the Waliidi of Balaliaf in the place of Sultan Salih bin Abdulla, 
who had proved himself a weak and inefficient ruler and had gained the 
disapprobation of his tribe and the censure of Government by an attempt 
to part with his share of the. port of Balahaf to the Sultan of Sliihr and 
Mukalla. On the occasion of Sultan Muhsin’s recognition the oppor- 
tunity was taken to reaffirm with him the Protectorate Treaty of 
1895 (see No. LXIY). . 



30 


ADEN — The Wahidi and the Kathiri. 


The CA’-Sultan Salih bin Abdulla quarrelled with Sultan Mulisin bin 
Salih over his share in the port dues of Bakihaf, and in 190G asked the 
Resident to interfere on his behalf, which the latter declined to do. 

Sultan Nasir bin Salih of llabban in the same year made overtures 
for a separate treaty, but these were not accepted. 

In 1910 an Agreement (Appendix Ho. Ill) was concluded between 
Sultan Mubsin bin Salih and Sultan Glial ib bin TJmar, the Qaiti, by 
which the former agreed to allow the latter to use his terrritory for the 
passage of troops and warlike materials, and for commercial purposes. 
It has, however, never been referred to by either party and is now 
considered a dead letter. 

In J une 1918 the two eldest sons off Sultan Mubsin bin Salih, Ali and 
Abdulla, received employment as Officers (Mulazim) in the 1st Yemen 
Infantry. In October 1918 Major M. C. Lake, Commandant of the 1st 
Yemen Infantry, accompanied by a Medical Officer and these two, Ali 
and Abdulla, visited Azzan for the purpose of obtaining a recruiting 
connection with the Aulaqi and Abdul Wahid tribes. He was accorded 
a warm w'e'lcome and hospitably received. 

Sultan Mulisin died in January 1919 and was succeeded by his 
younger son, Ali bin Mulisin bin Salih (who, with Lis brother Abdulla, 
resigned his appointment in the 1st Yemen Infantry) to whom the Gov- 
ernment of India continued the monthly stipend of 30 dollars paid to his 
father. 

In 1930 Sultan All bin Mulisin became mentally deranged and 
though still nominally the Chief of the tribe, his brother, Abdulla, acts 
for him. 

(15) The Kathiiii. 

The country inhabited by this tribe was formerly extensive, reaching 
from the Aulaqi districts on the west to the Maliri tribe on the east, and 
including the seaports of Mukalla and Sliihr. Civil wars led to the 
interference of the Yafai, and much of the Kathiri territory came under 
the sway of the Kasadi and Qaiti, the Kathiri now possessing no seaport 

at all. 

Some account of the tribe will be found under “ (16) Sultanate of 
Mukalla ” . 

At the end of 1883 Sultan Abdulla bin Salih, one of -the Kathiri 
Shaikhs visited the Resident at Aden. His principal object was to ascer- 
tain what attitude the British Government would maintain m the event 
of the Kathiri attacking the Qaiti with a view to repossessing themselves 
of tlie ports of Sliihr and Mukalla. Abdulla bin Salih also visited 
Vanzibar with intent to intrigue with the cr-Haqib of Mukalla, from 
whom however, he failed to obtain any material assistance. 


31 


ADEN — The Kathiri and Sultanate of Mnlcdlla. 

Tlie Government of India in March 1SS4 directed that the Kathiri he 
warned that an attach upon Shihr and Mukalla would he viewed with 
grave displeasure, and that, if necessary, a gun-hoat would he sent to 
support the Qaiti ruler. The Jnmadar of Shihr and Mukalla was subse- 
quently assured in the most public manner that Government would 
support him in the event of any attack on his ports. 

In 1895 the Kathiri captured the fort at Dliufar driving out the 
Governor, who retired to Marbat. In 1S97 the port was recaptured. 

In 1918 a 'long standing Qaiti-Kathiri quarrel was settled, with 
the assistance of the Aden Residency, by the conclusion of an Agreement 
(No. LXYI) between the parties, by which the Kathiri agreed to accept 
as binding upon them the treaty of 1888 between the Qaiti and the 
British Government and also accepted the arbitration of the British 
Government in the settlement of future disputes. 

Sultan Mansur bin Ghalib died at Mecca in May 1929 and was 
succeeded by his son Ali bin Mansur. 

(1G) Sultanate of Mukalla. 

Shihr and Mukalla are the two principal ports of the Hadhramaut 
region. The whole region was, till some 400 years ago, in the pos- 
session of the Kathiri; but, towards the close of the fifteenth century, 
disputes having arisen among the members of the ruling family, one of 
the claimants, Amr bin Badr, called in the Yafai, who, in return for 
their assistance in putting him in power, retained for themselves the 
ports of Shihr and Mukalla. Mukalla was till lately retained by one of 
their sub-tribes, the Kasadi; both places are now, however, in the 
possession of the head of another sub-tribe, the Qaiti (Qa’iti). 

Shihr and Mukalla were at one time centres of an active traffic in 
slaves from Zanzibar and the Daukali coast. In May 1SG3 Brigadiei 
Coghlan, the Political Resident at Aden, concluded an Engagement. 
(No. LXYII) with Salih bin Muhammad of the Kasadi sub-division of 
the Yafai tribe, Naqib of Mukalla, in which he agreed to abolish arid 
prohibit the export and import of slaves. A precisely similar engage- 
ment was concluded on the same date with Ali bin Nnji, of the Qaiti 
sub-division of the same tribe, Naqib of Shihr. 

In 1866 Sultan Ghalib bin Muhsin, Shaikh of the Kathiri, expelled 
Ali bin Naji from Shihr and took possession of the fort. At this time 
the inland town of Shibam was held by the Qaiti tribe: and their 
Shaikh, Abdulla, being apprehensive that, the capture of Mukalla would 
follow that of Shihr, and that his communication with the seaboard 
would he cut off, applied to his brothers, in the service of the Hyderabad 
State, for assistance against Sultan Ghalib bin Muhsin. A request was 



32 


ADEN —The Sultanate of Mukalla. 


thereupon preferred by the Minister of the Nizam for the armed inter- 
teronee of the British Government on hehalf of the rightful Jemadar of 
hlnhT ' Government, however, declined to interfere or to allow an armed 
expedition to be fitted out by Arabs from the Indian coast. 


In April 1807 Awadh (Awaz) bin Umar, better known by his 
Hyderabad title of Sultan Nawaz Jang, a brother of. the Qaiti Jemadar 
Abdulla, after establishing a blockade on the sea-coast, landed near 
Shi hr, attacked and put to flight Sultan Ghalib bin Muhsin, and estab- 
lished the authority of his brother as Jemadar of Shihr. An attempt was 
made by the Katbiri Shaikh in December of the same year to retake the 
place, but he was repulsed by the Qaiti, who have since remained in 
unmolested possession of the port and district. Application was made 
by the Kathiri Shaikh to the British Government for permission to recover 
Shihr by force, hut it was considered undesirable to interfere. At the 
same time the Nizam’s Minister declared his readiness to prohibit any 
interference on the part of Hyderabad subjects in the affairs of 
JTudlirnraaut. 


Salih bin Muhammad died in J873 shortly after the conclusion of 
a Treaty (No. TjXYTIT) with him, by which he engaged for himself, 
his heirs and successors, to prohibit the import or export of slaves to or 
from Mukalla and its dependencies. Jle was succeeded as Naqib bv liis 
son, Umar bin Salih, who accepted an offer by the Qaiti Jemadar of 
Shihr to aid him in reducing the refractory Shaikh of Duan. Taking 
advantage of his admission with GOO followers into the fort of Mukalla, 
the Qaiti Jemadar demanded payment of a debt alleged to have been due 
to him by the late Naqib. Finding himself powerless to resist this 
demand, the Nacjib consented to a treaty* under which he agreed to cede 
one-lmlf of Mukalla, of Bandar Burum, and of the district of Al- 
Harshiyyat in return for a payment of 2-f lakhs of dollars, from which, 
however, the debt due to the Qaiti Jemadar was to be deducted. But 
hostilities continued : the Naqib entered into an alliance with the 
Kathiri, and the Qaiti, with the aid of their relatives at Hyderabad, 
purchased a vessel and despatched her to Aden, lliere she was 
detained under the provisions of the Foreign Enlistment Act of 18 <0, 
and not released until the Qaiti Jemadar had bound himself under a 
heavy penalty to send her at once to Bombay without touching at, or 
undertaking any operations against, any of the ports of Hadhramaut 
He further attempted to establish a blockade of Mukalla and hoarded 
native craft suspected of being bound for that port. For the plunder 
of three such vessels he was compelled to pay an indemnity of Bs. 6,142 
and warned of the consequences of such interference with commerce in 

the future. 


See Appendix No. IT. 



33 


ADEN — The Sultanate of Muhalla. 


In 1873 an Engagement (Ho. LXTX) was concluded with the Jemadar 
of Shihr, hy which he hound himself, his heirs and successors, to pro- 
hibit the import or export of slaves to or from Shihr and its dependencies. 

The British Government steadily avoided interference or arbitration 
in the disputes between the Naqih of Muhalla and the Jemadar of Shihr, 
and took no action regarding them beyond asking for assurances from 
the ministers of the Hyderabad State that persons in the service oi the 
Nizam, who might be convicted of taking part in the quarrel by supplying 
money and munitions of war to their relatives on either side, and so 
.prolonging the strife, would lie dismissed. But at length, in 18<b, there 
being no prospect of the cessation of hostilities without some authoritative 
interference, the Political Resident at Aden, acting under the authority 
of Government, visited the two chiefs, and through his mediation a 
truce for two years was concluded, on the expiry of which period a further 
extension of one year was arranged. Xo permanent settlement was 
however effected, and eventually hostilities were resumed in 1880 and 
resulted in the capture of Burum hy the Jemadar of Shihr. Being driven 
to extremities the Naqih of Muhalla signed the agreements drawn up 
hy the Political Resident, and Burum was evacuated hy the Jemadni 
of Shihr, 

No sooner was the Naqih thus relieved from immediate pressure than 
he repudiated the terms of the settlement. The Government of India 
thereupon directed that the Jemadar should he replaced in possession of 
Burum, which was surrendered hy the Naqih without further bloodshed. 
Finally, in November 1881, the latter gave himself up to the Commander 
of H. M. S. Dragon and was conveyed with his dependants to Aden, 
while the Jemadar of Shihr was put. in possession of Muhalla and its 
dependencies. From Aden the c.r-Naqib went to Zanzibar with a num- 
ber of Shaikhs and followers, and in 1888 he accepted the maintenance 
provided for him. 

In 1882 an Engagement; (No. LXX) was concluded with the Jemadar 
of Shihr and Mukalla hy which he became a British stipendiary, an 
allowance of 300 dollars a year being assigned to him, his heirs and 
successors. At the same time (lie Jemadar paid over (article 2) n sum 
of 100,000 dollars to the Resident, at Aden for the maintenance of the 
e,r-Naqib of Mukalla. 

On the 1st May 1888 a Protectorate Treaty (No. LXXI) was con- 
cluded with the Jemadar Abdulla bin Umar, and his brother A wad h bin 
Timor. 


Jemadar Abdulla bin Umar died on the 25th November 1S8S, and 
Government sanctioned the continuance of the salute and stipend to his 
brother Awadh bin Umar (Sultan Nawaz Jang). 

In 189G a quarrel took place between Jemadar Awadh bin Umar and 
his nephews, Husein and Munassar, over their right of succession and 

E 2 



34 


ADEN — The Sultanate of hluhalla: 


the division of f lioir properly. In Sept pin her .1901 the Resident tried 
to bring about a settlement., but failed. A further conference at Aden 
in 1« ebruarv 1902 was no more successful. Jemadar Avadh bin TTinar 
went <o India to lay his petition before the Viceroy, while his nephews 
returned to Sliilir after signing a pledge not to interfere with the 
administration of their country. The agreement was broken, and in 
June the Resident, accompanied by Jemadar Awadh bin Umar, went to 
Shili r with an armed force. Kusein submitted and was brought to 
Aden, Munassar following him shortly afterwards. 

The settlement of the dispute between Awadh bin Umar and his 
nephews was then submitted to arbitration, which resulted in the award of 
a large sum of money to Ilusein and Munassar and their families. They, 
however, refused to accept the award and in July 1904 left for India 
and so far (December 1930) the dispute about the nephews’ Trust money 
has not been settled. 

In 1902 a permanent salute of 9 guns was sanctioned for the Jemadar 
of Sliihr and Muknlln, and his title was changed from Jemadar to 
Sultan. 

At the end of 1904 the Sultan purchased a share in the port of 
Balahaf from the AVahidi Sultan Salih bin Abdulla, but Government 
refused to sanction tbe agreement. 

In 190G tbe Sultan’s nephew Munassar, writing to report the death 
of his brother Kusein, unsuccessfully endeavoured to re-open the question 
of his differences with the Sultan. 

The Qaiti-AVnhidi Agreement of 1910 (Appendix No. Ill), by which 
the AVahidi Sultan allowed passage through his territory to the Sultan of 
Sliihr and Muknlla, has already been mentioned under The AVahidi. 

In December 1.910 Sultan Awadh bin Umar died, leaving a will nomi- 
nating his oldest son Glial ib as bis successor and directing that Ghalib’s 
successor was to be bis brother Umar bin Awadh, to whom Ghalib bin 
Awadh’s son Salih ivas to succeed, and so on, the succession alternating 
between the families of his two sons Ghalib bin Awadli and Umar bin 
Awadh. In accordance with the terms of this will Ghalib succeeded as 
Sultan of Sliihr and Mukalla, and the stipend paid to his father was 
continued to him. 

In 1910 the Sultan sent to Aden his minister Khan Bahadur Snyyid 
Kusein bin Hamid el Melidnr to discuss the question of his suzerainty 
over the Hndhrnmaut. Snyyid Kusein produced a draft agreement in 
regard to the future status and administration of Balahaf and the other 
AVahidi territories, which the Sultan proposed to sign with the Sultan 
of Balahaf and his brothers, subject to tbe approval of Government. 
Sayyid Kusein asserted that the Sultan had concluded agreements with 



ADEN — The Sultanate o } Mulcalla and Soqotra and Qishn. 35 

certain tribes of the Hadliramaut, of which he wag anxious to obtain 
Government recognition : and asked that, in the event of this being 
accorded, the tribes should not be allowed direct intercourse with the 
Aden Residency. The Government of India explained that, though 
they had no desire to raise any objection to the agreement which the 
Sultan had arrived iat with Sultan Mulisin and his brothers, they pre- 
ferred to defer their decision with regard to this, as well as the other 
agreements with the inland tribes, until normal conditions were 
established. 

The composition, in 191S, of the long standing quarrel between the 
Qaiti and the Kathiri (No. LXYI) has already been mentioned in the 
Kathiri section. 

Sultan Ghalib died at Hyderabad in June 1922, leaving a will by 
which he nominated his son Salih as his successor. 

Salih at first claimed the succession, but finally came io an agree- 
ment with his uncle in accordance with the terms of his grandfather’s 
will by which Umar bin Awadh was to succeed as Sultan of Slrihr and 
Mukalla while acknowledging Salih bin Gha'lib as his heir. 

In 1923 the succession of Sultan Umar was recognized by His 
Majesty’s Government, and the payment of the monthly stipend of 30 
dollars was continued to him. In the same year he was granted a 
personal salute of 11 guns. 

The Sultan’s tribesmen, including Bedouins, number about GO, 000, 
and his gross annual revenue is estimated at Rs. 6,25,000. 

(17) SoQOTKA AND QlSITN. 

The island of Soqotra lies about 150 miles off Cape Guardafui on the 
African coast and 500 miles from Aden. The sovereignty of the island 
is invested in the Ahl Afrir family of the Mahri tribe of Arabs, who 
inhabit Qishn on the mainland. 

The connection of the British Government with Soqotra commenced 
in 1834, when Captain Ross, of the Indian Navy, was sent on a mission 
to Soqotra, and concluded an Agreement (No. LNXII) with Sultan 
Ahmed bin Sultan of Eartasli and his cousin, Sultan bin Amr of Qishn, 
by which they consented to the landing and storage of coal on the island 
by the British Government. 

In 1835 negotiations were undertaken through Commander Haines 
with the Sultan, Amr bin Saad Tawari, for the purchase of the island, 
and in anticipation of their success a detachment of European and Indian 
troops was sent to take possession. The Sultan, however, refused to sell 
the island, or even to cede a portion of it as a coaling depot, and the 
troops were withdrawn. 



36 


ADEN — Soqotra and Qishn and Yemen. 


In 1838 tlie Chief proposed to farm the island to the British Govern- 
ment, hut the capture of Aden, while the proposal was under discussion, 
rendered it unnecessary to secure Soqotra as a coaling station. 

Sultan Amr bin Saad Tawari died about 1845, and was succeeded in 
the Sultanate of Soqotra and Qishn by his nephew, Tawari bin Ali, who 
in turn was succeeded by his grandson, Ahmed bin Saad. The latter was 
succeeded by his nephew, Abdulla bin Saad, avIio was followed by his 
cousin, Abdulla bin Salim. On the death of the latter he was succeeded 
by his son, Ali. 

In January 1876 an Agreement (No. LXXIII) was concluded with 
the Sultan of Soqotra and Qishn, by which, in consideration of a pay- 
ment of 3,000 dollars and an annual subsidy of 360 dollars, he hound 
himself, his heirs and successors, never to cede, sell, mortgage, or other- 
wise give for occupation, save to the British Government, the island of 
Soqotra or any of its dependencies, the neighbouring islands. 

In 1886 he accepted (No. LXXIY) a Protectorate Treaty, and hound 
himself to abstain from all dealings with foreign powers without the 
previous sanction of the British Government. At the same time he 
undertook to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden or other 
British officer of any attempt by any other power to interfere with Soqotra 
and its dependencies. 

In 1888 a similar Protectorate Treaty (No. LX XV) was concluded 
with Sultan Ali bin Abdulla, as head of the Mahri tribe, and his annual 
stipend was increased by 120 dollars. 

In 1898 some of the cargo of the P. and O. S. S. Aden wrecked off 
Soqotra was plundered, and the Sultan had to he reminded of his obli- 
gations under the Agreement of 1876. 

Sultan Ali bin Abdulla had three sons, all of whom predeceased him. 
He died in 1907 and was succeeded by Sultan Abdulla bin Iso, to whom 
was continued the annual stipend paid to his predecessor. 

The area of the island of Soqotra is about 1,000 square miles; its 
population, mostly Bedouin, is probably about 12,000. The gross annual 
revenue is estimated at Rs. 1,000. 

The Sultan of Soqotra and Qishn receives a salute of 9 guns, which 
was made permanent in 1902. 


(18) YeheSt. 

About the beginning of the seventeenth century, the English obtained 
a firman from the Governor of Mocha for the establishment of a factory 
and permission to trade on payment of a duty on goods, not exceeding 
3 per cent. This deed was confirmed by the Turkish Pasha of Yemen. 
About the same time the Dutch established a factory at Mocha, which 



ADEN— Yemen. 


$7 


Was then tlie great depot for tlie trade of southern Arabia, and a century 
later a factory was also opened by tbe French. After the expulsion of 
tlie Turks in' 1630 the whole of Yemen came under the rule of the 
Imams of Sanaa ; but at the time of Carsten Niebuhr’s visit to Sanaa in 
1763, the native Arab tribes of the provinces of Aden, Abu Arish, Tam 
and others, had thrown off allegiance to the Imams. In 1(99, when the 
British Government took measures to oppose the expected invasion of 
India by the French and to revive the lost trade of the Bed Sea, 
Dr. Pringle was deputed to Sanaa with presents from the Governor- 
General, and obtained from the Imam, Ali Mansur, orders to the 
Governors of Mocha, Hodeidah and Loheiyya to give every facility to 
trade. Two years afterwards an effort was made by Sir Home Popham, 
Ambassador to the States of Arabia, to negotiate a commercial treaty 
with Sanaa; but he was treated with indignity by the Governor of Mocha, 
and the terms of the proposed treaty were rejected by the Imam. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Imam Ali Mansur 
suffered severely at the hands of the Wahhabis, who overran and wrested 
from him some of the best districts of his dominions. In 1816, however, 
Muhammad Ali Pasha destroyed the Wahhabi power and restored these 
districts to Ahmed, the son and successor of Imam Ali Mansur, in consi- 
deration of an annual tribute of 100,000 dollars. Ahmed was succeeded 
in 1817 by his son, Abdulla, who was unable to retain the provinces which 
had been restored to his father. 

In 1817, in consequence of a dispute in which an Arab had been 
temporarily detained at the factory at Mocha, the British Residency was 
attacked and plundered, and a British officer was subjected to insult by 
the Governor. After some delay a British squadron was sent to demand 
satisfaction for this outrage. On the 26th December 1820 the fort of 
Mocha was taken, and shortly afterwards a public apology was made for 
the indignity offered to tlie British Government, and a Treaty (No. 
LXXYI) was signed by the Imam of Sanaa and his Council, in 1821, 
defining the rights to lie enjoyed by British subjects, and reducing the 
export duty on goods to 2\ per cent. This Treaty was carelessly framed 
and it was afterwards discovered that serious discrepancies existed 
between the English and Arabic versions. The Imam refused to accept 
any modification of the latter. To preserve friendly relations, the 
British Government yielded every point, except a clause in the English 
version of the 6th article, stipulating that the servants of the factory 
should be amenable only to the jurisdiction of the Resident. This was 
altogether omitted in the Arabic version. The Imam was informed that 
all other points were conceded, but that, if he attempted to seize or 
punish any person, of whatever nation, in the exclusive employment of 
the Resident, the Resident would withdraw, and such further measures 
would be adopted as might seem expedient to the British Government. 



38 


ADEN — r emcTi. 


For many years the country of Sanaa was in a state of anarch v. 
In 1832 Mocha and all the sea-coast fell under the suzerainty of the 
Turks; and when, in 1840, a Commercial Treaty (No. LNXYII) was 
concluded with Sharif Husein hin Ali, Governor of Mocha, by Captain 
Moresby, it became a matter of doubt, whether the Governor had any mitt 
to conclude a treaty as a principal. Moreover, some of its provisions 
were not approved by the British Government, and others were not ob- 
served by the Sharif. The matter was referred to Constantinople, where 
the dispute was amicably adjusted; but the Treaty was never ratified. Ali 
Mansur, who succeeded his father as Imam of Sanaa in 1834, was deposed 
three years after. He again succeeded to power in 1S44, on the death 
of his uncle, only to be once more deposed in 1845 by Muhammad Ynhya, 
a distant relative of the family. Mocha and the coast, which had been 
recovered by the Imam from the Turks for a time, were finally lost in 
1848. Muhammad Yaliya, in 1S49, swore allegiance to the Porte, and 
agreed to hold Sanaa as a vassal of the Sultan, paying to him half the 
revenues and receiving a Turkish garrison in his capital. This so incensed 
the inhabitants that they rose against the Turks, massacred them, and 
reinstated Ali Mansur, who ordered Muhammad Yahya to he put to 
death. "Within a few months Imam Ali Mansur fell into the hands 
of Ghalib, the son of [Muhammad Yahya, who contented himself with con- 
fiscating his property. The people of Sanaa, however, refused to 
acknowledge the authority of Ghalib, and elected a governor, Shaikh 
Ahmed Ali Khomiah, from among their own body. Ghalib led a pro- 
fligate life in an obscure village a few miles from Sanaa till 1858, when 
ho was recalled and reinstated in the government with the title of A1 
Uadi, but with merely nominal power. During the internal revolutions 
in Sanaa and the desultory warfare with the Turks, the Imams repeatedly 
endeavoured to enlist the aid and advice of the British Government who, 
however, rigidly abstained from all interference in their affairs. 

In 185G, nevertheless, when the Beni Asir tribe marched against 
Hodeidnh with a strong force, they were deterred from attacking it by the 
presence of two British ships which had been sent there for the purpose of 
protecting British subjects. Moreover, cholera broke out in the camp 
of the besiegers and they retired in haste. 

In 18G7 the Beni Asir tribe again rebelled against the Turks and re- 
occupied the provinces from which they had been expelled. The distur- 
bances were temporarily put down by Egyptian troops, but were renewed 
in November 1870. The Porto then preferred to deal with the revolt 
without the aid of the Khedive, and a lone of 15, GOO tumps was des- 
patched to Yemen by the Sultan. Before the arrival of this force in 
February 1S72, tlie Ahl Asir bad attacked Hodeidnh, but were repulsed 
bv the Turkish garrison. The Turkish expeditionary force attacked and 



ADEN— Yemen. 


39 


captured Sanaa in April 1872, since wlien Yemen was administered by 
a Turkish Governor-General with head-quarters at Sanaa until 1919. 
Hasan Edib Pasha was appointed to he Governor-General in June 1891. 
A rebellion which took place in the course of the year was put down by 
Ottoman troops. 

The withdrawal of the Turks from Arabia in 1919 procured for the 
Imam of Sanaa a state of complete independence. He re-established 
his authority over the greater part of the Yemen, and began to encroach 
on the Aden Protectorate which he claimed to have been a part of his 
domains from ancient times. By 1925 lie was in possession of all the 
territories of the Amir of Dkala and of the If ad fan tribes, of Shaib, 
Nawa, Itwbiatein and Dabiani which are appendages of the Upper Yafai, 
of Beidlia, (an independent confederation inside the demarcated line), and 
of the greater jiart of the Audhali country. In 192G Sir Gilbert Clayton 
was deputed by His Majesty’s Government to endeavour to conclude a 
treaty with the Imam,, but the negotiations failed. 

The Imam’s attempts at further encroachment on the Protectorate 
continued until, in February 192S, the Alawi Shaikh Abdun Is abi bin 
Ali Nasliir, and Muqbil Abdulla uncle of the Quteibi Shaikh, were 
kidnapped by his forces. 

In March 1927 the Imam had been warned by His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment that he would lay himself open to retaliatory measures if he made 
further encroachments on the Protectorate. In spite of this warning, a 
large force of Imamic regular and irregular troops invaded the Subeihi 
territory in September 1927, burning and looting as far as the neighbour- 
hood of Turan, but retired as a result of warnings to the effect that they 
would be bombed if they did not evacuate the invaded area within 48 
hours. 

The Imam was again warned that, in the event of further raids, air 
action would be taken immediately against his towns of Qataba, Ibb, 
Taiz and other places within his territory. The kidnapping of the 
Shaikhs referred to above was therefore the culminating point that ren- 
dered immediate concerted action against him essential. Bombing 
operations were accordingly carried out and resulted in the release of 
these two Shaikhs. The bombing operations had so shaken the morale 
of the Imam’s troops that a combination of the Radfan tribes, in co- 
operation with a contingent of Abdali troops and the Royal Air Force, 
was able to expel the Zeidi from, and recover, all the territory which 
they had hitherto occupied, with the exception of Nawa, Rubiatein and 
Dabiani and part of the Audhali country. The Imam lias made no 
attempt to resume his incursions into the Protectorate. 



40 


ADEN — Idrisi, 


(19) The Idkisi. 

Between 1830 end 1840 the Abu Arish, one of the leading tribes in 
Asir, -winch at one time ruled over the whole of Asir and a part of 
the coastal region up to Hodeidah, was governed by a certain Sharif 
All, who made terms with the Egyptians. During . his reign, one 
Sayyul Ahmed el Idrisi, a native oi Fez and head of a religious fraternity 
school (tariqali), whose tenets he had been preaching at Mecca since 
.1799, acquired land at Sahia, where he settled and died in 1837. He had 
been the teacher of the original Senussi Shaikh, who had taken the coven- 
ant in his tariqah at Mecca in 1823. The Idrisi family increased in 
wealth during llie life-time of Ahmed’s son and grandson, and appears, 
after the renunciation of Asir by the Egyptians in 1841, to have sup- 
planted the Sharifial family of Abu Arish. It inter-married with the 
Senussi house, which was now settled in Cyrenaica : and, through 
branches at Zeinia, near Luxor in Egypt, and in the Sudan at Argo 
(Arju), it extended its influence. But the expansion of its temporal 
power at home, to include the Tihama north and south and a suzerainty 
over several tribes outside those limits, {e.g., in the Sada District of 
North Yemen, even over the Qahtan tribes), is the work of Sayyid 
Ahmed’s great-grandson, Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali. 

Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali was born in 1876 in Sahia. At the age 
of 20 years he left for Egypt and stayed there about 12 years, during 
which time he was educated at the Azhar and by the Senussi and had 
married two wives. He returned to Sahia in 1908, determined to assert 
the complete independence of all Asir. If he was not at first as suc- 
cessful as he promised to he, lie effectually divided the Turks in Hejaz 
from those in Yemen, and was sovereign in Asir. 

In 1915 a Treaty of friendship (No. LXXVIII) was concluded with 
Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali. Its main object was to war against the 
Turks, and it is held to have now expired. 

In January 1917, after the capture of Farsan Islands by the Idrisi 
from the Turks, a supplementary Agreement (No. LXXIX) was con- 
cluded with him recognising the Islands as forming part of the Idrisi s 
domains and promising protection against Foreign Powers: an expres- 
sion which, it has been held, does not include Arabian Eulers. 

In 1919 after the evacuation of Asir and Tihama by the Turks, the 
Idrisi’s influence extended as far as Birq in the north and Zeuliya in the 

south. 

In August 1919 a British mission to the Imam of Sanaa, under 
T ieutenant Colonel H. F. Jacob, was detained at Bajil by the Quhra tribe 
i w'tr led to believe that the chief object of the mission was to make 
”lT over to the Imam. After prolonged negotiations with the Quhra- 



ADEN 4l 

tribe for their release, and with the help of the Idrisi, the mission was 
allowed to return to Aden in December 1919. 

Shortly after this an Imamic force attacked the Qnhra who appealed 
to the Idrisi for help. The latter espoused their cause and for over three 
years successfully resisted the advance of the Imamic troops on the 
Quhra frontier. 

In January 1921 Hodeidah, which was occupied by British troops 
on the declaration of tne Armistice, was evacuated and was occupied by 
the Idrisi. 

In 1923 Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali died. The Idrisi tribes elected 
his eldest sou Ali, aged about 16 years, to succeed him under the tutelage 
of his paternal uncle Sayyid Hasan el Idrisi. The youth soon got out 
of the control of his uncle and his cousin, Sayyid Mustafa (who was the 
ruling spirit in the Idrisi country and who had been the chief adviser 
of Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali in establishing relations with the British 
Government), and appointed men of no importance as his councillor's. 
Attempts made by Sayyid Hasan’s party to depose the young Idrisi 
proved unsuccessful, with the result that fighting broke out between the 
supporters of Sayyid Ali and Sayyid Hasan, resulting in the defeat of 
the latter. In the circumstances Sayyid Mustafa was compelled to leave 
the country, and returned to Egypt. 

Subsequently Sayyid Ali deported all the councillors of his father 
and so weakened himself by this and other ill-advised acts, that the 
Imam of Sanaa was able to occupy unopposed all the maritime plain 
from Hodeidah to Medi, which the Idrisi had acquired as the result of 
the Great War. 

In 1925 the Idrisi tribes, tired of Sayyid Ali’s misrule, deposed him 
and elected Sayyid Hasan in his place. 

In October 1920 Sayyid Hasan concluded an agreement with Bin 
Saud placing his country under the suzerainty of the latter. 



42 


ADEN— NO. 1—1914. 


No. I. ; 

Anglo-Turicisu Convention respecting the Boundaries of Aden,— 1914. 

Sa Majeste le Roi du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d’lrlande et des 
Territoires Britanniques au dela des Mers, Empercur des Indes, d’une part ; et 

Sa Majeste 1’Empereur des Ottomans, d’autre part ; 

Ddsireux tons deux de completer et de ratifier les protocoles signes (Annexe A) 
par les Commissaires ottoman et britannique en 1903, 1904 et 1905 pour indiquer la 
ligne de demarcation de la fronticre arretee par eux pour separer le vilayet du 
Yemen du territoire des neuf cantons d’Aden telle qu’elle est indiquee en bleu sur 
les quatre cartes annexees (Annexe B)*; 

Ont nomine pour leu rs Pleni potentiaires, savoir : 

Sa Majeste le Roi du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d’lrlande et des 
Territoires Britanniques au dela des Mers, Empereur des Indes : Le Tres Honor- 
able Sir Edward Grey, Baronnet du Royaume-Uni, Chevalier du Tres Noble Ordie 
de la Jarretiere, Membre du Parlement, Principal Secretaire d’Etat de Sa Majeste 
pour les Affaires Etrangeres ; 

Sa Majeste l’Empereur des Ottomans : Son Altesse Ibrahim Hakki Pacha, 
ancien Grand Yezir, decore des Grands Cordons des Ordres Imperiaux de 1’Osmanie 
et du Medjidie en brillants ; 

Lesquels, s’etant communique leurs pleins pouvoirs, trouves en bonne et due 
forme, sont convenus de ce qui suit : 

Article I. 

Les Hautes Parties contractantes confirment et ratifient les protocoles signris 
par les Commissaires ottoman et britannique en 1903, 1904 et 1905, dont le texte 
se trouve a 1’ Annexe A de la presente Convention. 

Article II. 

Pour confirmer l’engagement pris a l’alinea l cr du protocole en date-du 20 
avril, 1905, Sa Majeste l’Empereur des Ottomans declare qu’il n’alienera pas de 
quelque maniere que ce soit le territoire, d’une etendue d’environ 550 miles anglais 
carres, contigu a la ligne Djebel Nouman-Husn Mourad et situe dans Its limites 
de l’ancien canton des Soubeha. Ledit territoire est indique en jaune sur la carte 
qui forme l’Annexe C ;S de la presente Convention. 


Article III. 

Le point No. 1 du Ouadi Bana indique sur ia premiere des carte3 annexees 
(Annexe B) k la presente Convention, etant le dernier point du cote de Test delimite 
sur les Iieux, il est convenu entre les Hautes Parties contractantes et arrfite, con- 
formement audit protocole, et sous reserve des conditions et specifications y con- 
tinues, que la frontiere des territoires ottomans suivra une ligne droite qui jradfl 

' * Not reproduced. 



ADEN— NO. 1—1924. 


43 


Lckcmct-ul-Choub vers le nord-esfc au desert do Ruba-al-Khali avec une inclinaison 
do 45°. Cette ligne rejoindra dans le Ruba-al-Khali, sur le paraMe 20°, la ligno 
droite et directe vers le sud qui part d’nn point sur la rive meridionale du golfe 
d’Oudjeir et qui separe le tcrritoire ottoman du sandjak de Nedjd du territoire 
d’El Katr, en conformity de Particle 11 de la Convention anglo-ottomane du 29 
juillet, 1913, rclatif au Golfe Persique et aux territoires environnants. 

La premiere des deux lignes est indiquee en violet et la seconde en bleu sur la 
carte speciale ci-jointe (Annexe C)*. 

Article IY. 

La prescnte Convention sera ratifiee et les instruments de ratification en seront 
echanges a Londres aussitot que faire se pourra, et au plus tard dans un ddlai de 
trois mois. 

En foi de quoi, les Plenipotentiaires respectifs ont signe la prtsente Conven- 
tion et y ont appose leurs cachets. 

Fait a Londres, en double original, le 9 mars, 1914. 

E. Grey. 

I. Hakki. 

Ratifications exchanged in London on the 3rd June 1914. 


ANNEXE (A), 

Protocoles de delimitation de la Frontiers d'AuEN. 


1903. 

I. 

La frontidre commence au nord a un point sur la rive meridionale (droite) du 
fieuve Bana, dit Ouadi Bana, en amont de la jonction du Ouadi Ara’ar avec le 
Bana indique I sur la carte ci-jointe*. Ce point est approximativement N. N. E. du 
Ras-Ilaf et n’est pas marque par une borne. 

n. 

Du point 1 la ligne va directement au soinmet du Ras-Ilaf. Ras-Ilaf, marque 
II sur la carte, est le point le plus eleve d’une colline situee a l’ouest (cote gauche) 
du Ouadi Ara’ar. Ce point n’est pas marque par une borne. 

De Ras-Ilaf la fronttere va, en ligne droite, a Lekemet ul-Muabir. 


*N°1 reproduced. 



44 


ADEN— NO. 1—1914. 


in. 

Lekemet-uI-Muabir, marque m sur la carte, est un contrefort a la rive occi- 
dentale (gauclie) du Ouadi Ara’ar. 

De Lekemet-ul-Muabir la frontiere va directement a Zira-al-Michrak. 

IV. 

Zira-al-Michrak, marque IV sur la carte, est une Crete a la rive occidentale 
(gauche) du Ouadi Ara’ar. II n’est pas marque? par une borne. 

De Zira-al-Michrak la frontiere suit une ligne droite jusqu’a Kubat-ul-Ara’ar 
en traversaut la partie inferieure du ravin dit Djj'has (Suflal-ul-Djjhas). 

V. 

Kubat-ul-Ara’ar, marque V sur la carte, est un mesdjid en ruine situe sur un 
contrefort entre lo Ouadi Ara’ar et le Ouadi Kabi. Ce point n’est pas marque par 
une borne. 

De Kubat-ul-Ara’ar, la frontiers passe en ligne droite a Darb-u-Dinat. 

VI. 

Darb-u-Dinat, marque VI sur la carte, est une ruine sur un contrefort entre les 
Ouadis Sofa et Nasran, qUi, en aval de leur jonction, foment le Ouadi Ara’ar. 
Ce point est indique par une borne en pierre non taillee et d’une hauteur d’ environ 
2 metres. De Darb-u-Dinat la frontiere passe en ligne droite a la jonction des 
Ouadis Nasran et Selala, laissant la cultivation a la jonction a Mureis. 

VII. 

La jonction des Ouadis Nasran et Selala, marque VII sur la carte, n’est pas 
indiquee par une borne. De cette jonction la frontiere suit le thalweg de Ouadi 
Selala jusqu’a la tete de ce Ouadi. 

nil. 

La tete de Ouadi Selala, marquee VIII sur la carte, n’est pas indiquee par une 
borne. D’ici la frontiere suit la ligne du partage des eaux du col dit Nedjd 
Messanah jusqu’a l’extremite orientale du Djebel-Djemimeh. 

IX. 

Djebel Djemimeh, marque IX sur la carte, est une colline bien designee entre 
les villages du Marves-Saghis (Mureis) et d’Ekziz (Chouaib). La front. ern est 
ici designee par une borne de pierre tailMe en ciment. La base est uu carre dont 
chaque cote a 80 cm. de longueur. La hauteur dq la borne est de 1 m. 50 cm. 
Bile se trouve a I’extreinite N. E. du sommet et environ 10 metres du point 1c 
plus eleve de la colline. 

De Dejbel-Djemimeh la frontiere passe en ligne droite a Djos-ul-Essved 
(Dtkiteba). 



ADEN— NO. I — 1914. 


X. 

Djos-ul-Essved, marque X sur la carte, cst sitae sur le contrefort cntre les 
Ouatlis Jlusver ct Muteara. II a etc marque par line borne tie pierre non tuillee 
Bans mortier. 

De Djus-uI-Essved la frontii-re passe en ligne droite a Nedjd-i-Muteara. 


XI. 

Nccljd-i-Muteara, marque XI sur la carte, est. un endroit plat, sur 1c col formant 
ia ligne dc partage dcs eaux des Ouadis Muteara et A1 Djoo. Uno borne do pierre 
en cimcnt, dont la base est un carre, cliaque cote ayant 80 cm. de longueur et dont 
la liauteur cst 1 m. 50 cm., a etc construite pour indiquer l’endroit, mais, par accord 
outre les Commissaircs des deux cotes, on l’a trouvee inutile et elle a etc demolie. 

De Nedjd-Muteara la frontierc passe on ligne droite it Lekemet-ul-Djetliam. 


XII. 

Lekemet-ul-Djetliam, marquee XII sur la carte, est un monticule formant, 
le point le plus eleve de Lckcmet-ul-Djctliam lui-meme. Unc borne de pierre en 
cliaux a etc erigec sur un point environ 30 m. au sud-est du point decide par la 
Commission, e’est-e-dire du point le plus eleve dc Lekemet-ul-Djetliam, mais, 
coniine cc point etait on dispute entre les habitants du Murcis et Chouaib, cctte 
borne a etc demolie par ordre de la Commission. 

De Lekcmet-uI-Djetham la froutiere passe en ligne droite it Lekcmct-ul- 
Ilamra, traversant le Ouadi Djurb. 

XIII. 

Lckemct-ul-Hamra, marque XIII sur la carte, cst un contrefort entre les 
champs do cultivation de l’Al Hakl ct du Ouadi Djurb. Cc point n’est pas marque 
par unc borne. Dc Lekcmct-uI-Hamra Ia frontierc passe en ligne presque droite 
it travers Lckemct-u-Soda et les champs de l’Al Hakl, sous un figuicr (Beles 
jusqu’ii cc qu’ellc se joigne avec la route entre la cultivation ditc A1 Hakl et le 
pied du Djebel-IIavabil. Unc borne (nppelco la borne de “ Beles ” par la Com- 
mission) y a etc erigee. 

XIV. 

La borne “ Beles,” marquee XIV sur la carte, est pr6s dc la lisi6re mcridionale 
d'l la cultivation A1 Hakl, un peu au snd du figuicr. Ce point est marque par unc 
home dc pierre en cliaux ; sa base est carree, cliaque cot<5 ayant 80 cm. de longu 
cur ; la liauteur ii peu pres dc 1 m. 70 cm. De la borne Beles la frontierc suit la 
fisDre mcridionale de la cultivation dite A1 Hakl jusqu’a Djos-uI-Hada-ul-Essved. 


XV. 

Djos-ul-Hada-ul-Essved, marque XV sur Ia carte, et un granu loclicr noir h 
Poucst de Ouadi ITadnli et au pied du contrefort au N. E. de Hald-u-Khatm. Ce 
point n’est pas marque par unc borne. De Djos-ul-Hada-ul-Essved la frontii-ro 
g ui(. la ligne du partage des eaux du Ilald-KIiatm jusqu’a son point le plus eleve. 



ADEN— >TC: T--1914. 


XVI. 

Hald-ul-Ehntm, marque XVI sur la carte, cst 3e point le plus elcy<5 de 1 , 
montngne conmie sous cc nom et situec enlrc 1c Ouadi Arach et le Ouadj Hadah 
Ce point cst marque par une borne de picrro tailk'c cn cimcnt dcs mimes dimen- 
sions quo No. IX. 

Fait en double, h Kataba, lc IS oetobre, 1903. 


R. A. Wattah, Colonel, 
Commissaire britannique. 

Mustapita, Colonel, 

Commissaire olloman. 


1904. 


De Hald Khatm la ligne de frontiere passe it la tete du vallon dit Tinama 
(XVII) laissant la cultivation it Atebat et puis sc dirige en ligne droite an point 
dit Zira-un-Neisse (XVIII), d’ou clle passe droit au Res Nakil Adane (XIX); de 
lit par Mimsmna it Rihab-ul- Verde' (XX) ; de lit it Zahir Nakil Suveida (XXI), 
et puis en ligne droite it Nedjd-i-Mavcd (XXII), d’ou clle suit la ligne de partage 
dcs eaux jusqu’au somtnet du Djebel Barkan (XXIII). 

Do ce point elle descend au monticule do Lekemet-ul-Kourbie (XXIV), d’oi) 
clle passe directemcnt au Lckemet Kissm Serav (XXV), marque par une borne 
on ciment, et do la au soramet d’uu petit monticule (XXVI), situe sur le versant 
meridional du Djebel Djarrad, et marque aussi par une borne en ciment. 

D’ici ello passe directemcnt it Habil Zirch (XXVII), marque par une borne en 
cimont et de lit a un point (XXVIII) sur I’extrdmite occidentale du Habil Bedr 
pres du Nedjd-al-Aslum, marque aussi par une borne en ciment. 

D’ici la ligne va dircctoment h un point (XXIX) pres de 1’extremite occidentale 
du Habil Sourmi, marque par une borne en ciment, et de la traverse le Ouadi h 
un point (XXX) sur Habil-ul-Amoudi, marque par une borne en mortier ; de lit 
elle va en ligne directe it un point sur Habil Djcrdoumi (XXXI), marque par une 
borne en mortier ; et pui 3 traverse le Ouadi Abara en ligne directe it un point 
sur Habil Khadar (XXXII), marque aussi par une borne en mortier. 

De ce point la ligne passe toute droite a un point sur Habil Paver (XXXIII), 
marque par une borne en ciment, et de lit en ligne droite it Nedjd-un-Nuss (XXXII ), 
on une borne en ciment a et6 6rigee. 

R. A. Wahab, Colonel, 


Commissaire britannique. 


Mostapha, Colonel, 

Commissaire olio man- 





A rvj?' T _>T A I — 1.914 . 


47 


D’ici elle vsymn Hgne directe a Lekcmct-u-Tourab (XXXV), marque par une 
borne cu. cimemt ; dc la a. un point (XXXVI) snr Habil Raha, marque pareillo- 
ment par rafc borne cn cimcnt, ct puis tout droit an tombcau Veli Umr Ismail 
(XXXVm d’oii elle passe cntre Kouleat-ul-Oulia et Kouleat-us-Soufla a un point 
snr Ha/il Haver (XXXVIII)— marque par une borne cn mortior— de fapon h 
laisser/la cultivation du cote de Kouleat-us-Soufla a Dakkam. De cc point la 
ligno masse tout droit au sommet du Djcbcl Sarir (XXXIX), et de la an point dit 
Mansfpurcli (XL) de fa? on a laisser la route de Heslia cntre (XXXIX) et (XL), 
entieneinont a la Turquic. 

Dei Mansourck la lignc passe au point dit Fcnana (XLI), laissnnt la cultiva- 
tion diu village de Ilefa du cote dc Ilcslia. 



R. A. AVattab, Colonel , 

Commissaire bri lan niqve . 

Mtjstapjia, Colonel, 


Commissaire ottoman. 


De Fcnana la frontRre descend par le contrefort a Res Ilafasa ; dc la elle suit 
la Crete du contrefort, en passant par Lekemct-es-Shijja ct Lckcmet Hush, jusqu’au 
somtnet du Djebel'dlinm (XLII). D’ici elle suit la ligne de partage des eaux jus- 
qu’ii Lckcmet Kaima, en passant par Lekemet Jol Akarba, ct puis traverse le 
Ouadi Haura en laissant le village dc Sani a la Turquic, et Ic village Gliania, ct le 
tombeau Ghani-bin-tbraliim du cote d’Ahmcdi. D’ici elle monte jusqu’a Ralnvat- 
el-Fasih, et de lii passe en ligne droitc a Kod Essvcd (XLIII). 

D’ici elle passe par la ligne de partage des eaux a Ras Dakhar, et de la a Habil 
Sliarja, qu’elle traverse, jusqu’a Lekemet Shibah, d’ou elle passe a Lekemet-es- 
Shajfa (XLIV), en traversant le Ouadi Tusan a sa jonction avee le Ouadi Mukhcilan, 
D’ici la frontierc suit la hgne dc partage des eaux jusqu’a Lekemct-al-Bas6sa 
en traversant les points appeles Lekemet Saraya, Lekemet Mushannnar, Ranwat 
Hilhal, Lekcmet-al-Husun, Lekcmet-al-Mimtar (XLV ; point oii so rcncontrent 
les frontiercs des Ilauckabi, Alimadi, ct de Kama’ira), Lekemet Kasiba, Lekemet- 
al-Joubel, et Lekemet-el-Kafla. 

Du point Basesa (XL A r I) elle descend le contrefort par Sliiben ct Ralnvat 
Nedjd a Tavile (XLAHI), marque par une borne en ciment. D’ici elle passe cntre 
les villages do Kliaranin (Hauchabi), ct Bs Sarek (Kama’ira) a Ralnvat Asekh; 
de la h Ras Maharib et puis, contournant la tote du Ouadi Sheboua, arrive h Aresma 
(XLVII), marque par une borne en ciment placee au nord dc Skeboua. De la 
elle passe au sommet des monticules Taoual et Ouakadie (XLIX), marque par 
une borne cn ciment, ct puis suit les liauts points de Habil Arabi jusqu’a Mesdjid 
Arabi. 


F 


SI 



48 


ADEN— NO. 1—1914. 


D’ici elle passe en ligne droite a Asfal Amsheri (L) marquepnar une borne en 
ciment, ct de la suit la Crete du contrefort jusqu’n Djebel Koidat\et puis la ligne 
de partage des eaux jusqu’a Res Namis (LI). 

R. A. Wahab, Coloihel, 
Commissaire britamiique, 

Mtjstapha, Colonel, 

Commissaire ottomoin. 


1904. I 

De Res Namis (LI) la frontiere passe par Mourdifin et suit le Sela/t Neshama 
jusqu’a sa jonction avec le Ouadi Hakab (LII), d’ou elle passe au ( sommet de 
Djebel Akour en laissant le village de Medfana aux Haucliabi. Du ibjebel Akour 
elle suit la ligne de partage des eaux entre l’Ouadi Kharf et l’Ouadi W oubid jusqu’i 
Djebel Sheb Ali, et puis passe entre les.bameaux de Domena (Kouxnaira) et Mikla 
(Hauchabi), en suivant le sommet du precipice inferieur jusqu’alu col dit Rika- 
bet Tinsoum, d’oii elle passe a la jonction du Shab Tinsoum ave« Ie Ouadi Sodan 
(LIII), laissant le vallon appele Shab Tinsoum avec sa cultivation au canton de 
Koumaiira. • De ce point elle passe au sommet de Rarcli Harda, laissant le village 
de Harda aux Hauchabi, et de la passe tout droit au sommet tie Farch Khousouli, 
d’oit elle traverse le IVarezan et continue au sommet du monticule appele Dar- 
ul-Kahir (LIV), laissant le village de Tarian aux Hauchabi. ©eJDar-ul-Kahir elle 
passe a Dj. Houmala, dont elle suit le sommet jusqu’& Nijd Ruhouat et de la passe 
a Dar Oueted (LV). D’ici elle passe au haut point dit Mahoumi, ou Makbouba, 
et descend la rive gauche du Selat Lassab jusqu’a Lekemet Moukaibiri (LVI) situe 
a la jonction du Selat Lassab et le Ouadi Sehi. D’ici elle monte la rive droite 
du Ouadi Sehi et suit la ligne de partage des eaux le long du Djebel Ghefan jusqu’a 
son sommet, et a Nijd Nijmia, d’ou elle suit la ligne de "partage des eaux jusqu’a 
Ras Djebel Saraf (LVII) en passant par les points dits Moulelka et Nijd Thoud- 
jihat. 

De Ras Djebel Saraf (LVII) la ligne de frontiere passe tout droit a Nedjd 
Mousamma, laissant Dar Nasir Harbi aux Haouaehib et le hameau do Saraf aux 
Youssifiyin ; de la elle passe par la ligne de partage des eaux de Charirc jusqu’a 
Nedjd Chebab, et, de la, passe en ligne droite, a t.ravcrs Rikabein et Kinhan, a 
Kilat Noub. 

De ce point elle franchit le contrefort occidental du Djebel Kourra a mi-chcmin 
entre le Nedjd Berou et le sommet du Djebel Kourra, et descend au Ouadi Ilidabn 
entre les hameaux Haouadi (appartenant a Koubcita) et Saraf ; puis traverse le 
Ouadi Ilidaba et remoiite entre la maisonnette dite Salim Belcs et Chab Choudjh 
jusqu'au sommet de ce dernier, et suit le contrefort, qui passe au-des3us de Nobat 



ADEN— NO. 1—1914. 49 

Ouden Tb oiiveira an haut point dit Mouharrika, en laissant Onleiba et touB les 
autres villages avec leur cultivation h Koubeita. 

Mustapha,, Colonel, 

Commissaire ottoman, 

R. A. Wahab, Colonel, 

Commissaire britanniqvc. 


De Mouharrika (LVIII) olio descend, et passe tout droit i\ T or-am -Kh dulei va 
ct ’Irk-el-Essved, laissant le Ghail Souveida aux Soubeiha, et monte au som- 
inet du Djebol Aslah ; dc lh, elle va tout droit a Kouroun Sarli, ct encore tout droit 
a L. Houmeira (LIX). 

De L. Houmeira elle monte le contrefort par L. Touveira i\ un point 1 kilom. 
au sud de Ncdjd Bura, laissant Koutm iv Koubeita et passe a Rikab (Has Ouadi 
Tokar), et, suivant la rive gauche du Ouadi Tokar jusqu’a un point sit.ue environ 
1 Idiom, en amont dc la jonction du Chab Soukmi avec Ouadi Tokar, passe tout 
droit a Ncdjd Housein et t\ Nedjd Montand. 

De Nedjd Moutarid elle descend par le contrefort au Ouadi Sehr, qu’elle tra- 
verse a mi-cliemin entre Nobat Malia et Habil-ve-Lakma et remonte a Koubct- 
el-Ausaja (LX), et puis passe presque tout droit a Nedjd Ja’ma et Nedjd Cha’b. 

De Nedjd Cha’b elle contourne la tete du Ouadi Cha’b en suivant la crete jus- 
qu’au haut point dit Raldza (LXI), 4,64.0 pieds en hauteur, en laissant les villages 
Merabiha au canton de Koubeita. De cc point elle suit les cretes a la droito du 
Ouadi Cha’b jusqu’au sommet du Djebel Ncbat (LXII), se deflechissant un pen 
au sud de fa?on a laisscr le Nobat Absi dans le Ouadi Doka au canton dc Kou- 
beita. 

Du sommet du Djebel Nebat la ligne descend en contournant le cote oriental 
du Habil ’Uslia a Harcha (maisonnette en mines), d’oil elle passe tout droit a un 
point sur la rive occidentale du Ouadi Ma’din (Mefalisse), aligne entre Harcha et 
Roubas-ibn-Alvan. De ce point elle passe presque en ligne droite au sommet de 
Moudawera ; de la au sommet du Djebel Havar, et puis passant par les points 
nornmes Ras Eekdan — Alkourb (MaltrabaV — Bas Hejat cl-Hnmra-Nedjd Masjid- 
Ras Suleb-Nouzeihi, et ’Abar-al-Koumia, arrive au Veli Othman (LXIII). 

M, R. 

R. A. W. 

N.B .— Dans Ic Oundi Ma’din les Soubeiha auront lo droit, d’apiAsl’nncion usage tribal, 
do poiirsuivre la source du Ghail Mola’cn amont du Oundi jusqu’a 1’cndroit appcle Hum era 
Makhzotij. 

Passant a 1’cst ct tout pres du Veli Othman, la ligne de frontierc monte a Hejat 
Noub, et de la suit les cretes entre Ic Ouadi Ma’bak et le Ouadi Chaouar jusqu’a 
Ras Iraf (LXIV). 



5Q ADEN — NO. 1—1914. 

DeRasIraf ellc descend le contreforfc jusqu’a uri point sur la rive- gauclio du 
Ouadi Adim, au nord do Nohat Rachid, ot suit la rive gauche jusqu’au point dit 
Bousseli, laissant la cultivation aux Zoureka. 

De Bousseli die passe au nord du village de Khibana jusqu’a Barh-am-Foufc- 
fcika, et de la au rocher dit Abd, sur lc Ouadi Kelinan, lequel ellc traverse, et suit lo 
lit du Ouadi AnrHandjerek jusqu’a Ras ’Akrabi. D’ici ellc descend a la jonction 
du Cha’b Douveima avec le Ouadi TJbl, et remontc a Ras Hcjat-ara-Rumf et. puis 
suit les cretes par le point dit Karkahil jusqu’a Barh-am-’Achara (Kliourj) (LXY). 

M. R. 

R, A. W. 

1905. 

Presents : 

Pour la Turquie — • 

Moustapha Rerazi Bey, Colonel d’Etat-Major, Commissaire ottoman. 

Pour la Grande-Bretagne — 

Mr. G. II. Eitzmaurice, Commissaire britannique. 

Apres discussion des details de la frontiero des Soubeha de Barh-am-’Ashara' 
(Khourj), marquee LXV et 69 sur la carte, et exaraen des documents et autres; 
preuves s’y referant, Mr. Fitzmaurice, commissaire britannique, declare que, bien 
que ces documents et preuves, ainsi que le temoiguago des habitants qu’on a 
interroges l’annee derniere sur les lieux, aient demontre que la frontiero occidentale 
des Soubeha s’etend jusqu’a ’Akama et do la passe par ’Akkar pour gagner l’cnd- 
roit appele Koudam, le Gouvernemcut britannique, anime d’nn esprit dc conci- 
liation ct de ses sentiments traditionnels d’amitie envers lo Gouvernement Impe- 
rial ottoman, ne l’a pas juge opportuu, lors du travail de delimitation, d’insister 
sur le maintien effcctif des droits des cheiks du canton des Soubeha sur tout le 
territoire reclame par eux jusqu’a la susdite ligne d’Akama, ’Akkar, et Koudam,. et, 
par consequent, a approuve la proposition dc ses commissaires de delimiter sur 
la base d’une ligne qui, partant de Barh-am’-Ashara (LXY), atteint, a une dis- 
tance de 25 kilotn. au nord-ouest dc Barh-am-’Ashara , le sommet de Djebel Nou- 
man, se trouvant sur la ligne de portage des caux entre la Mer Rouge ct Ic Golfc 
d’Aden, a la condition, toutefois, que le Gouvernement Imperial ottoman s’engage 
a, ne jamais aligner a une tierce Puissance le territoire situe entre cette derniere 
ligne et la ligne susmentionnee d’Akama, ’Akkar et Koudam ; qu’a la suite do 
pourparlers entre les deux Gouvernements amis, l’Ambassade britannique a 
Constantinople vient de lui faire savoir que dcs instructions dans lc sens susindi- 
que ont ete envoyees par la Sublime Porte au commissaire ottoman. 

M. le Colonel Moustapha Remzi Bey declare qu’en eSet il a regu, en date du 6 
(19) mars, par l’entremise du Ministere Imperial de la Guerre, des instructions 
basees sur un Irade Imperial de Sa Majeste lc Sultan l’ordonnant de delimiter la 
frontiere du canton des Soubeha par une ligne aboutissant a Hu.sn Mourac} et 




ADEN— NO.. 1—1911. 


51 


quo, d’apres lcs instructions lui parvenucs, la Sublime Porte s’engago A nc jamais 
alienor «. une tierce Puissance lc territoire contigu a la ligne Nouraan-Husn Mourad 
et situe au nord de cettc ligne. 

La-dessus lcs deux commissaires redigent une description dutaillce de la sec- 
tion de la ligne de fronti&re qui, partant de Barh-nm-’Ashara (LXV), aboutit a 
Husn Mourad, ct tracent la ligne snr lcs cartes qu’ils signent ct cchangcnt. 

Quant a la partie de la frontiere au nord-est du point marque No. 1 sur le 
Ouadi Bana, e’est-n-dire la ligne qui, scion Tirade Imperial du 30 janvicr, 1318 
(v.s.) (12 fevrier, 1903 (x.s.) ), part de Lckcmet-ul-Choub et se dirige dans la 
direction nord-est jusqu’au desert, Mr. Fitzmnurice, Commissaire britannique, 
declare qu’une partie de cette ligne, a savoir, la frontiere entre Moureis ct Chouaib, 
avant dejii etc delimitee, il rcste a fixer une base pour la prolongation de cette ligne 
jusqu’au desert ; qu’en vertu de Tirade Imperial precite, cette partie de la de- 
marcation doit suivre, en general, la ligne droitc de Lekemet-ul-G'houb nord-est 
jusqu’au desert, sauf toujours les deviations exigees par la nature du terrain ; et 
que les documents et autres preuves fournis par les Cheikhs des Yafa’ d6montrent 
incontestablement quo les endroits appeles Koubeatein, N’wa ct Dbabiani tor- 
ment partie du canton des Yafa’, tandis que les Aulaki (pluriel, Aivnlik), avee 
toutes lours sous-divisions et ddpendances, ainsi quo tout autre district de Yafa’ 
.so trouvant au sud et ii Test do la susdite ligne nord-est, apartiennent aux 
“ neuf cantons ”. 

M. le Colonel Moustapha Kemzi Bey, Commissaire ottoman, repond que, scion 
les instructions revues de son Gouverncment, il rcconnait que la base dc la de- 
marcation du point I sur le Ouadi Bana, cn vertu dc Tirade Imperial du 30 
janvicr, 1318 (v.s.) (12 fevrier, 1903 (n.s.) ), cst cn general la ligne N. 45° E. de 
Lekcinet-uI-Clioub jusqu’au desert ; qu’it la condition quo 1’ouzle de Djouban 
restc du cote du caza dc Rida il rcconnait quo lcs ouzles de Koubeatein, Na’va et 
Dbabiani forment partie du canton des Yafa’, et que les Awalik avec toutes lours 
sous-divisions et dependences, ainsi que tout autre district de Yafa’ se trouvant 
au sud et a- Test de la susdite ligne nord-est, appartiennent aux “ neuf cantons.” 

Le commissaire ottoman njoute que dans le voisinage de Clieikh Said, les 
indigenes, et autres, du cote ottoman ont cu Thabitude dc sc faire procurer do 
l’eau des. sources se trouvant du cote des Soubelia, et qu’il espere qu’il li’y ait 
aucun inconvenient ii ce qu’on continue ii Tavenir dc se servir de ccs sources, 
comine par lc passe. 

Mr. Fitzmaurice declare quo, dc la part dc son Gouverncment, il nc saurait y 
avoir aucun inconvenient ii cet egard. 

Les commissaires des deux Gouvernements amis, etalit d’accord sur lo 
contenu dc ce proces-verbal, lc signent cn double ct cchangcnt les copies con- 
formes. 

Mus'i'Ai’HA, Colonel, 

Comnmsairc odomnn. 

G. II. Fitzmaurice, 

Cojnmissaire britannique. 

'1'ourbe {Cheihh Said), le 20 nvril, 1905. 



52' ' 


ADEN— NO. i— 1914. 


Du point LXV la ligne de frontiere s’etend dans unc direction generale nord- 
ouest et suit le cote septentrional de la route qui court le long du pied du Djebel- 
am-Ibdar et le cote gauclie du Ouadi Khasana (52) jusqu’au col appele Nijcl 
Mashrak (37) et numerote LXVI sur la carte. 

De la elle monte a un point sur le contrefort septentrional du Djebel Tafasu (47) 
et, franchissant Ouadi Ghoref (29) a un point situe un demi-kilomctre a l’ouest 
du hameau de Kkabal (36), monte au sommet du Djebel Nournan (LXVII). 

De ce point elle tourne dans une direction sud-ouest et suit la ligne de partage 
des eaux entre la mer Rouge et le golfe d’Aden en passant par les points 
Barham-Roues (34), Djebel-am-Najaj (39), Djebel Sef, Barh-al-Haima (un col 
qui se trouve a une distance de 1J Idiom, au sud du hameau d’Al Haima) (49), 
Nijd-ain-Rahaz (54), Djebel Sin Sanfa, jusqu’au sommet du Djebel Jariha 
(LXYIII). 

La ligne descend ensuite par le contrefort sud-ouest du Djebel Jariha et, 
prenant une direction vers l’ouest, passe tout droit au sommet du Djebel Kaliabub 
et de la traverse la region deserte en ligne directe jusqu’au sommet du Djebel 
Kuwak (LXIX), laissant le puits d’Al Hajari du cote turc. 

Du sommet du Djebel Kuwah (voir la carte du Cheikli Said, grande eckelle 
1: 40000) la ligne de frontiere suit les hauteurs jusqu’au plus haut point sur le 
contrefort au sud-est du Djebel Kuwah.' Ce point, numerote LXX et marque 
par une borne, est situe environ 600 yards, c’est-a-dire a peu pres 550 metres a 
i’ouest et sud de la colline appelee Djebel Mijbiya sur la carte. De ce dernier 
point elle passe en ligne droite au monticule rocheux (LXXI), marque par unc 
borne le plus au nord des deux monticules situes au nord et a l’ouest du Djebel 
Suediya ; de la se dirige, en ligne directe, au point (numerote LXXII et marque 
par une borne) le plus eleve du promontoire connu sous le noin de Husn Mourad 
(appele aussi Cheikh Mourad), et, suivant sa crete, atteint le bord de la mer au 
point numerote LXXIII sur la carte. 

Mustapha, Colonel , 

Commissaire ottoman. 

G. H. Fitzmaurice, 

Commissaire briiannique. 


i Le 23 avrU , ISOS : 


ANNEXE (B) and (C) . 
Maps not reproduced. 


Aden— M e AMaii—m. ii—i$02. 53 

No. II. 

His Excellency the Most Noble the Marquis Wellesley, Knight of the 
Most Illustrious Order of St. Patrick, one of His Majesty’s Most 
Honourable Privy Councillors over all the British Possessions in 
the East Indies, being desirous of entering into a Treaty of Amity 
and Commerce with Sultan Ahmed bin Abdool Kureem, Sultan of 
Aden and its Dependencies, lias named, on his part, Sir Home Popiiam, 
Knight of the Most Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem 
anti Ambassador to the States of Arabia ; and the said Sultan has 
named Ahmed Basaib, Prince of Aden, who having both met, and 
being satisfied with each other’s powers, have agreed to the following 
Articles for the mutual benefit of their respective nations, but subject to 
the liual ratification of His Excellency the Most Noble the Governor- 
General of India, — 1802. 


Article 1. 

That there shall be a commercial union between the Honourable tbe East 
India Company, or such British subjects as may be authorised by the Governor- 
General of India, and the subjects of Sultan Ahmed Abdool Kureem. 

Article 2. 

The Sultan agrees to consider the ports of Aden as open for the reception of 
all goods brought on British ships, which goods or merchandize are to pay a duty 
of two per cent, and no more, for the space of ten years on the invoice or mani- 
fest of the goods, and no other charges whatever arc to bo exacted for anchorage, 
weighing or custom-house fees, by tlie Sultan or any of his Officers. 

Article 3. 

After the aforesaid term of ten years is expired, then the duties are to he raised 
to three per cent, and never to he made higher by the Sultan, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, on pain of forfeiting the friendship and commercial intercourse of the 
British nation. The .Sultan also bihds himself not to make any other charges 
whatever on anchorage, weighing, or custom-house fees under the penalty before 
mentioned. 

Article 4. 

The same duties of two per cent, for the first tell years and three per cent, 
for ever after, arc also to he paid on all goods exported from Aden, which arc 
the produce of the Sultan’s territories, or the country surrounding them ; and 
no other charges or demands whatever are to be made on those goods by the Sultan 
or any of his Officers. 

Article 5. 

If, however, any goods are purchased by the Honourable the Company, or 
any British subjects in the town or the port of Aden, the produce of Africa, 



54 


ADEN — The Abilali— NO. 11—1802. 

Abyssinia or any other country, not in the possession of the Sultan, then no duty 
is to be paid, as it is to be considered that such goods have paid a duty on their 
first being landed, and consequently the Sultan agrees that they shall not pay 
duty a second time. 

Article 6. 

The British subjects who use the ports of Aden shall have the privilege of 
transacting their own business, and not be obliged to commit it to the arrange- 
ment of any other person, nor forced to use any broker or interpreter whatever, 
unless they shall please to do so ; and then such broker or interpreter to be a 
person of their own choice, and not subject to any control on the part of the Sultan. 

Article 7. 

It shall be lawful and free for the subjects of the British nation to make over 
their property to whomsoever they please, without any control, either in health 
or in sickness ; and if any person, being a British subject, should die suddenly 
and without a will, then the whole of his property, after paying his just debts 
to the subjects of the Sultan, is' to be vested in trust in the hands of the British 
Resident to be transmitted by him to the Supreme Government, or any other 
Presidency, for the benefit of his family and his lawful heirs. 

Article 8. 

That no dispute may hereafter arise about the person claiming the protec- 
tion of the British flag, whether European or Native, a register shall be kept of 
all the British subjects residing at Aden, where every person having a certificats 
from either of the Presidencies in India shall, by that certificate, be registered 
in the office of the Cadi and the British Resident, and if he fails to register him- 
self, he shall not be entitled to the benefits contained in the seventh Article. 

Article 9. 

The benefit resulting from the seventh Article is to be considered as extend- 
ing to any travelling merchants, or supercargoes, being subjects of the British 
Government, and the crews of all the ships navigating under the British flag, 
uoon a certificate being produced from the Commander of such ships to which 
the 7 belonged at the time of making a will, or dying without one 

Article 10. 

The Sultan binds himself, his heirs and successors, to give every assistance 
in his power to recover the debts due from any of his subjects to the British sub- 
jects ; and that after three months from the time that any British subject shall 
send his demand to the Cadi for his assistance and prove a just debt, that then, 
if it is not paid, the Cadi shall have the power to order the property of the debtor 
to be seized and sold for the benefit of the creditor, but if the person owing the 
debt to the British subject has no property, then the Cadi shall confine him in 


- ADEN — The Abdali — NO. 'II— 1802. 55 

gaol till some arrangement is made which is satisfactory to the British Govern- 
ment. 

Article 11. 

If any disputes arise between registered British subjects, they are to be referred 
to the British Resident, who is to give his award according to the best of his judg- 
ment, founded on the laws of his own country. This award to be final in any 
case ilot exceeding two thousand dollars ; but above that sum it is to be subject 
to an appeal in the different Presidencies of India. If, however, either party 
refuses to comply with this award, then the Sultan is to give power to the Cadi 
to imprison the party, according to the request of the Resident. This Article 
is introduced for the purpose of establishing the most perfect regularity and har- 
mony between the registered subjects of the British nation and those of the Sultan 

Article 12. 

All disputes between the subjects of the Sultan and those of the British nation 
are to be settled by the established laws of the country. 

Article 13. 

The Sultan agrees, for the consideration of dollars, to give over a piece 
of ground on the west side of the town of yards by yards, for the 

use and purpose of the British nation, on which the Company may erect any 
house or building, and completely wall it in if it shall be judged necessary to do 
so ; and the Sultan agrees to prevent any building whatever from being made 
within twenty yards in front of the said Company’s wall or fifteen yards on either 
side. 


Article 14. 

The British nation Hot. to be subject to any indignities, and to have free per- 
mission to enter the town by any gate or direction, and ride or use, without the 
least molestation whatever, either horse, mule, ass or any other beast which they 
may think proper. 

Article 15. 

If any soldier or British subject, not being a Malioincdan, should desert and 
go to the Cadi or other Officer of Government and offer to embrace the Mussul- 
man religion, then the Cadi is to make a report to the Resident that he may claim 
him as a British subject ; but if no claim is made after the expiration of three 
days from the time the report is made by the Cadi or other Officer, he is to act 
as he pleases with the person who so deserts from his own country. 

Article 16. 

The Sultan to give over a piece of ground as a public burying-placc for all 
the British subjects who may die in the territories of the Sultan, and no cliargo 
to be made for the interment of any person except such as shall be agreed On for 
those who assist in the funeral. 



5ti 


ADEN — The Aldali— NOS. 11—1802 AND ill— i839. 


Article 17. 

Any other Articles which may be proposed by either of the parties and mu- 
tually agreed on may be hereafter entered in this Treaty, and the Ambassador 
on the part of the British Government is ready to convey any further proposi- 
tion from the Sultan to the Governor-General, or enter into a contract for the 
purchase of any quantity of coffee, or the delivery of any British goods, on the 
prices which may be mutually agreed on. 

The above-written seventeen Articles of Treaty having been read and mutually 
considered by the Plenipotentiaries on both sides and the Sultan, the Sultan has 
put his hand and seal to a true copy in Arabic, and the British Ambassador Ins 
set his hand and seal to this English copy, an board of His Majesty’s Ship the 
Ranney in Aden Roads, this Gth day of September 1802. 


Home Popham. 


No. III. 

Treaty of Friendship between the Audalees and Engltsii signed by Sultan 
Munsm’s accredited Agent and Son-in-law, — 1839. 

Bismillali Ir-Relunan Ir-Reliim Be Minuet Allah ! 

From this day and the future, Syud Mahomed Iloussain bin Wais bin Hamed 
Suffrain gives this promise to Commander Haines, gentleman, on bis own head 
in the presence of God, that there shall be friendship and peace, and everything 
good between the English and Abdalees. I promise no wrong or insult shall be 
done, but it shall be peace and the British Government agree to the same. Sultan 
Muhsin and all interior Sultans agree to this, and I am responsible ; all those 
even on the roads to the interior shall be kept from molesting any one by me, 
as they were when Sultan Muhsin possessed Aden. This is agreed upon between 
me and Commander Haines on the part of Government, and I promise to do even 
more than I have hitherto done, please God. I require respect from Commander 
Haines in return, and more than before if possible. 

Syud Mahomed Houssain bln Wais, 

Hassan Khateeb. 

S. B. Haines. 


17th Zilkadah, 

The 2nd February 1839. 


ADM— The Abdali— NOS. Ill AND IV— 1839. 


5 ? 

Treaty between Sultan Muhsin and hia Children and the English through 

his accredited Agent, — 1839. 

This Treaty is formed between Syud Mahomed Houssain and Hassan Khateeb 
on account of the Sultan of Lahej and Commander Haines, the Agent to the Gov- 
ernment. 

On the word and promise of Sultan Muhsin, I promise that no insult or moles- 
tation shall take place on the road, or between the English and my people, and 
that all shall be peace and quietness ; and I agree that between my people and 
your people there shall be no difference or oppression, and that the English agree 
that all shall be peace, and that all merchants shall be free to trade without oppres- 
sion. 

The witnesses to this arc — 

Hashed Abdoollah. 

Hadjee Mahomed Houssain. 

Shah Minnatee. 


Hadjee J alter. 


ilk February 1S30. 


Syud Mahomed Houssain bin Wais. 
Hassan bin Abdoollah Khateeb. 

S. B. Haines. 


Approved by the Bombay Government on 23rd February 1839. 


No. IV. 

Translation of a Bond entered into by Sultan Muhsin Fadhl and his 
sons Sultan Ahmed bin Muhsin Fadhl. Ali, Abdoollah, and Fadhl, 
with Commander Haines, the Political Agent at Aden, — 1839. 

Sultan Muhsin Fadhl and his sons named above agree, with a view to the 
tranquillity of their territory, the protection of the poor and weak, the security 
of their tribe and the safety of the roads, that the Sultan shall be answerable 
for any outrages committed by his people on the roads, and that they shall not 
oher any opposition to the British Government , that the interests of both shall 
be identical. The claim for the stipends due to Fadhlee, Yaffaee, Howsbabee 
and Ameer tribes shall be upon the British Government; Sultan Muhsin and 



5o" ' " ADEN— 2fic Abdali— NOS. IV— 1839 AND V— 1843. 

fiis children, in perpetuity, and from generation to generation, shall receive from 
the British Government a stipend of 6,500 . dollars annually, to begin from 
the month of Zilkaud Hegira 1254 (January-February 1839). The land from 
Khor Maksar to Lahej, as far as it is known to belong to the Abdalee tribe, is 
under the authority of the Sultan. In ease of any attacks upon Lahej or the 
Abdalee tribe, or upon Aden or the British troops, we (the Sultan) and the 
British shall make a common cause. Any of our subjects entering Aden must 
be obedient to the British laws, and any of the British subjects, when in Lahej, 
must submit to our authority. If I (the Sultan) or my children proceed to and 
from Aden, we shall not be liable to any customs. 

Dated Tuesday, 6th Rubeeoosance Hegira 1255-^-18lh June 1839. 

Seal of Muhsin Fadhl. 


Witnesses : 

Jaffer, Vakeel of Commander Haines. 
Hassan Abdoollah Ali Khateeb. 
Abdool Sutta bin Abdoollah Rubee 
Ali ba Abdullah. 


Alt Ahmed. 


Ratified by the Right Honourable the Governor-General of India on the 24th 
of October 1839. 


T. H. Maddock, 

OJfg. Secy, to the Govt, of India 
with the Governor-General. 


No. V. 

This Treaty is made by Sultan Muhsin Fadhl, his heirs and successors, 
the tribes of the Azeibee and Sellamee, on their visit to Aden on 
Saturday, the 27th day of Sharel Hadjel Haram 1258,-1843. 

Being anxious to make peace with the British Government, Captain Stafford 
Bettesworth Haines, in the name of the British Government, has given his con- 
sent and has made peace with Sultan Muhsin Fadhl and his adherents, and on 
this Treaty has Sultan Muhsin Fadhl placed his seal, and Captain Stafiord Bettes- 
worth Haines, on the part of the British Government, has set his seal. Inasmuch 
as peace is good and desirable for both parties, the Sultan Mushin Fadhl of Lahoj 
in the name of himself, heirs, successors, and the tribes of Sellamee and Azeibee, 



ADEN — Thc AMali—m.' Y~-1843, ' ' _ ' 59 

and Captain Stafford Bettcsworth Haines, on the part of Her Most Gracious 
Majesty Queen Victoria 1st, of Great Britain and Ireland, have made this holy 
agreement that between the two governments shall exist a firm and lasting friend- 
ship that shall never be broken from the beginning unto the end of all things, 
and to this agreement God is witness. 

Article 1. 

In consideration of the respect due to the British Government, Sultan Muhain 
Fadlil agrees to restore the lands and property of all kinds belonging to the late 
Hassan Abdoolali Khateeb, Agent to the British at Lahej, after such property 
shall be proven. But the Sultan Mulisin expects in return that certain revenue 
and territorial books styled Dciras, said to be in the possession of the Khateeb 
family, should bo restored to the government of Lahej, and then their persons 
shall be safe should they wish to go inland. 

Article 2. 

The Sultan will, on the same consideration, and has, in the presence of wit- 
nesses, settled all claims made by Shumaiel, the Jew, and he will also attend to 
all claims that may be brought against him during his fifteen days’ residence in 
Aden. 

Article 3. 

Such transit duties as shall be hereafter specified shall be exacted by the Sultan, 
who binds himself not to exceed them. The Sultan will also, by every means 
in his power, facilitate the intercourse of merchants, and he shall in return be 
empowered to levy a moderate export duty. 

Article 4. 

The Sultan engages to permit British subjects to visit Lahej for commercial 
purposes and to protect them, allowing toleration of religion with the exception 
of burning the dead. 

Article 5. 

Should any British subject become amenable to the law, he is to be made 
over to the authorities at Aden ; and in like manner arc the subjects of the Sultan 
to be made over to his jurisdiction. 

Article 6. ■ 

The bridge at Klior Maksar is English property, and as such shall be kept 
in order by them ; but should it be proved that it is destroyed by the followers 
of the Sultan, he shall repair it. 

Article 7. 

The Suitan binds himself, as far as he can, to keep the roads clear of plunder- 
ing parties and to protect all merchandize passing through his territories. 



60 


ADEN— The Abdali— NOS. V— 1843 AND VI— 1844 

Artiole 8. 

British subjects may, with the permission of the Sultan, hold in tenure land 
at Lahej, subject to the laws of the country ; and in like manner may the ryots 
of the Sultan hold property in Aden subject to the British laws. 

Article 9. 

Such articles as the Sultan may require for his own family shall pass Aden 
free of duty ; and in like manner all presents and all government property shall 
pass the territories of the Sultan free from transit duty. 

Article 10. 

With regard to the stipend of the Sultan, it entirely rests with Captain Haines 
and the British Government. The Sultan considers the British his true friends ; 
and likewise the British look upon the Sultan of Lahej as their friend. 

This Treaty is concluded on the 11th day of Shalir Mohurrum Al Hamm Ashoor, 
in the year of the Hejira 1258 — 11th February 1843. 

S. B. Haines, Captain, I.N., etc., 

Political Agent, Aden. 


No. VI. 

The following further Bond was entered into by the Sultan of Lahej on 
the 20th February 1844, previous to the renewal by Government of 
payment of his monthly Stipend of five hundred and forty-one German 
Crowns, which had been stopped in consequence of his having broken 
his former engagements. 

Article 1. 

The Right Honourable the Governor-General of India having been graciously 
pleased to grant to me a monthly salary of 541 German crowns, so long as I con- 
tinue to act honestly and amicably towards the British, in every respect •adher- 
ing to the terms of my late Bond, dated 11th February 1843, especially sworn 
and delivered to Stafford Bettesworth Haines, Esq., Captain in the Indian Navy, 
and Political Agent at Aden. 

Article 2. 

I hereby solemnly attest the religious sincerity thereof, and moreover declare 
that in all things relating to the peace, progress, and prosperity of Aden, I will 
use every effort to avert calamity, and lend my utmost aid to support the interests 
of the British flag ; and I will conform in all intention and purpose to the articles 
specified in my late Bond, dated 11th February 1843 



ADEN — The Abdali—mS. VI— 1844 AND VII— 1849. 61 


Article 3. 

I further bind myself, by oath, that should any breach of faith or trespass 
on the aforesaid Bond, either as concerning myself, children, Chiefs, or any other 
person or persons of my tribe, or those in my pay, or any individual whomsoever 
in any way or by any means connected with my government or under my juris- 
diction, or should one or any of the aforesaid persons be in any manner convicted 
of having been privy to or accessory to such breach of faith, or trespass on the 
Treaty, or of committing any act of plunder whatever on the roads leading into 
Aden from the interior, to take the whole responsibility on myself and to be 
answerable to the British ; and if I or other above-mentioned, either openly or 
by secret machination, protect any offender, and do not render entire satisfaction 
to the British, I freely and solemnly swear to relinquish all claim to the salary 
^ranted by the Right Honourable the Governor-General of India and declare 
myself perjured before all men. 

Article 4. 

I further swear that, if I do not strictly abide henceforth by the Bond, 
dated lltli February 1S43 and the above-mentioned conditions, all claim I may 
have on the kindness, friendship and generosity of the British Government is 
rendered null ; and consequently, for any breach of truth or aggression on my 
part for the future, I render myself open to the severest retribution. 


Dated the 20th February 1S44. 


Sultan Muiisin Fadhl. 

S. B. Haines, Captain, I.N., 

and Political Agent at Aden. 


No. VII. ■ 

To secure Commercial Advantages with Friendly Intercourse, Good 
Will, and Lasting Peace to both powers, this Treaty is made, agreed 
!' to, sealed and signed by those possessing full power and authority, viz., 
Sultan Ali Ibn Muhsin Fadhl, for himself, his heirs and successors, 
also for the Azeibee and Sellamee Tribes, and all other tribes and 
divisions of tribes under his government, authority, or control, and 
Stafford Bettesworth Haines, Esq., Caftain in the Indian Navy, 
and Political Agent, Aden, being invested with full power so to do 
from the Right Honourable the Governor-General of India, but it 
must be subject to the final ratification of the Government of Indta 
—1849. 

Inasmuch as peace and commercial intercourse and prosperity is good and 
desirable among all nations, and particularly advantageous to the powers above 
named, the Sultan Ali Muhsin Fadhl of Lahej, in the name of himself, heirs, sue- 



62 


ADEN — The, A Mali— NO . VII— 1849. 

cessors, and all tribes under bis government, control, and authority, and Captain 
Stafford Bettesworth Haines, on tlie part of the Right Honourable the Governor- 
General of India, make this agreement, that between the two governments shall 
exist a firm and lasting friendship which shall never be broken, and both parties 
agree to and ratify, under seal and signature, the following Articles : — 

Article 1. 

In consideration of the respect due to the British Government, Sultan Ali 
Muhsin Fad hi binds himself to secure to the rightful owners all ground, house- 
hold or other properly, that may be within the limits of his territory belonging 
to the British subjects of Aden, and that their persons or agents shall be safe 
and respected should they proceed inland to look after and collect the rents of 
such property, or for any other correct purpose. 

Article' 2. 

Sultan Ali Muhsin Fadhl engages to permit British subjects and all inhabi- 
tants of Aden to visit Laliej, or any part of his territory, for cither commercial 
purposes or pleasure excursions ; lie will ensure them protection, and full tolera- 
tion of religion, with the exception of burning the dead. 

Article 3. 

Should any British subject become amenable to the law, he is to be made 
over for trial and punishment to the authorities at Aden. 

Article 4. •. 

British subjects may, with the permission of the Sultan of Lahcj, hold in tenure 
land at Lahcj, or other towns or villages in his territory, subject to his law ; and 
in like manner may the ryots of the Sultan of Lahcj hold property in Aden, sub- 
ject to British law and jurisdiction. 


Article D. 

The bridge of Khor Maksar, and the plain between it and the mountains of 
Aden forming the isthmus, is British property, and no further north. 

Article G. 

Sultan Ali Muhsin Fadhl binds himself to keep the roads leading to Aden clear 
of plundering parties, and to protect all merchandize passing through his terri- 
tory, punishing, if in his power, all who plunder, molest or injure others. 

Article 7. 

Such articles as the Sultan of Lahej may personally require for his own house- 
hold shall pass Aden free of all custom duty ; and in like manner all government 
property shall pass the territories of the Sultan free from transit duty, 



A DEN — The Abdali— NO. V.TIpvl849. 


63 


The Sultan of Lahej binds himself to levy only the following transit duties 
within his territory upon all goods passing into Aden from the hills, viz., belong- 
ing to British subjects : — 

Wheat 2 por cent, upon inland value. 

.Towari 


Flour 
Ghee 

Grass and fruits of ki 
Honey . 

Fooali 
Dli oil . 

Senna 

Gums, frankincense, 
Worruss . 

Coffee . 

Khaut . 

Vegetables 

Wood 

Grass and kirby 


nds 


etc. 


2 

o 

2 

2 

2 

o 

2 

2 

2 

o 

2 

0 


J-frcc of duty, being the growth of the Abdalco territory. 


and 2 per cent, upon all articles not enumerated. 


Articles passing out from Aden into his territory — 


Outub cotton .... 




. 

. 2 

por cent 

Snuff 

. 




. 2 


Popper ..... 





2 

tt 

White and cotton cloths . 





o 

ft 

Iron lead . . 

. 




2 

tt 

Hookahs . . . 

• 




2 

ft 

Dates . . . . . 

and 2 per cent, on all articles not enumerated above. 




o 

ft 


- Article 8. 

Sultan Ali Muhsin Fadhl binds himself to encourage the growth of all kinds 
of European and Native vegetables for the Aden market. 


Article 9. 

Sultan Ali Muhsin Fadhl most solemnly attests the religious sincerity of this 
agreement, and moreover declares that in all things relating to the peace, progress, 
and prosperity of Aden, he will lend his utmost aid to support the interest of the 
British, and will listen to and, if possible, attend to the advice of, the British Gov- 
ernment representative in Aden in all matters. 

Article 10. 

Sultan Ali Muhsin Fadhl further binds himself, by oath, that should any 
breach of faith or trespass on the aforesaid Bond, either as concerning himself, 
children, relatives, Chiefs or any other person or persons of his tribe, or those 
in authority under him or in his pay, or by any means cormccted with this Gov- 
ernment or under his jurisdiction, or should one or any one of the aforesaid persons 
be in any manner convicted of having been privy to, or accessory to, such breach 

XI 


G 



ru • • AuEN—Thd Ahdali — NOS. VII— 1849 AND VIII— ] 807. 

of faith, or trespass on the treaty, or of committing any act of plunder on the 
roads leading to Aden through his territory, to take the whole responsibility on 
himself and to be answerable to the British Government. Further, if he or any 
other above mentioned, either openly or by secret machination, protect any 
offender, and do not render entire satisfaction to the British, and for any breach 
of the above articles, he freely and solemnly swears to relinquish all claims to 
the salary (hereafter mentioned) granted by the Bight Honourable the Governor- 
General of India and declares himself a perjured man. 

Article 11. 

Stafford Betteswortk Haines, Captain in the Indian Navy, and Political Agent 
at Aden, being duly authorised, does hereby solemnly promise, in the name of 
the Bight Honourable the Governor-General of India, to pay to Sultan Ali Muhsin 
Fadhl, his heirs aud successors, the sum of five hundred and forty-one German 
crowns per month, so long as he or they continue to act with sincerity, truth and 
friendship towards the British, and in every respect strictly adhering to the terms 
of this treaty. 

This treaty is concluded and agreed to this seventh day of March, in the year of 
Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-nine. 

In witness whereof we have set our seal and signature. 

S. B. Haines, Captain, I.N., 
Political Agent. 


Batified by the Most Noble the Governor-General of India on the 30th Octo- 
ber 1849. 


H. M. Elliot, 


Secretary to the Govt, of India 

with the Govr.-Genl. 


No. VIII. 

Terms of Convention entered into between Sultan Fadhl bin Muhsin Abdool- 
lah, on the one hand, and Lieutenant-Colonel IV. L. Merewether, on 
the part of Her Majesty’s Indian Government, on the other, this 7th 
day of March 1867, in regard to an Aqueduct to be made between SnEiKH 
Othman and Aden, and, if necessary, from a more distant point, for the 
purpose of supplying the Garrison and Town of Aden with a sufficiency 
of fresh water, — 1867. 

Article 1. 

The work of the aqueduct to be entirely carried out by the British Govern- 
ment ; and in the first instance everything to make the scheme complete, includ- 
ing’camels for the Persian wheels, to be given by the British Government. 



ADEN — The Abdali — NO. VIII — 1807. " (j5 


Article 2. 

When the aqueduct has been finished and it has been put into complete work- 
ing order, its future maintenance to rest with the Sultan of Lahej, cost of repairs 
and renewal of stock being paid for by him out of his share of the profits realised 
by sale of the water. 

Article 3. 

The works at Sheikh Othraan or at Dhurub, if the aqueduct is extended to 
the latter place, as well as the whole line of aqueduct from those places to Aden, 
to be watched and protected by the Sultan of Lahej. 

Article 4. 

The remains of the old aqueduct to be given free for use in the construction 

of the new work. In return for the use of the 
gallons . 0 1>r!< ° rU|>C ° Per 100 water and what he binds himself to perform, the 

Sultan of Lahej to receive half of the amount* 
realised by the sale of the water in Aden ; account to be rendered and amount 
to be paid over monthly. 

Article 5. 

Repairs, when necessary, to be executed through the Resident, who will then, 
before payment of monthly profits to the Sultan of Lahej, deduct the whole or 
a portion of the cost thereof, as he deems right. 

Article G. 

A good road, 45 feet broad, clear and level, to be made by the Sultan of Lahej 
out of the profits from the Klior Maksar to Sheikh Otlunan and on to Dhurub 
if the aqueduct be extended there. The road may be made under the direction 
of the Resident, who will recover the cost in the same manner as for repairs. 

Article 7. 

The British Government to make a similar road from the Klior Maksar into 
Aden. 

Article 8. 

The above to be binding on Sultan Eadhl bin Mubsin bin Abdoollah, Sultan 
of Lahej, and his successors. 

Fadiil bin Muhsin, 

Sultan of Lahej. 

W. L. Merewether, Licut.-Col., 
Resident, Aden. 

Q 2 




'ADEN— The Ahdali — NO. IX— 1881. . 


^ 66 - 


No. IX. 


Agreement concluded between the Abdali and the Haushabi regarding the 

Zaida lands, — 1881. 

In the name of the Most Merciful God ! 

Considering it necessary to put a stop to the long existing disagreement bet- 
ween the Abdali and the Hausliabi since the former took Zaida from the latter, 
which has been the frequent cause of correspondence, bloodshed, and disputes 
between the above two tribes and Sultans : and whereas these two tribes and 
their Sultans are the friends of the British Government, which does not desire 
any quarrel or disagreement between its friends : and whereas a settlement of 
this long-standing dispute null lead to permanent peace, and remove for ever 
the cause of the misunderstanding and create good-feeling between both tribes, 
therefore Brigadier-General Francis Loch, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, being 
duly authorised on behalf of the British Government, doth hereby covenant with 
the aforesaid Fadthl bin Air Mohsin Fadthl-al-Abdali, Sultan of Lahej, and Ali 
bin Mani, Sultan of the Haushabi, that these two Sultans on behalf of themselves, ■ 
their heirs and successors, shall agree to the terms and conditions herein set forth. 

Article 1. 

Sultan Fadthl bin Ali Mohsin Fadthl will give Sultan Ali bin Mani, the Hau- 
shabi, his heirs and successors, 300 ‘ dimds ’ (acres) of land at Zaida in the river 
Khilaf for cultivation, and will allow the said Sultan Ali bin Mani to build a house 
at Al-Anad, and will give him 500 for the expenditure of the said building. 


Article 2. 

Sultan Ali bin Mani, the Haushabi, his heirs and successors, will not be per- 
mitted to place under cultivation more than 300 acres of land in the vicinity of 
Zaida. 

Article 3. 


If the Resident sees that the fields of the Lahej district have suffered on ac- 
count of waste of water caused by Sultan Ali bin Mani, the Haushabi, he will 
adopt proper measures towards it. 

This agreement is concluded and agreed to on Thursday this 5th day of May 
in the year of Our Lord 1881, corresponding with the 7th day of Jomad-al-Akhir, 
1298 al-Hijra. 

In witness whereof we have settled our hand and seal. 


77 3^8 


Mohammed Mohsin bin Fadthl, 
for himself and 


Sultan Fadthl bin Ali Mohsin, 

Sultan of Lahej. 



ADEN — The Abdali— NOS. IX AND X— 1881, 67 

Witnesses : 

Ahmed Am Mohsin. 

Ahmed Fadthl Mohsin. 

Sayyid Umar Hdsain Al-Wahsh, 

KadiJri of Lahej. 

Francis Loch, Brigadier-General, 
Political Resident, Aden. 

Witnesses : 

Langton Prendergast WALSn, 

Acting Second Assistant Political Resident.. 

Saleh Jatfer, 

Residency Interpreter. 

Aa Mani, 

Sidtan-Al-IIanshabi. 

Add alla ha Alt Salam. 

Mani Salam Mani. 

Signed and sealed on the 14th July 18S1 in the presence of — 

Francis Loch, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden , 

Fred. Hunter, Major, 

Assistant Resident. 

Saleh Jaffer, 

Residency Interpreter. 


No. X. 

The Subaihi Agreement. 

Agreement entered into by the Abdali, placing the Subaihi under their control, 

—1881. 

In the name of the Most Merciful God ! 

' 

As a further proof of the friendship existing between the British Government 
and the Sultan of Lahej, at present Fadthl bin Ali Mohsin Fadthl Al- Abdali, 
assisted by his uncle Mohammed Mohsin and the other descendants of the late 
Mohsin Fadthl, and in order that the power, authority, and greatness of the Abdali 



#8 Aden — He Aldan— no. x— isssl. 

may be increased, therefore Brigadier-General Francis Loch, C.B., Political Resi- 
dent. at Aden, being duly authorised oil behalf of the British Government, doth 
hereby covenant with the aforesaid FadthI bin Ali Mohsili Fadthl Al-Abdali, 
Sultan of Lahej, on behalf of himself, that the Abdali Sultans and their heirs and 
Successors shall hereafter be acknowledged aS exercising sovereign authority 
over the territory occupied by ail the tribes of the Subaihi, and including the 
Mansuri, Makhdumi, Rujai and Dubaini, which three former are at present sti- 
pendiaries of the British Government, but excluding such as at present acknow- 
ledge Turkish supremacy. 

As another proof in furtherance of the foregoing object, Sultan Fadthl bin 
Ali Mohsin Fadthl Al-Abdali hereby binds himself, his heirs and successors to 
observe the following conditions : — 

Article 1. 

As soon as the said Sultan Fadthl bin Ali Mohsin Fadthl Al-Abdali shall sign 
this agreement, he engages to be responsible for all acts of plunder or outrages 
of any kind whenever committed by the Subaihi, and binds himself to make 
immediate and complete restoration or compensation in such cases for all wounds 
or loss of lives or property. 


Article 2. 

No treaty or agreement of any kind is to be entered into with any other State 
for the sale, mortgage, lease, or hire or gift of any portion of the territory now 
or hereafter subject to the authority of the Sultans of the Abdali without the 
consent of the British Government. 


Article 3. 

No forts or buildings ate to be erected on the sea-coast without the permis- 
sion of the Resident at Aden. Nor are arms, ammunition, slaves, merchandise, 
spirituous liquors or intoxicating drugs to be landed or embarked at any part 
of the coast without the sanction of the Resident being previously obtained. 

Article 4. 

No new taxes to be levied by the Abdali on goods passing through the Subaihi 
territory to Aden, nor are the Subaihi to be allowed to levy any taxes on their 
own account. 

Article 5. 

If oue or more Subaihis commit outrages on the road, and the Sultan of the 
Abdali fail to exact the booty from them on account of their having taken refuge 
in Turkish territory, the Abdali Sultan will not be responsible for such people 
alter doing his utmost in recovering the booty and in arresting the plunderers. 



ADEN — The Abdali— NO. X— 1881. _ .. ; 69 

So long as the foregoing stipulations arc complied with by the Sultans of the 
Abdali, the British Government will make guarantee the following arrangements 
and concessions : — 

Article 1. 

The stipend at present paid to the Makhdumi, Mansuri, Rujai and Du bain i 
will be handed over to the Abdali Sultan. 

Article 2. 

No Subaihi will be received or entertained at Aden as guests of the British 
Government, unless a lettor of recommendation be procured from the Sultan 
of Lahej. 

Article 3. 

The Resident binds himself not to allow Sultan Ali bin Mani, the Haushabi 
to divert kafillas from their customary road, which leads through Al-Hauta or 
the Abdali territory.. 

This agreement is concluded and agreed to on Thursday, the 5th day of May, 
in the year of Our Lord 1881, corresponding with the 7th day of .Tomad-al-Akhir, 
1298 Al-Hijri. 

In witness whereof we have settled our hand and seal. 


Witnesses : 

Ahmed Ali Mohsin. 
Ahmed Fadthl Mohsin. 


Mohammed Mohsin Fadthl 
for himself and 

Sultan Fadthl bin Ali Mohsin, 

Sulkin^ of Lahej. 


Omar Husain Al-Wahsh, 

Kadthi of Lahej. 

Francis Loch, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 

Witnesses : 

L. P. Walsh, Assistant Resident. 

Saleh Jafjfer, Residency Interpreter. 

RIPON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 



70' ADEN— The- Abdali—'NO : ' XI— 1882. 

Tliis agreement was ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India at Calcutta on the twenty-first day of January A.D. one thousand 
eight hundred and eiglity-two. 

Charles Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. XI. 

Agreement with the Abdali Sultan for the purchase of Shaikh ’Othman, etc., 

—1882. 

Articles of a treaty existing between Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin Fadthl- 
al-’Abdali, Sultan of Lahej and its dependencies, on behalf of himself, his uncles 
and his and their heirs and successors, on the one part and Major-General Francis 
Loch, Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath and Political Resi- 
dent at Aden, on behalf of the Government of India, on the other part. 

Whereas by Article V of a treaty concluded on the 7th March 1849 between 
Stafford Bettesworth Haines, Captain in the Indian Navy and Political Agent 
at Aden, on behalf of the Government of India, and Sultan ’Ah Mohsin Fadthl, 
on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, it was agreed that the bridge of 
Khor Maksar and the plain between it and the mountains of Aden, forming the 
Isthmus, are British property and no further north ; and whereas a sum of dollars 
(541) five hundred and forty-one is under the before-mentioned treaty payable 
monthly to the said Sultan ’Ali Mohsin Fadthl, his heirs and successors, so long 
as he or they continue to act with sincerity, truth and friendship, towards the 
British, and adhere strictly to the terms of the aforesaid treaty ; and whereas 
Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin Fadthl for himself, his uncles and his and their 
heirs and successors, has agreed to sell to the British Government for a sum of 
dollars (25,000) twenty-five thousand only and an increase, to the present sub- 
sidy of dollars (541) five hundred and forty-one, of dollars (1,100) one thousand 
and one hundred per mensem, of which (600) six hundred are for the profit of 
water, and (500) five hundred for that of salt, making in all dollars (1,641) one 
thousand six hundred and forty-one per mensem, all that (tract of) land lying 
to the north of the peninsula of Aden, and bounded by a line commencing from 
a point on the sea-shore one and five-sixteenths of a mile due east of the north 
end of the Khor Maksar causeway and running north-east by north seven and 
a quarter miles to a point on the coast line. From hence the boundary passes 
from the sea westward three and a quarter miles to a point near Imad. From 
this point the boundary line, after passing through an imaginary point one mile 
north of the Wali of Shaikh ’Othman, extends to a mark on the bank of the Wadi 
Toban situated one mile inland. From this point the boundary runs south-south- 
west to the sea. 



ADEN — The Abdali— NO. SI— 18Sl • - . ... . . 71 

Article 1. 

This therefore witnessetli that the said Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin Fadthl, 
in pursuance of the conditions of this treaty and in consideration of the sum of 
dollars (25,000) twenty-five thousand already received and the monthly increase 
of the subsidy of dollars (1,100) one thousand one hundred agreed to be paid to 
him by the British Government, doth hereby for himself, his uncles and his and 
their heirs and successors, cede and confirm unto the (hands of the) said British 
Government all that portion of territory as herein above described, to be retained 
by the said British Government for ever as a part of its territories ; and the said 
Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin Fadthl does further bind himself, his uncles and 
his and their heirs and successors, to make no claim hereafter on the said tracts 
of land or any revenue derived from them. 

Article 2. 

And the said Major-General Francis Loch, C.B., Political Resident of Aden, 
being duly authorized does hereby solemnly promise in the name of His Excel- 
lency the Governor-General in Council to pay to the said Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali 
Mohsin Fadthl, his heirs and successors, the sum of dollars (1 ,G41) one thousand 
six hundred and forty-one made up as aforesaid per mensem. 

Article 3. 

And the said Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin Fadthl on the one part and the 
said Major-General Francis Loch, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, being duly 
authorized on the other part, do declare that the convention made and signed 
on the 7th day of March 1867 in regard to the aqueduct between Shaikh ’Obliman 
and Aden by Sultan Fadthl Mohsin Fadthl on the one part and Lieutenant- 
Colonel \V. L. Merewether, Political Resident at Aden, on the other part, is 
hereby cancelled. 

Article 4. 

So long as the Sultan of Lahej possesses the right to levy the taxes on goods 
entering Aden by land as heretofore, he will be permitted to collect his dues as 
at present (he is doing) in British territory at the rates mentioned in the treaty 
of 1849. 

Article 5. 

If any soldier of the Sultan of Lahej escape to British territory, and he is re- 
quired by the Sultan, the Resident will send him ; and in the same manner if any 
of the Sultan’s subjects, after committing an heinous offence of the kind for which 
the British Government is accustomed under similar circumstances to grant ex- 
tradition, takes refuge in Shaikh ’Obhman, Imad or Aden, and is required by 
the Sultan, and if there is reasonable ground for believing that he has committed 
the offence, the Resident will also send him back ; and the Sultan agrees on his 
part to send back British soldiers or subjects who escape to Lahej or its territory 
from Aden or its dependencies if their extradition be demanded. 



72 AREN - -the -Abdali— NOS. X 1—1882 AND Xll— 1895. 

Article 6. 

If the Resident require the services of any ’Abdali, he will employ him through 
the Sultan, and in case the ’Abdali or ’Abdalis resign, or are dismissed, and if 
they are replaced by other ’Abdalis, the Resident will ask for them through the 
Sultan. 

Article 7. 

And the territories of the said Sultan Fadthl bin Ali Mohsin Fadthl, his heirs 
and successors, shall remain under British protection as heretofore. 

Done at Shaikh ’Othrnan on Monday, the sixth day of February, in the year 
of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two, corresponding with 
the 17th day of Rabi-al-Awwal of the year 1299 of the Hizra. 

Sultan of Laiiej and its Dependencies. 

In the presence of — • 

F. M. Hunter, Major, 

Assistant Resident, Aden. 

Omar Hoosain Mahmud-al-Wahsh. 

Done at Aden on Tuesday, the seventh day of February, in the year of Our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two, corresponding with the eighteenth 
day of Rabi-al-Awwal of the year 1299 of the Hizra. 

Francis Loch, Major-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 

In the presence of — 

F. M. Hunter, Major, 

Assistant Resident, Aden. 

RIPON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General 
of India, at Calcutta, on the 7th day of March 1882. 

C. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department. 


No. xn. 

Protectorate Treaty, — Haushabi, — 1895. 

The British Government and Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi Sultan 
of Musaimir-bin-’Ubaid, Ar-Raha and the Haushabi country with their depen- 
dencies, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peaco 
and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Charles 
Alexander Cuningham, Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 



ADEN — the Abdali-m. Xtl-4895. _ 73 

The said Brigadier-General Charles Alexander Cnniughani and Sultan Molisin 
bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the fol- 
lowing articles : — 

Article I. 

The British Government in compliance with the wish of the undersigned Sultan 
Mobsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi, hereby undertakes to extend to Musaimir- 
bin-’Ubaid, Ar-Raha and the Haushabi country with their dependencies, which 
are under -his authority and jurisdiction the gracious favour and protection of 
Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 


Article II. 

The said Sultan Molisin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi, agrees and promises 
on behalf of himself, his relations, heirs, successors and the whole tribe to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign 
nation or power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Govern- 
ment, and further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden or 
other British officer of the attempt by any other power to interfere with 
Musaimir-biu-’Ubaid, Ar-Raha and the Haushabi country and their dependencies. 

Article III. 

The said Sultan Molisin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi, hereby binds himself, 
his relations, heirs, successors and the whole tribe for ever, that he or they will 
not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of the Haushabi 
territory and its dependencies, or any part of the same at any time to any power 
or person other than the British Government. 

Article IV. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this sixth day of August, 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, A.D. 

0. A. Cuninguam, Brigadier-General , 
Political Resident , Aden. 

Witness : 

W. B. Ferris, Major, 

First Assistant, Political Resident . 

I, Fadthl bin ’Ali Molisin Fadthl al ’Abdali, Sultan of Lahej, certify that 
Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi Sultan, enters into this treaty under my 
auspices and signs it with my Ml knowledge and consent. 

Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin, 

Sultan of Lahej , 

ELGIN, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 



74 AbilN — The Abdali — NO. XIII— 1910. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the 20th day of October, A.D., one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-five. 

W. J. Cuningham, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 

No. XIII. 

Terms of a Convention regarding the water supply op Aden made this elev- 
enth day of April 1910 between General E. DeBrath, C.B., C.I.E., Political 
Resident, Aden, on behalf of the British Government on the one part and 
Sir Ahmed Eadthl Mohsin, K.C.S.I., Sultan of the Abdali, his heirs 
and successors on the other part. 

Sir Ahmed Eadthl Mohsin on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors hereby 
agrees : — 

(I) to give to the British Government in perpetuity for use solely as head- 
works of the water supply a piece of land situated on the left bank and eastward 
of Wadi-As-Saghir as described in the sketch below measuring approximately 
110 acres (or 4,000 feet in length and 1,200 feet in width as stated therein). 

Proposed site for head works. 

Plan of site shoiving trial well plot. 

Scale 1 inck=800 feet. 




ADEN— The Abauii — NC. ^iju. — 1910. 


-75 


If on trial the above site be proved unsuitable for wells, a similar site will 
in lieu' of tbe same, be cbosen by Government elsewhere on, the left bank and in 
a North Easterly direction of Wadi-As-Saghir. 

(II) not to do or allow to be done any tiring that will reduce or contaminate 

the supply of water yielded by the wells sunk on the above site, i.e., the working 
of wells by machinery and the throwing of dirt within a distance of 400 feet of 
the above site. • 

(III) to afford every facility to the British Government to construct, main- 
tain, if necessary on the Sultan failing to carry out the provisions of (IV), to pro- 
tect the above-mentioned site, main and accessories. 

(IV) to safeguard at all times the aforesaid works and those employed upon 

them. 1 


The British Government on the other part hereby agrees so long as the afore- 
said conditions are observed : — 

(a) to pay from the Aden Settlement Eund to the Sultan of Lahej his suc- 

cessors and heirs from the date the land is taken up and for so loim 
as the waterworks are maintained, the sum of Rs. 3,000 per mensem! 
And the Sultan of Lahej undertakes that, in case the water is dimi- 
nished owing to his failing to protect the works against damage by 
the Subehis or his tribesmen the Abdalis, then he is entitled to no 
r> Es - 15 P” 100,000 gallons. Out of the aforesaid amount 
its. 1,000 to be paid to the land-owners in consideration of the utili- 
sation of the water for Aden and as rent of the land on which the wells 
are sunk. In the event of Government ceasing from drawing the 
water the Treaty shall become null and void. 

(b) not to cause any eventual interruption of the water-courses and to re- 

pair all damage done to cultivable land. 

(c) with reference to this agreement and the water supply herein projected 

t e British Government undertake on their part that nothing shall 
be done to diminish or affect the easting rights and absolute inde- 
pendence of the Sultan of Lahej, that they shall not interfere in any 
way id the administration of his State. ^ 

This convention is subject to final ratification by tbe Government of India. 


J. A. Bell, 

Brigadier-Gen era l. 


E. DeBrath, Major-General , 

Political Resident, Aden . 


. J. Davies, Lieut.-Cohncl , 

^ rst Assistant Resident , Aden. 

Sultan or the Abdalt. 



J7 ( n .. . ' ADEN— The. Abrtali — NO. XT V— 1919. 

No. XIV. 

SUBATHT AGREEMENT WITH THE SULTAN OE TjAHE.T, — 1919. 

By virtue of the friendly relations existing between the British Government 
and the Sultans of Laliej, His Higliucss Sultan Sir Abdul Karim bin Fadl bin Ali, 
K.C.I.E., hereby offers to maintain security on the trade route lying in the Subaihi 
country, and to settle all transgressions perpetrated by the Subnihis against mer- 
chants and others travelling on the trade route. So long as this offer remains 
operative, Major-General J. M. Stewart, C.B., the Political Resident, engages on 
behalf of the British Government to adopt the following proposals : — 

Article 1. 

All stipends granted by the Government to the Subnihis shall be made over 
to the Sultan for disbursement. No Subnihis will be admitted into Aden ns guests 
except with the written recommendation of the Sultan, nor will they be given 
presents in Aden unless the Sultan so desires. 

Article 2. 

Should necessity arise for the dismissal of n Subaihi Sheikh and the appoint- 
ment of his successor, or if the suspension of a stipend on account of disaffec- 
tion, transgression or bad conduct of any Sheikh be thought, advisable, the Sultan, 
after consultation with the Political Resident, shall carry out the necessary ar- 
rangements. 

Article 3. 

Should any event of a serious nature take place on the trade route in the 
Subaihi country, and on this account it be found necessary to punish any of the 
Subnihis, the Sultan shall report the case to the Political Resident and both the 
Political Resident, and the Sultan shall, after consultation, act. conjointly io deal 
effectively with the offenders. 

Tins agreement is subject to ratification by the British Government. 

Article 4. 

The above agreement shall have effect from this date. In virtue thereof 
we the undersigned have affixed our signatures and seals at Aden this 27th 
day of February 1919. 

.1. M. Stewart, Major-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 

IT. F. Jacob, Lt. -Colonel, 

Chief Political Officer, 

Aden Field Force. 

B. W. Reii.lv, Major, 

Assistant Political Agent, Aden. 

I 



TTY Pi esses — 



ADEN— T/m Sub ci hi — NO. XV— 1339. 77 


No. XV. 


Engagement entered into on tire 19th February 1839 by Sheikh Mahomed 
Syud the Musaidee, and Sheikh J was Abdoollah, Sheikh Maiiomkd 
bin Ahmed, Sheikh Koiel, o£ the Musaidee Territory of the Subaihees, 
and Commander Haines, of the Indian 'Nav/, on behalf of the Honour- 
able East India Company. 


Between us there shall be friendship and lasting peace ; our wishes shall be^ 
one of kindness. Aden shall b^at^nea^e mie^iipjeCTh^rbotli coun- 

• tries -nball-lja S-tr-peao<3 No molestation or insult shall be offered in their inter- 
course with each other. 


Dated 19lh Felniary 1839. 


Signed by the Chieftains. 


Witnesses : 

Abdool Kazzak, Cazce of Aden. 
Jaefer bin Moolla Abdoollah. 


Engagement of Peace and Friendship entered into on the 20th February 1839 
by Shaikh Mahommed bin Ali Busalee, of the Southern Sub-division 
of the Subaihee, with Commander Haines, of the Indian Navy, on behalf 
of the Honourable East India Company. 

Between us there shall be lasting friendship and peace, and we agree to it in 
the presence of God. Our friendship shall be as one. 

There shall be peace with Aden, and the subjects of my tribe and the subjects 
of the British shall have free intercourse, and not be molested or insulted in cither’s 
territory. 

Any breach of this treaty or of the roads to the Red Sea being infested witli 
robbers, shall be on the head of Shaikh Mahomed bin Ali, and lie will be answer- 
able that no kafilas shall be molested. This Shaikh Mahomed bin Ali not only 
promises in his own district, but in that of the tribe of Artefce, whom he also 
controls. 

If property, cither from Aden or from the Subcc territory, wishes to pass 
through the other territory, it shall be respected and protected ; and for any in- 
fringement Shaikh Mahomed Busalee shall be answerable. 

Shaikh Mahomed bin Alt Al-Busalee. 

Dated 20th February 1839. 

Witnesses : 

Syud Alowi. 

Alt bin Abdoollah. 

Shetkh Arsel El- Musaidee. 


S. B. Haines. 



78 , 


-ADEN — The Subcihi — NO. XV — 1839. 


between Syud Mahomed Jaffer bin Stud Aidroos, Chief of 'Wahat 
™“ a an under him, ana Commander Haw Aoent of Government,- 

1839. 

We agree to lasting peace and friendship. 

Aden is open for our free intercourse and friendship, and so 18> our country 
to each other, and both parties agree there shall be no oppression or msu . 

Syud Mahomed Jaffer bin Syud Aidroos. 


Engagement entered into on the 18th February 1839 between Sheikh Jivas 
bin Sallaam Al-Abbadee and his tribe with Commander Haines, of the 
Indian Navy, on behalf of the Honourable East India Company. 

Between our respective territory there shall be peace and friendship, and 
Aden shall be at peace with the Abbadees. 

A free intercourse for barter shall be permitted without insult or oppression; 
and in proof of the faith of this. Sheikh Jwas bin Sallaam agrees that his people 
shall not molest or plunder on the roads leading to Aden, and if any such mis- 
demeanour occurs, he will be answerable. 

Jwas bin Sallaam Al-Abbadee. 

Bated 13th February 1839. 


Witness : 

Syud Alowi. 


S. B. Haines. 


Engagement of Peace and Friendship entered into on the 18th February 1839 
by Shaikh Mehdi bin Ali Zabaree with Commander Haines, of the Indian 
Navy, on behalf of the Honourable East India Company. 

Between us and our countries there shall be peace and friendship ; it shall be 
lasting ; our interest shall be one. 

We agree that Aden and the English shall be at peace with my tribe, and that, 
the subjects of either may enter the other’s territory, and shall neither be op- 
pressed nor insulted but treated with friendship. This we promise on both sides. 

r 

Whoever may enter Aden of Shaikh Mehdi’s tribe shall he respected and al- 
lowed free intercourse, attending of course to the laws. 



ADEN — The Subcihi — NO. NY — 1839. 


79 


If robbery on the roads takes place, either by Shaikh Mchdi’s tribe or any 
other within his district, he will be responsible. 

Shaikh Mehbi bin Ali. 

Dated the 18th February 1S39. 

Witnesses : 

Mahomed Houssain. 


Syud Alowi. 

S. B. Haines* 


Engagement 'enterecTinto on tlic 18th February 1839 by the Shaikh of Zaidee, 
Shaikh Sallah Al-Miodee, with Commander Haines, of the Indian Navy, 
on behalf of the Honourable East India Company. 


Between our respective countries there shall be peace and friendship, and 
Aden be at peace with us. The subjects of cither may enter the other’s terri- 
tory without being subject to insult or oppression, merely attending to the laws. 


Dated the lSlh February 1839. 


Shaikh Sallah Al-Miodee. 


Witness : 

Abdool Razzak, Cazce. 


S. B. Haines. 


Engagement of Friendship and Peace entered into, on the 10th March 1839, 
by Aoun bin Yoosoof Al-Sherzebee with Captain Haines, of the Indian 
Navy, on behalf of the Honourable East India Company. 

This paper is my witness, and is written by Shaikh Kasim bin Sjmd Slierzebee, 
and the interpretation is good. I am a friend and a great friend with the English ; 
it is true and permanent friendship. I trust in God that it will never be other- 
wise, and that nothing wrong shall ever take place, not even the slightest insult. 
My people shall enter your territory, and yours mine, as friends. Whatever 
the English please shall he done, and there shall never he two words. I will al- 
ways act upon your seal, whatever it may be. Our friendship is known to God, 
and He is witness to it. 

Aoun bin Yoosoof Al-Sherzebee. 

Dated the 10th March 1839. 

Witnesses : 

Syud Alowi bin Zain bin Syud Aidroos. 

Hadjee .Tapper, . 

SHArKH Othman. 

S. B. Haines, 

Political Agent. 


XI 


it 




Aden — i'he, guieiid — no. xvi i 87 i. 
No. XVI. 


Translation of an 

Tribe for the Protection of the Roads at a.ren, 


The reason of writing this is as follows : 

Whereas there has been much delay and meoRtemenoe caused to ■ ‘“tellers 
wnereas agreement has been made with the Poll- 

...h™« 4 „urne y s toandfrom Adeu J Mitto may be placed to 

the way of those who travel upon the uo. 


Therefore we, whose names are hereunto subscribed, namely Abdoollah bin 
Khadhar, the Mansooree, Naseer bin Khadhar, the Mansooree, Ahmed Tukkee, 
the Mansooree, Ibraheem Sayf, the Khaleefee, Ali bin Ahmed, the Khaleefee, 
Abd Ahmed bin Mahamed Saeed, the Atawee, Hasan Nooman, the Khaleefee, 
do hereby agree with Major-General Charles William Tremenheere, C.B., Poli- 
tical Resident at Aden, on the part of the British Government, as follows : — 


Article I. 

That we hereby forego and relinquish all dues or taxes upon goods within 
our territory, or our roads, or in our markets, which have hitherto been levied 
upon travellers passing to or from Aden. 

Article 2. 

That it is incumbent upon us to keep the roads secure and peaceful, and if 
any one belonging to our tribe plunders or otherwise injures travellers, we bind 
ourselves both to cause the restoration of the plundered property and in addition 
to punish the offender. 

Article 3. 

That if it can be shown that we have been lax or negligent in causing the re- 
storation of the plundered property as above written, we bind ourselves to make 
good the same, and it shall be within the power of the Political Resident at Aden 
to satisfy the claim from any stipend which may be payable to us in commuta- 
tion of the dues. 

Article 4. 

That it shall be within the power of the Political Resident at Aden, and at 
his discretion, to put an end to the payment of any stipend which we may receive 
in commutation of the dues, and in that case it shall be lawful for us to revert to 
the scale of dues formerly levied by us upon merchandise. 

Article 5. 

That should any plundering take place, or any outrages be committed within 
our territory by members of another tribe, we will endeavour to the utmost of 
our power to cause the restoration of the plundered property. 



ADEN — The Subeihi — NO. XVI— 1871. - 81 

Article 6. 

That there should be perpetual peace and friendship between us and the Bri- 
tish Government and the friends and allies of the British Government. 


Article 7. 

That we are content to Teceive, in consideration of this agreement, the sum 
of twenty -five dollars (§25) monthly from the Political Resident at Aden. .. 

Article 8. 

This Agreement is binding upon us and our successors and upon the British 
Government for ever, and shall be held to be in force from the 15th day of May 
A.D. 1871, answering to the 25th day of Zafar A.H. 1288. 


Written on the 13th day of May A.D. 1S71. 

Marks of — 

Hassan Nooman, the Khalccfee. 

Abd Ahmed, the Atawee. 

Ali ben Ahmed, the Khalcefee. 

Ibraheem Sayf, the Khalcefee. 

Ahmed Tukkee, the Mansoorce, 
Abdoollah bin Khadhar, the Mansodree. 
Nasir bin Khadar, the Mansootee. 


C. W. Tremenheere, 
Resident . 


Witnessed by — 

Sultan Badhl Bin Mtjhsin, of Lakey 

„ Mohammed bin Muhsin bin Badhl. 
Sheikh Saleh bin Ali, the Doobeynee. 

„ Abdool Ktjreem, the Mansoorce. 

» Salim bin Abdoollah, the Rajai. 


Similar engagements entered into by the Makhdumi and Rajai sections of 
the Subaihees, the stipend granted to the former being $30 and that to the latter 
$40 a month. 



82 ^ ADEN— The Subcihi— NOS, XVII AND XVIII— 1871. 


No. xvn: 

Translation of a Bond executed by Abdullah bin Khadhar, of the Man- 

sooree, — 1871. 


I, Abdullah bin Khadhar, Mansooree, do hereby agree and do bind myself 
with Major-General Charles William Tremenheere, C.B., Political Resident at 
Aden, that if any plundering or any outrage be -committed by the family of the 
Kuraysee in my territories, or beyond my territories, I will be security and ans- 
' executed this bond of .’my-'V' wif 

free will, and my signature is hereunto subscribed. 


Dated at Sheikh Oilman, the 13th day of May A.D. 1871, answering to the 23rd day 

of Zafar A.H. 1288. 

Witnesses : Mark of 

Sultan Fadhl bin Muhsin bin Facet,. Abdoollah bin Khadhar. 

Mohammed bin Muhsin bin Fadhl, 


Sheikh Hussan Nooman, the Kbaleefee. 

„ Abd Ahmed bin Mohammed Saeed, 
the Atawee. 


C. W. Tremenheere, 
Resident. 


No. XVIII. 


Translation of an Engagement entered into by the Atafee Chiefs for the 
Protection of Shipwrecked British Subjects,' — 1871. 

The reason of writing this is as follows 

That we whose names are hereunto subscribed, namely, Salcli bin Kajih, the 
Atafee, Ali bin Yehya, the Atafee, Khadhar bin Salim, the Atafee, Saeed bin 
Ali bin Ali, the Atafee, Ahmed Sa’ad Sherweet, the Atafee, Sa’ad bin Slienveet, 
the Atafee, Nasir bin Saleh, the Beleshee, Ali bin Abdoollah, the Yusufee, do 
hereby agree with Major-General Charles William Tremenheere, C.B., Political 
Resident at Aden, as follows : — 

Article 1. 

That it is incumbent on us to preserve j>eace and foster security in our tern- 
tory and upon our shores. 

Article 2. 

That in the event of any steamer, ship, or other vessel belonging to the Bri- 
tish Government, or to a British subject, or to any other power, or to the subjects 
of any other power, being wrecked upon our shores, protection shall be accorded 
to her and her crew, and the latter shall receive good treatment. 



Amm—Thc Subcihi — NO. XVIII. — 1.871:— -• . 53 

Article 3. 

That should the crew, as aforesaid, wish to proceed to Aden, we will protect 
them and conduct them in safety to that place. 

Article 4. 

That if any sailor belonging to any vessel which may be at anchor in Aden 
or the neighbouring harbours, or if any soldier belonging to the garrison of Aden, 
shall desert to our country, we will protect him and conduct him in safety to 

to be dealt with there.- - — — " 

Article 5. 

That there shall be perpetual friendship between us and the British Govern- 
ment and the friends and allies thereof. 

Baled al Sheikh Oilman, the IStli day of May A.D. 1S71, answering to the 23rd day 

ofZafarA.T1.12SS. 

Marks of — 

Sheikh Saleii bin Kajeh, Atafce. 
Alt bin Yeiiya, Atafec. 

Kiiadhar bin Salim, Atafce. 

Salih bin Salim, Atafec. 

SALin bin Saeed, Atafec. 

Ivajih bin Muiisin, Atafec. 

Kassim bin IIassan, Atafec. 

Saeed bin Ali, Atafec. 

Awah bin ItAJin, Atafec. 

Nasir bin Saleh, Beleshec. 

Alt bin Abdoollah, Yusu/cc. 

Sa’ad bin Sherweet, Atafce. 

Witnessed by — 

Sultan Babul bin Muiisin bin 
Eadhl, the Abdallcc. 

Sultan Mahommed bin Muhsin C. W. Tremenheere 

bin Fadhl. Resident. 

Sheikh Salim bin Ghanim, the 
Somali. 

Abdool Kureem, the Mansooree. 

Sheikh Nasir bin Saeed, the ' . . 

Makhdumi. 



84 


ADEN — The Sulcihi— NO. XIX— 1889, 


No. XIX. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Ann— 1889. 

The British Government and Sa’id-ba-Ali, ’Abdalla-ba-Ali, Ahmed bin Saleh- 
ba-Rajeh, Ali Mohammed, Saleh-ba-Sa’id Abdaila Mohammed, Fara Hasan, 
Aii-ba-Yahya, Rajeh-ba-Hasan, Rajeh-ba-Ali, Abdalla-bin-Awadth, and Ahmcd- 
. -al-Ajam, Sheikhs of the Atifi territory, being desirous of maintaining and streng- 
thening the relations ot peace and e.xistina between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a Treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg and Said-ba-Ali, 
’Abdalla-ba-Ali, Ahmed-bin-Saleh-ba*Rajeh, Ali Mohammed, Saleh-ba-Sa’id 
Abdaila Mohammed, Fara Hasan, Ali-ba-Yakya, Rajeh-ba-Hasan, Rajeh-ba-Ali 
’Abdalla-bin-Awadth, and Ahmed-al-Ajam, Shaikhs of the Atifi. tribe aforesaid, 
have agreed upon and concluded the following articles : — 


Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Shaikhs of the Atifi tribe, hereby undertakes to extend to the Atifi territory on 
the south coast of Arabia and situated between the territory of the Birhimi tribe 
and that under the authority of the Turkish Government at Shaikh Sa’id, and 
which territory is under their authority and jurisdiction, the gracious favour 
and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 


Article 2. 

The aforesaid Shaikhs of the Atifi tribe agree and promise, on behalf of them- 
selves, their relations, heirs and successors, and the whole of the tribe, to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, agreement or treaty, with any foreign 
nation or power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Govern- 
ment ; and further promise to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, 
or other British officer, of the attempt by any other power to interfere with the 
Atifi territory. 


Article 3. 

The aforesaid Shaikhs of the Atifi tribe bind themselves, their relations, heirs 
and successors, and the whole tribe for ever, that they will not cede, sell, mort- 
gage, lease, hire or give, or otherwise dispose of the Atifi territory, or any part 
of the same, at any time, to any power, other than the British Government. 



ADEN — Th'c Subcihi — NO. XIX— 1889. , 85 

Artiole.4. 

The abovo Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof tho 
undersigned have affixed their signatures and seals at Aden this seventeenth day 
of September one thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine. 


A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident. 


Aden, the 17th September 1889. 

» . XT/ /in'* • * 1 

'If t/v*£vOO • 

E. V. Stace, Lieutenant-Colonel, 
First Assistant Political Resident . 


Ahmed ba Saleh ba Rajeh. 
Abdalla ba ’Ali. 

Alt Mahommed. 

Saleh ba Sa’id. 

Abdalla Mahommed. 

Faka Hasan. 

Ali Yahya. 

, Rajeh ba Hasan. 

Rajeh ba ’Ali. 

Abdalla bin Awadte. 


Ahmed al-’Ajam. 


Witness : 

A. K. S. Jaeeer, 

Acting Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 


LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 26th day of February A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. Chningham, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government 
of India, Foreign Department. 



ADEN — The Subcihi — NO. XX— 1889. 


No. XX. 

Protectorate Treaty , witl\ the Barhimi, — 1889. 

The British Government and Ali bin Ahmed Am-Tommi, Khalaf bin Tarak, 
Awadth bin Mohammed, Ahmed Dakam, Awadth bin Hasan, Hadi bin Haidara, 
Ali bin Mashkul, Awadth bin Salim, Yahya bin Khadar, Salim bin Jabir, Hasan 
Ghalib, Awadth bin Uwaid, and Abdalla Ma’azabi, Shaikhs o! the Barhimi 
territory, being desirous oi n iu i ii u a tin iiy-.and strenccthenine: the. relations. < of neaee 
and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Besident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg and Ali bin Ahmed 
Am-Tommi, Khalaf bin Tarak, Awadth bin Mohammed, Ahmed Dakam, Awadth 
bin Hasan, Hadi bin Haidara, Ali bin Mashkul, Awadth bin Salim, Yahya bin 
Khadar, Salim bin Jabir, Hasan bin Ghalib, Awadth bin Uwaid, and Abdalla 
Ma’azabi, Shaikhs of the Barhimi tribe aforesaid, have agreed upon and Con- 
cluded the following articles : — 

Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Shaikhs of the Barhimi tribe, hereby undertakes to extend to the Barhimi terri- 
tory on the south coast of Arabia, and situated between the territories of the 
Akrabi and Atifi tribes, which territory is under their authority and jurisdiction, 
the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article 2. 

The aforesaid Shaikhs of the Barhimi tribe agree and promise on behalf of 
themselves, their relations, heirs and successors and the whole tribe, to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign 
nation or power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Govern- 
ment ; and further promise to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, 
or other British Officer, of the attempt by any other power to interfere with tho 
Barhimi territory. 

Article 3. 

The aforesaid Shaikhs of the Barhimi tribe hereby bind themselves, their 
relations, heirs and successors, and the whole tribe for ever, that they will not 
cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire or give, or otherwise dispose of, the Barhimi terri- 
tory, or any part of the same, at any time, to any power, other than the British 
Government. 



ADEN — The Sub'eihi — NO. XX— 1889. 


- < ~ 


487 


• ' - ' Article 4. ’’ ■ 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures and seals at Aden this twenty-first day 
of September one thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine. 


A. 


Aden ; 

The 21st September 1SS9 . 

'Witness'?'' 

E. V. Stace, Lieutenant-Colonel, 

■ First Assistant Political Resident. 


6. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 

«avi r 

.}» jlvuuiu . nritfitan " '-<' 1 .'-' ' 


Ali bin Ahmed am-Tommi. 


Khalap bin Tabak. 


Awadth bin Mohammed, 
Aiimed Dakam. 


Awadth bin Hasan. 
Hadi bin Haidaea. 
Ali bin Mashkul. 
Awadth bin Salim. 


Yahya bin Khadar. 
Salim bin Jabir. 
Hasan bin Ghalib. 
Awadth bin Uwaid. 
Abdalla Ma’azabi. 

Witness : 


A. K. S. Japfer, 

Acting Native Assistant Resident. 


LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 



ADEN — The Suheihi -NO. NX 188 


qQ — " | 

the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Tide Treaty was ratified y ? February A.D. one thousand eight 

Council at Tort William on the 26th day o 

hundred and ninety. \V. J. Cunxngham, 


Offa. Secy, to the Govt, of India, 

Tienart merit. 



ADEN — The 'Fadhli — NO. XXI—' 1839: ‘ - 

No. XXI. 

Translation of a Bond given by Sultan Ahmed bin Abdoollah, Fadhlee, 

—1839. 

Sultan Abmed bin Abdoollah Fadhlee, his brothers Saleh, Nasir and Fadhl, 
and his cousins, do hereby agree that they enter into an agreement with their 
tribe, and those dependent upon them and those upon the latter, as before ar- 
ranged with Commander Haines, who agrees to pay to these people the stipend 
which they used to receive from Sultan Muhsin Fadhl Abdalee. The agreement 
which has passed between them (the Sultan and Commander Haines) is, that 
whatever belongs to the Sultans of Abdalee, former and succeeding, and to those 
of Fadlilee, former and succeeding, shall be theirs ; that the Abdalee shall be res- 
ponsible, as stipulated, for all injuries or outrages perpetrated in Lahej, its vici- 
nity, or within its limits, or in Aden, its roads, or its limits ; and the above Sultan 
Ahmed for all acts of excess on the part of any of the Fadhlee, their clanB, or those 
dependent upon them. In case Sultan Ahmed afford any assistance to any other 
Sultan or tribe, this agreement shall be null and void. Our (Sultan Ahmed’s) 
hand and Sultan Muhsin’s hand is one and the same. Our friends and his friendB 
are identical. If any of the above tribe commit any plunder or depredation on 
the roads or in Lahej, the Bond that we possess shall be null, until we shall recover 
and restore the plundered property. Should any assault or murder be commit- 
ted in Lahej or Aden, or on their roads, and should the act be brought home to 
any of the Fadhlee, or their tribe, he shall be seized and is to be considered an 
offender. This Bond is always binding, and shall never become a dead letter. 
We shall draw the settled stipend every six months, and whenever there shall 
be any pressure of necessity, Government shall pay us a part (intermediately). 
The payment is to commence from the month of Zilkad Hegira 1254 (January- 
February 1839). Whatever is affixed for the above people shall be received by 
them through us or Sultan Muhsin or his children. These are the stipulations 
agreed to by Sultan Ahmed Fadhlee, and which are mediated by Salim bin Sheikh 
and Syud bin Sulah, who are the Vakeels of Sultan Ahmad. This agreement 
is consented to on Monday, the 26tli day of Rubbee-ool-Akhir Hegira 1255 (8th 
July 1839). The half-yearly allowance which we shall receive from Govern- 
ment is 182| cooroosh, half of which is 91$. The provisions which the above 
people are accustomed to receive must be given to them at Lahej through tho 
Sultan or his children. 

Sultan Ahmed bin Abdoollah bin Ahmed, Fadhlee. 


Witnesses : 

Moolla Jaffer, Vakeel of Commander Haines, 
Ali bin Abdoollah bin Ahmed. 

Salim bin Nasir, Arab. 

Kazee Abdool Bazzak bin Alt. 



§0--- --"ADEN — The Fadhli— NOS. XXII— 1857 AND XXIII— 18G7. 

No. XXII. 

Translation of a Bond entered into by the Fadthli Sultan for the Security 
of the Roads leading to Aden, — 1857. 

Seal of Ahmed bin Abdoollah, the- Fadhlee. 

An honourable Bond and a great writing ! 

I, whose name and seal are set herein, have covenanted to the beloved Alowi 
bin .Zain Al Aidroos upon peace and friendship between ns and the Governor, 
William Coghlan Sahib, the Ruler of Aden ; and also upon the safety of the road 
and security of the poor from Lahej to Aden. I am responsible for every sedi- 
tion that may take place on the road on the part of all the Fadhlee tribes, either 
inhabitants of the hills or coast. I am answerable for it for all what goes to them 
on the roads of Ibian and Aden. Whatever plunder may take place upon our 
subjects on the coast, I will call upon Syud Alowi, and the Governor of Aden 
has the interposition. 

If God should decree a quarrel, between the Fadhlee and the Abdalees, each 
would know his own friend, and the English should not interfere amongst Arabs. 
Each would go on according to his rule and covenant, and if anyone should try 
to make mischief betwixt us (Fadhlee and English), the saying of such enemies 
must not be listened to. 

The Governor of Aden should abolish the invention which they have estab- 
lished at the gate of Aden upon the poor of our subjects and others ; for the sake 
of the good condition of the needy, we and the English are friends upon sincerity 
and good-will between them and us and protection for our said friends (subjects). 

I have covenanted to the beloved Alowi, and he will covenant on my behalf 
to the Governor, William Coghlan. 

r 

In the presence of— 

Saleh bin Abdoollah. 

Nasir bin Abdoollah, 

Fadhl bin Abdoollah. . 

Ali bin Ahmed Azzabbee. 


No. XXIII. 

Translation of Articles of Agreement entered into by Sultan Ahmed bin 

Abdoollah, — 1867. 

Article 1. 

That Sultan Ahmed bin Abdoollah, on behalf of himself, his successors, and 
his tribe, solemnly binds himself to abstain in future from all acts of plunder and 
disorderly violence. 



.ADEN — The Fad-Mi— NOS. XXIII— 1867 AND XXIV— 1872. 91 ' 

Article 2. 

To maintain peace with the neigiibonring tribes, friends of tbe British Gov- 
ernment. • 

Article 3. 

To protect all merchants and travellers passing through his country. Any 
member of the tribe acting contrary to this rule to be immediately punished. 

Article 4. 

That one of the sons, or a near trusted relation, of the reigning Sultan of the 
Fadhlee tribe shall reside in Aden, to be near the Resident and to transact busi- 
ness relating to the tribe. 

Article 5. 

On these terms being solemnly agreed to the past will be forgotten. 

Ahmed bin Abdoollah. 

mh May 1SG7. 


No. XXIY. 

For the furtherance of Peace and Amity between the High British Govern- 
ment and the tribe of the Fadhlees, the undersigned, Ma.tor-General 
Charles William Tremenheere, C.B., Political Resident at’ Aden, on 
behalf of the British Government, and Sultan Haidara bin Ahmed bin 
Abdoollah, the Fadhlee, for himself and his successors, have agreed to 
the following conditions, — 1872. 

Article 1. 

Sultan Haidara bin Ahmed bin Abdoollah, the Fadhlee, agrees to waive his 
claim to transit dues and to all rights of revenue accruing from the kafilas which 
enter and which leave Aden, and that the road through his territory shall be en- 
tirely free, and that there shall be no obstacles in the way of travellers upon it. 

Article 2. 

Major-General Charles William Tremenheere, C.B., Political Resident at 
Aden, on behalf of the high British Government, agrees to pay to Sthetu Haidara 
bin Ahmed bin Abdoollah, the Fadhlee, and to his successor the monthly sum 
of eighty (80) dollars, in consideration of the abolition of land transit dues as 
aforesaid. 

Article 3. 

This agreement is distinct from, and in addition to, the engagement which 
was concluded with the Sultan of the Fadhlee tribe on the 27th day of May 1867, 



92 ADEN— The Fadhli— NOS. XXIV— 1872 AND XXV— 1881. 

and tlie stipend as aforesaid, that is to say, the sum of eighty dollars to be paid 
monthly, is over and above the stipend of one hundred dollars which is at this 
present time paid monthly by the high British Government to the Sultan of the 
Fadhlee tribe, and this engagement is to come into force, and to have effect from 
this date of writing, that is to say the 6th day of May 1872, answering to the 28th 
day of Safar in the year of the Hijra 1289. 

M. Schneider, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident , Aden, 
on behalf of Major-General G. W. Tremenheere, C.B. 

Haidara bin Ahmed bin Abdoollah. 

NORTHBROOK, 

Viceroy and Governor-General. 

Ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India at 
Calcutta on the eighteenth day of December 1872. 


C. U. Aitchison, 

Secretary to the Government of India. 


No. XXV. 

Agreement regarding Boundaries between the ’Abdali and the Fadthli, 

—1881. 

In the name of the Most Merciful God ! 

Whereas there is a long-existing friendship between the British Govern- 
ment and the ’Abdali and Fadthli ; and whereas the boundaries between these 
two tribes are not satisfactorily defined ; and whereas this last mentioned state 
of affairs has been the frequent cause of correspondence and disputes ; and where- 
as Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali, on the part of the ’Abdali, and Sultan Ahmed bin Husain, 
on behalf of the Fadthli, have agreed and consented to the settlement herein- 
after set forth in the presence of Brigadier-General F. Loch, C.B., Political Resi- 
dent at Aden. Now be it known to all whom it may concern, that the Fadthli 
limit meets the British limit at Imad, and stretches from the sea 11 mile west- 
ward to the north-east shore of the Wadi-as-Saghir, and from thence it runs gra- 
dually upward till it reaches Hiswatal Musaiferah. The ’Abdali limit to the west 
is as far as Bir ’Ali and Bir Dervish. 

If there are any fields at Wadi-as-Saghir belonging to the Fadthli within the 
limits, of the ’Abdali, and if the owners of the said fields are able to prove their 
claim to them by certain and indisputable evidence whether documentary or 



ADEN — the Fadhli— NOS. XXV— 1881 AND XXVI— 1888. 93 

by length of possession j according to the Shariah (Mahomedan Law), such lands 
are to remain with the said owners, who have the right to cultivate their lands 
and to enjoy the same rights and privileges as are enjoyed by other subjects of 
the ’Abdali. 

This agreement is concluded and agreed to on Tuesday, the 3rd day of May, 
in the year of Our Lord 1881, corresponding with the 5th day of Jumad-al-Akhir, 
1298 Al-Hijri. 

In witness whereof we have settled out hand and seal. 

Mohammed Mhhsin Fadthl, 
for himself and 

Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali Mohsin, 

Sultan of Lahej. 

TFiMesses : 

Ahmed ’Ali Mohsiv. 

Sayyid ’Umak Hdsain-al-Wahsh. 

Francis Loch, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident , Aden. 

Witnesses : 

Chas. W. H. Sealy, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Saleh Jaffer, 

Native Assistant and Interpreter. 


No. XXVI. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Fadthli, — 1888. 

The British Government and Ahmed bin Husain, the Fadthli Sultan of Shukra, 
and the Fadthli country with their dependencies, being desirous of maintain- 
ing and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between 
them ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Sultan 
Ahmed bin Husain, the Fadthli, aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the 
following articles : — 

Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned, 
Sultan Ahmed bin Husain, the Fadthli, hereby undertakes to extend to Shukra 



94 : 


• ADEN— 27<e Fadfili—NO. X3J.VI— 1888. 


and the Fadthli country with their dependencies, which are under his author- 
ity and jurisdiction, the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen- 
Empress. 

Article 2. 

The said Sultan Ahmed bin Husain, the Eadthli, agrees and promises on behalf 
of himself, his heirs, and successors to refrain from entering into any correspon- 
dence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign nation or power except with the 
knowledge and sanction of the British Government ; and further promises to 
give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer of the 
attempt by any other power to interfere with Shnkra and the Fadtlili country 
and their dependencies. 

Article 3. 


The said Sultan Ahmed bin Husain, the Fadthli, hereby binds himself and 
his heirs and successors for ever, that he or they will not cede, sell, mortgage, 
lease, hire or give, or otherwise dispose of, the Fadthli territory, or any part of 
the same, at any time, to any power other than the British Government. 

Article 4. 


The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signature or seals at Aden this fourth day of August 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight A.D. 

A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident. 

Witness : 

E. V. Stace, Lieutenant-Colonel, 

Acting First Assistant Political Resident. 

Ahmed bin Husain. 

Witnesses : 

Abdalla bin Nasir. 

Husain bin Ahmed. 

M. S. .Tatter, • 

Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 

LANSDOWNE, . 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was tatified by -the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 26th day of February A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. Cuningham, 

OJfg. Secy, to the Govt, of India , 

Foreign Department. 



ADEN — -The Aqrabi— NOS. XXVII— 1839 AND XXVIII— 1857. 95 

• • . ' 

No. XXVII. 

Engagement of Peace and Friendship entered into, on the 4th February 1839, 
by Sultan Haidara bin Mehdi, of the Aerabees, and Sheikh Abdool 
Kureem bin Sallah Mehdi, Sheikh Fadhl bin Haidara bin Ahmed, of 
Sela, Akrabee Chiefs, with Commander Haines, of the Indian Navy, 
on behalf of the Honourable Bast India Company. 

Between the British and Akrabecs there shall be peace and lasting friend- 
ship. Aden, belonging to the English and the Akrabi tribe, shall be at peace 
and (inn friends. If the subjects of either wish to have free intercourse in each 
other’s territory, they shall be welcome, and receive neither molestation nor in- 
sult. 

If the English wish to enter the Akrabi territory, they shall be respected and 
received with kindness, for they are friends. If any disturbance should take 
place between the subjects of either country, the culprit, if English, is to be given 
over to the laws of Aden, if Akrabi, to the laws of the Sultan for punishment. 

In witness of the agreement, in the presence of God. 

Dated Aden, the 4th February 1839. 

Sultan Haidara bin Mehdt. 

TPVteesses : 

Syud Alowi. 

Bashed Abdoollah. 

Jaffer bin Moolla Abdoollah. 

S. B. Haines. 


No. XXVIII. 

Translation of an Agreement by the Sheikh and Elders of the Akrabi Tribe, 

—1857. 

Praise be to God, who is worthy of Praise ! 

Attestation and agreement from the Sheikh Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi 
and all the elders of the Akrabees whose names are set below. "We have cove- 
nanted with His Excellency the Governor, William Coglilan Sahib, Ruler of Aden, 
upon everlasting sincerity and the repelling of sedition in their (own) limits, and 
upon purity of friendship. We will do all in our power (agreeably to friendship) 
to protect (the interest) the English Government and its subjects, and if any of 
the English wish to come out to Bir Ahmed for recreation, they must inform us, 
and upon us rests the (their) perfect reverence and protection ; any want the 
Governor may require, we are (his) soldiers day or night. Our country and our 
property arc in the service of the British Government, and may our Lord con- 
XI 


i 



• 96 ADEN — TheJLqrabi — NOS.' XXVIII — 1857 AND XXIX— 1863. 

tinue the friendship. Ultimately we have covenanted according to what we have 
explained above, and we beg God to confirm us in the fulfilment of the faithful 
covenants. 

This is done on the 18th of Shabcin 1273, 12th April 1S57. 

Abdoolla Ba Haidara Mehdi, 
Saleh Ba Haidara Mehdi. 
Abdool ELtjreem Silam Mehdi. 
Hadj Obaid Allah Yebia. 

Ali bin Ahmed Ali. 

Witnessed by — 

Sytjd Mahomed bin Zain Al-Aidroos. 

Syud Aidroos bin Zain Al-Aidroos. 

Sheikh Ali bin Ahmed Ba Abdoollah Azab. 

In presence of 

Alowi bin Zain Al-Aidroos. 


No. XXIX. 

Translation of an Agreement entered into by the Chiee of the Akrabi Tribe 
regarding the sale of Jebel Ihsan, — 1863. 

Praise be to God alone ! 

. The object of writing this lawful Bond is, that it is hereby covenanted and 
agreed betwixt Sheikh Abdoolla ba Haidara Mehdi, Chief of the Akrabi tribe, 
on the one part, and Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan, Governor of Aden, on 
behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of England, on the other part, that the said 
Sheikh Abdoollah ba Haidara Mehdi doth pledge himself, his heirs and succes- 
sors, by this agreement never to sell, mortgage, or give for occupation, save to- 
the British Government, any portion of the Peninsula called Jebel Ihsan, inolud-. 
ing the Khor of Bir Ahmed, Al-Ghadeer, Bunder Fogum, and all the intermediate 
coast and inlets. 

In consideration of which act of friendship, the said Sheikh Abdoollah ha 
Haidara Mehdi has received from Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan, Governor 
of Aden, an immediate payment of three thousand (3,000) dollars, and shall also 
receive from the said Brigadier Coghlan or his successors a future monthly sub : 
Bidy of thirty (30) dollars, it being understood that this stipend imposes an obli- 



ADEN— TAc Agrahi— nos. XXIX— 18G3 AND XXX— 18G9. 97 

gation on tlio part of Sheikh Abdoolah ba Haidara Melidi, his heirs and succes- 
sors, to protect all traders and British subjects who pass through 'or reside in the 
Akrabi territory, and also for preserving terms of peace and friendship betwixt 
the Akrabi tribe and the Governor of Aden, representing the Government of Her 
Majesty the Queen of England. 

In token of this honourable engagement, the Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan 
and Sheikh Abdoollali ba Haidara Melidi do severally affix their hand and seal 
at Aden on Friday, the twenty-third day of January, in the year of Christ one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, corresponding with the third day of 
Shaban in the year of the Hegira one thousand two hundred and seventy-nine. 

Abdoolla.ii Ba Haidara Mehdi. 

W. M. Coghlan, Brigadier, 

Political Resident, Aden. 

In presence of — 

Mahomed Ba Haidara. 

Al<dwi bin Zain Al Aidroos. 

Aidroos bin Zain. 

II. R AS SAM, 

Assistant Political Resident, Aden. 


No. XXX. 

Translation of an Engagement entered into by the Sheikh of the AkrabI 
Tribe for the sale of Little Aden, — 1869. 

The cause of writing this lawful deed is as follows : — 

That a Treaty and engagement is made between Sheikh Abdoollali Ba Haidara 
Mehdi, Sheikh of the Akrabi tribe, on the one part and General Sir Edward Russell, 
Resident of Aden, on behalf of the Honourable British Government, on the 
other. 

To wit, the abovementioned Sheikh Abdoollali Ba Haidara Mehdi on his part 
binds himself by these presents to have sold and delivered over in perpetuity 
to the British Government the Peninsula called Jebel llisan alias Jebel Hussan 
and the Khor of Bir Ahmed and Al-Ghader and Bunder Fogum, and all and what- 
soever is comprised on the seashore in the matter of harbours or ports between 
the said Khor (of Bir Ahmed) and Bunder Fogum ; and moreover the said Abdool- 
lah Ba Haidara Mehdi binds himself, his heirs and successors, by these presents, 
never to sell or pledge or give up any one for residence, excepting to the British 
Government, any portion whatsoever of Jebel Ras Imran, or the land on the 
border of the bay between Ras Imran and Jebel llisan or Hussan ; and in con- 
sideration of what is aforementioned, the said Sheik Abdoollali Ba Haidara Melidi 
has received from General Sir Edward Russell, Resident at Aden, the sum of 

i 2 



JJmN~Thc Aqrabi — NO. XXX— 1869. 



thirty thousand German crowns, being the amount of purchase-money agreed 
upon by the said Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi, and this sum of thirty thousand 
German crowns is over and above the sum of three thousand German crowns which 
Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan stipulated for and paid to the said Sheikh 
Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi on the 23rd day of January 1863, in accordance 
with the Treaty that was made on that date, and payment of these said three 
thousand German crowns then well and truly made to the said Abdoollah Ba 
Haidara Mehdi. 

In witness that the terms of this Treaty are truly and justly binding on Sheikh 
Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi of himself, his heirs and successors, as to the sale, 
and on General Sir Edward Russell, Resident at Aden, on behalf of the Honour- 
able British Government, as to the purchase, both have hereunto set their signa- 
tures and seals, at Aden, this 2nd day of April A.R. 1869, equivalent to 21st day 
of the month Zhil Hujj A.H. 1285. 

Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi. 


In presence of — 

Alowi bin Zain Al Aidroos. 


E. L. Russell, Major-General, 

Resident at Aden. . 


G. R. Goodfellow, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, Aden. 

Articles of Treaty and engagement between Sheikh Abdoolah Ba Haidara 
Mehdi and Sir Edward Russell, Resident at Aden, that the honour and respect 
which is due to Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi from the British Government con- 
tinue, and that from the present date an increase of dollars 10 to the present sub- 
sidy of 30 dollars be paid (making) a total of dollars 40 (per mensem), and that 
Abdoollah Ba Haidara, (be permitted to) levy transport dues on whatever may 
be landed from the bunders which he has sold this day according to a Treaty 
drawn up with Sir Edward Russell on behalf of the British Government should 
the goods so landed thence pass through his territory, viz., Bir Ahmed, and all 
claims of Sultan Eadhlee, or of Sultan Ahmed, the Eadtlili, upon Bir Ahmed, 
the Resident is to take upon himself, and this is what is agreed upon. 

This second day of April 1S69, equivalent to 21sl day of Zhil Hujj 12S5. 


TFAu esses : 


E. L. Russell, Major-General, 

Resident at Aden 

Abdoollah Ba Haidara Mehdi. 


Alowi bin Zain Al Aidroos. 
Aidroos bin Zain Al Aidroos. 
G. R. Goodfellow, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, Aden. 



ADEN — The Aqrabi — NO. XXXI— 18SS, 


99 


No. XXXI. 


Agreement for the Purchase of rand from the Akrabi Sheikh, — 1883. 


This agreement made tin’s 15th day of July one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-eight A.D., corresponding to 5th al-Ka’ada one thousand three hundred 
and five, between Sheikh Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi, Sheikh of the Akrabi tribe, 
on the one part, and Brigadier-General A. G. F. Hogg, C.B., Political Resident, 
Aden, on behalf of the Government of India, on the other part. 

Whereas a tract of land belonging to the said Sheikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara 
Mahdi, lying between the village of Hiswa and Little Aden and Bunder Fogum, 
is required by the Government of India to secure British jurisdiction over the 
entire shores of the harbour of Aden and for other reasons ; and whereas the said 
Sheikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi has agreed to sell to the Government of India 
the said tract of land for a sum of rupees two thousand ; this therefore witnesseth 
that in pursuance of this agreement, and in consideration of the sum of 
rupees two thousand paid b} r the said Government of India to Sheikh ’Abdalla 
ba Haidara Mahdi, the receipt whereof the said Sheikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi 
doth hereby acknowledge, and for the same doth hereby release the Government 
of India, the said Shaikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi doth hereby grant and con- 
firm unto the Government of India all that tract of land described as under, that is 
to say, a strip of land of the breadth of half a mile extending along the shore from 
the Tuban river westward past Little Aden to Bunder Fogum, and to be defined 
thus by a line commencing from the second pillar from the shore on the boundary 
line now dividing British from Akrabi territory, and which pillar is situated at 
a distance of about half a mile from the shore, thence running parallel to the sea- 
shore in a westerly direction, passing the British boundary of Little Aden at a 
distance of half a mile, and meeting the shore of Bunder Fogum at a distance 
of half a mile from the British boundary of Little Aden. 

The tract of land thus ceded to the Government of India is bounded thus : 

North — Akrabi territory. 

South — The sea and the British territory of Little Aden 

East — British territory. 

West — The sea of Bunder Fogum. 

The said strip of half a mile in breadth to be measured from high water mark 
and to include all shores, bays, and bunders on the seaside of the said tract, to 
have and to hold the said tract of land as the property of the Government of India 
in perpetuity without any let or hindrance or any claim or demand by the said 
Sheikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi or his heirs and successors, or by any of his 
tribesmen or any other person or persons whomsoever. 



100 


ADEN — The Aqrabi— 80S. XXXI,AND. XXXII--188B. 


In witness wliereof the said parties to these presents have hereunto set their 
hands and seals the day, month and year above written. 


A. G F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 
Political Resident. Aden. 


Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi. 


Witnesses : 

Mark of Shaikh ’Ali ba Haidara. 

Fadtiil ba Haidara Mahdi. 

M. S. Jaffer, 

Native Assistant Resident. 

TFiiwess : 

E V. Stace, 

Acting First Assistant Political Resident. 

N.B. — In the original the agreement is in parallel columns of English and Arabic. 


No. XXXII. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Akrabi, — 1888. 

The British Government and ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi, the Akrabi Sheikh 
of Bir Ahmed with its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and strengthen- 
ing the relations of peace and friendship, existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a Treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Sheikh 
’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi, the ’Akrabi aforesaid, have agreed upon and con- 
cluded the following articles : — 

Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned. 
Sheikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi, the ’Akrabi, hereby undertakes to extend 
to Bir Ahmed with its dependencies, which are under his authority and juris 
diction, the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article 2. 

The said Sheikh ’Abdalla ba Haidara Mahdi, the ’Akrabi, agrees and pro- 
mises on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into 
any correspondence, agreement or treaty, with any foreign or native power, ex- 
cept with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government ; and further 



ADEN — The Aqrabi— NO. XXXII— 1888.... 101 

promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer 
of the attempt by any other power to interfere with Bir Ahmed and its depen- 
dencies. 

Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Bir Ahmed this 15th day 
of July 1888. 

A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden, 

Witnesses : 

E. Y. Stace, Lient.-Col ., 

Acting First Assistant Political Resident. 

Abdulla ba Haidara Mahdi. 

Witnesses : 

Mark of Sheikh ’Ali ba Haidara. 

Fadthl ba Haidara Mahdi. 

M. S. Jarfer, 

Native Assistant Resident. 

LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India . . 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Port William on the 26th of February A.D. one thousand eight hundred 
-and ninety. 


W. J. Cuningham, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


BVCL 


22632 


341.254042 A15T 


| 102 ADEN — The Aulaqi — NO. XXXIII— 1903. 

No. XXXIII. 

Treaty with Sheikh Mohsin-bin-Farid-bin-Nasar-al-Yeslami-ae-Aueaki,— 

1903. 

Tlie British Government and Sheikh Mohsin-bin-Farid-bin-Nasar-al-Yeslami, 
of the Upper Anlakis, being desirous of entering into relations of peace and 
friendship ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and Sheikh Mohsin- 
bin-Farid-bin-Nasar-al-Ycslami aforesaid have agreed upon and concluded the 
following Articles : — 

I 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and Upper Aulakis. 
The subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Upper Aulakis under the 
jurisdiction of the said Sheikh shall each ho free to enter the territories of the 
other ; they shall not he molested, but shall be treated with respect at all times 
and in all places. The said Sheikh and other notable persons shall visit Aden 
when they please. They shall be treated with respect and be given passes to 
carry arms. 

II 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Sheikh Mohsin-biu-Farid-hin- 
Nasar-al-Yeslami of tlio Upper Aulakis, the British Government hereby under- 
takes to oxtend to the territory of the Upper Aulakis and its dependencies, being 
under the authority and jurisdiction of the said Sheikh, the gracious favour and 
protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

III 

The said Sheikh Mohsin-bin-Farid-bin-Nasar-al-Yeslami of the Upper Aulaki 
hereby agrees and promises, on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and 
the whole of the Upper Aulaki tribe under his jurisdiction to refrain from enter- 
ing into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign nation or 
Power ; and further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, 
or other British officer, of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with the 
territory of the Upper Aulaki and its dependencies. 

IV 

-The said Sheikh Mohsin-bin-Farid-bin-Nasar-al-Yeslami of tho Upper Aulaki 
hereby binds himself and his heirs and successors for ever that they will not cede, 
sell, mortgage, lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of the territory of tho 
Upper Aulaki under his jurisdiction, or any part of the same, at any time, to any 
Power other than the British Government. 



ADEN— The Aulaqi — NOS. XXXIII— 1903 ‘AND XXXIV— 1904. 103 

V 

The said Sheikh Mohsin-bin-Farid-bin-Nasar-al-Yeslami further promises, 
on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and his tribesmen, that they will 
keep open the roads in the country of the Upper Aulaki under his authority and 
jurisdiction, and that they will protect all persons who may be going in the direc- 
tion of Aden for the purposes of trade, or returning therefrom. In consideration 
thereof the British Government agrees to pay to the said Sheikh and to his suc- 
cessor or successors a monthly sum of sixty (60) dollars, the half of which is thirty 
dollars. 

VI 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden, this eighth day of 
December, one thousand nine hundred and three. 

P. J. Maitland, Major-General, Mark of 

Political Resident at Aden. Mohsin-bin-Farid-bin-Nasir. 

Witnesses : 

H. M. Abud, Lt.-Col., Sheikh Bubakr-bin-Farid-bin- 

Poll. Agent and First Asst. Resident. Nasir. 

G. W. Bury, Sayad Abdulla Ardaroos-bin- 

Extra Asst. Resident. Zain. 


Ali J after. 

Head Clerk and Inlervreler. 

CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 5th day of February, A.D., one thousand nine 
hundred and four, 

Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 

No. XXXIV. 

Treaty with the Upper Aulaki Sultan,— 1904. 

The British Government and Sultan Saleh-bin-AbduIIa-bin-Awadth-bin- 
Abdulla, the Sultan of the Upper Aulakis, being desirous of entering into rela- 
tions of peace and friendship : 



104 ADEN— Z7ic. Aitlaqi — NO. XXXIV— 1904. 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelnam 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, G.B., and Sultan Saleh- 
bin-Abdulla -bin- Awadth-bin- Abdulla aforesaid have agreed upon and concluded 
the following Articles : — 

r 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and Upper Aulakis. 
The subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Upper Aulakis under the 
jurisdiction of the said Sultan shall each be free to enter the territories of the 
other, they shall not be molested, but shall be treated with respect at all times 
and in all places. The said Sultan and other notable persons shall visit Aden 
when they please. They shall be treated with respect and be given passes to 
carry arms. 

II ' 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Saleh-bin-Abdulla-bin*Awadth- 
bin-Abdulla, Sultan of the Upper Aulakis, the British Government hereby under- 
takes to extend to the territory of the Upper Aulakis and its dependencies being 
under the authority and jurisdiction of the said Sultan the gracious favour and 
protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

III 

The said Sultan Saleh-bin-Abdulla-bin-Awadth-bin- Abdulla, the Upper Aulaki, 
hereby agrees and promises, on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and 
the whole of the Upper Aulaki tribe under his jurisdiction, to refrain from enter- 
ing into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign nation or 
power ; and further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden 
or other British officer of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with the 
territory of the Upper Aulaki and its dependencies. 

IV 

The said Sultan Saleh-bin-Abdulla-bin-Awadth-bin- Abdulla, the Upper Aulaki, 
hereby binds himself and his heirs and successors for ever that they will not cede, 
sell, mortgage, lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of, the territory of the 
Upper Aulaki under his jurisdiction, or any part, of the same, at any time to any 
Power other than the British Government. 

V 

The said Sultan Saleh-bin-Abdulla-bin-Awadth-bin-Abdulla further promises, 
on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and his tribesmen, that they will 
keep open the roads in the country of the Upper Aulaki under his jurisdiction, 
and that they will protect all persons who may be going in the direction of Aden 
for the purposes of trade, or returning therefrom. In consideration thereof the 



ADEN— Irqa— NO. XXXVII— 1888. - — . _I05 

British Government agrees to pay to the said Sultan and to his successor or 
successors a monthly sum of one hundred (100) dollars^ the half of which 
is fifty dollars. 

VI 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden, this eighteenth day of 
March one thousand nine hundred and four. 

P. J. Maitland, Major-General, 

Resident at Aden. 

The seal of Sultan Saleh-bin- 
Abdulla, 

signed on behalf of Sultan 
Saleh-bin-Abdulla. 

Witnesses : Mark of 

Nasak bin-Abdulla. 

F. DeB. Hancock, Captain, Mark of 

Assistant Resident, Aden. Abmed-bin-Abdulla. 

G. W. Bury, 

Extra Assistant Resident. 

Witnesses : 

Mark of 

Ali Jaefer, Ali-bin-Nasar. 

Head Interpreter. 

Mark of 

Ahmed-bin-Nasar, Am Sheba, 


Biothers of 
Sultan Saleh. 


Sayad Muhammad -bin- Ali, 

Mansab of Wahl. 



CURZON, 


Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


. , This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the 23rd day of April A.D. one thousand nine hundred and 
four. 

Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department . 



ADim—Thc Aulaqi—m. XXXV— 1855. 


106 

— -- -■ 

No. XXXV. 

Translation of an Agreement entered into by tbe Owlakee Chiefs for tbo 
suppression of tlie Slave Trade, — 1855. 

• In tbe name of tbe Most Merciful God and Him we implore ! 

Tbe reason of writing this Bond is, that influenced by motives of humanity 
and by a desire to conform to tbe principles on wbicb tbe great English Govern- 
ment is conducted, we lend a willing ear to the proposals of our sincere friend 
Brigadier W. M. Coghlan, Governor of Aden, that we shall covenant with him 
and with each other to abolish and prohibit the exportation of slaves from any 
part of Africa to any other place in Africa or Asia or elsewhere under our authority. 

We, whose names and seals are set to this Bond, do therefore in the sight of 
God and of men solemnly proclaim our intention to prohibit the exportation of 
slaves from Africa by every means in our power ; we will export none ourselves, 
nor will we permit our subjects to do so, and any vessel found carrying slaves 
shall be seized and confiscated and the slaves shall be released. 

Peace. Signatures. 

Witnessed by Syud f Sultan Munassar bin Boo Bekr bin Mahdi, the 
Mahomed bin Abd~ j Owlakee, done at Hour, dated 14th October 
-oor-Rahman Al-« ^ 1855. 

Zufferi. J Sultan Abu Bekr bin Abdoollah bin Mahdi, 

the Owlakee ; same date and place. 

Similar engagements were entered into by — 

'"Ali Mahomed Zaid, elder of the Habr Gerhagis, 
tribe of Somalis, at Mait ; done the 5th Zuffer 
1272, corresponding with the 17th October 1855. 

Hirsee Ali Mahomed, elder of the Habr Gerhagis, 
tribe of Somalis, at Mait ; done the 5th Zuffer 
1272, corresponding with the 17th October 1855. 

And by 

Mahmood Mahomed, elder of the Habr Taljala 

Witnessed by Omar tribe, at Ilais ; 5th Zuffer 1272, corresponding 
bin Ahmed bin Syud<j • with 17th October 1855. 

Bashtiabecoh. Aboo Bekr bin Mahomed, elder of the Habr Tal- 

jala tribe, at Racoda ; done the 5th Zuffer 1272, 
corresponding with the 17th October 1855. 

Abd Omar, elder of the Habr Taljala tribe, at Unkor ; 
done the 6th day of Zuffer 1272, corresponding 
with the 18th October 1855. 

Ali Ahmed, elder of the Habr Taljala tribe, at Unkor ; 
done the 6th Zuffer 1272, corresponding with the 
^ 18th October 1855. 



ADEN — The Aulaqi—HOS. XXXV— 1855 AND XXXVI— 1888. _ lO? 

'Hassun Yousef, elder of tlio Habr Taljala tribe, 
at Kurruin ; done the 6th day of Zuffcr 1272, cor- 
responding with the 18th October 1855.- 
Mahomed Leban, Chief of the Habr Taljala tribe, 
at Kurruin ; done tlie 6th Zuffer 1272, correspond- 
ing with the 18th October 1855. 

Yousef Otiiman, elder of the Habr Taljala tribe, 
at Ain Tarad; done the 7th Zuffcr 1272, corre- 
sponding witli the 19th October 1855. 

Ahmed Aboo Beer Mahomed Lebak, elder of the 
Habr Taljala tribe, at Ain Tarad ; done the 7th 
Zuffer 1272, corresponding with the 19th October 
1855. 


No. XXXVI. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Lower Aulaki. — 1888. 

The British 'Government and Bubakr bin ’Abdalla bin Mahdi, reigning Sultan 
of the Lower ’Aulaki tribe, on behalf of himself and his heirs and successors, and 
on behalf of his cousin Nasir bin ’Ahmed and his heirs and successors : 

And ’Abdalla bin Bubakr bin ’Abdalla, on behalf of himself and his relations, 
’Ahmed bin Bubakr, and Mahdi bin Bubakr and ’Ahmed bin Nasir and Nasir 
bin Ahmed and his and their heirs and successors : 

And Bubakr bin Nasir bin ’Ali bin Mahdi, on behalf of himself and his rela- 
tions, ’Awadth bin Nasir bin Ali, and Madhi bin ’Ali bin Nasir, and ’Abdalla bin 
’Ali bin Nasir, and Saleh bin ’Ali bin Nasir and ’Alawi bin ’Ali bin Nasir, and 
Ghalib bin ’Ali bin Nasir, and ’Ahmed bin Abdalla bin Nasir, and Nasir bin ’Abdalla 
bin Nasir, and his. and their heirs and successors : 

And Nasir bin Bubakr bin Nasir bin Bubakr bin Madhi, on behalf of himself 
and his relations, ’Ali bin Mohammed bin Bubakr, and Nasir bin Mohammed 
bin Bubakr, and ’Awadth bin Mohammed bin Bubakr, and Bubakr bin Moham- 
med bin Bubakr, and Abdulla bin Manassar bin Nasir,. and ’Ali bin Manassar bin 
Nasir, and Nasir bin Saleh bin Husain, and ’Awadth bin ’Abdulla bin Farid, and 
Manassar bin Ali bin Farid, and his and their heirs and successors : 

And Mahdi bin ’Ali bin Nasir bin Mahdi, on behalf of himself and his relations, 
Bubakr bin ’Abdulla bin Nasir, and Hassan bin ’Abdalla bin Nasir, and Bubakr 
bin Nasir bin ’Ali and Mahdi bin Nasir bin Mahdi, and Bubakr bin Nasir bin Mahdi, 
and Saleh bin Nasir bin Mahdi, and his and their heirs and successors : 

All being Sultans of the Lower Aulaki tribe, and all being desirous of main- 
taining and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between 
them. 


Witnessed by Omar 
bin Ahmed bin Syud-^ 
Basktiabeeoh. | 



108 „ - Aden— t/ic Autaqi—m. xxxvi— isss. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Bubakr 
bin Abdulla bin Mahdi, on behalf of himself and his heirs and successors and 
on behalf of his cousin Nasir bin ’Ahmed, his heirs and successors : 

And ’Abdalla bin Bubakr bin Abdalla, on behalf of himself and his relations 
’Ahmed bin Bubakr, and Mahdi bin Bubakr, and ’Ahmed bin Nasir, and Nasir 
bin ’Ahmed, their heirs and successors . 

And Bubakr bin Nasir bin ’Ali bin Mahdi, on behalf of himself and his relations, 
’Awadth bin Nasir bin ’Ali, and Mahdi bin ’Ali bin Nasir, and ’Abdalla bin ’Ali 
bin Nasir, and Saleh bin Ali bin Nasir, and ’Alawi bin Ali bin Nasir, and Ghalib 
bin ’Ali bin Nasir, and Ahmed bin Abdalla bin Nasir, and Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin 
Nasir, their heirs and successors : 

And Nasir bin Bubakr bin Nasir bin Bubakr bin Madhi, on behalf of himself 
and his relations, ’Ali bin Mohammed bin Bubakr, and Nasir bin Mohammed 
bin Bubakr, and Awadth bin Mohammed bin Bubakr, and Bubakr bin Mohamed 
bin Bubakr, and Abdalla bin Manassar bin Nasir, and Ali bin Manassar bin Nasir, 
and Nasir bin Saleh bin Husain, and Awadth bin Abdalla bin Farid, and Manassar 
bin Ali bin Farid, their heirs and successors : 

And Madhi bin Ali bin Nasir bin Madhi, on behalf of himself and his relations 
Bubakr bin Abdalla bin Nasir, and Hassan bin Abdalla bin Nasir, and Bubakr 
bin Nasir bin Ali, and Mahdi bin Nasir bin Madhi, and Bubakr bin Nasir bin Madhi, 
and Saleh bin Nasir bin Madhi, their heirs and successors, have agreed upon and 
concluded the following articles : — 


Article L 

The British Government, in compliance with the wishes of the aforesaid Sultans 
of the Lower Aulaki tribe, hereby undertakes to extend to Ahwar and its depen- 
dencies, which are under the authority and jurisdiction of the Lower Aulaki tribe, 
the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress, 


Article 2. 

The aforesaid Sultans of the Lower ’Aulaki tribe agree and promise, on behalf 
of themselves and their heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into any 
correspondence, agreement or treaty with any foreign nation or power, except 
with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and further promise 
to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the 
attempt by any other power to interfere with Ahwar and its dependencies. : 



ADEN— T/IC Autaqi— NO. XXXVI— 1883. ] OP 

Article 3. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In -witness whereof the 
undersigned have .affixed their signatures or seals, at Aden, this second day of 
June one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 

Aden ; , A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General , 

The 2nd June 1888. Political Resident. Aden. 

Witness : 

E. V. Stage, Lient.-Col., 

Acting First Assll. Pol. Resident. 

The 2nd June 1888. 

Sultan Bubakr bin Abdalla bin Mahdi. 

Abdalla bin Bubakr bin Abdalla. 

Bubakr bin Nasir bin ’Ali. 

Nasir bin Bubakr. 

Mark of Mahdi bin Alt bin Nasir. 

Witn esses : 

Ahmed bin Bubakr. 

Mark of Mahdi bin Ali. 

Mark of O’Alawi bin Ali. 

Abdal Majid bin Bubakr. 


M. S. Jaffer, 

Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 


LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 26th day of February A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 


W. J. Cuningham, 

OJJg. Secy, to the Govt, of India, 

Foreign Dept, 



1[0 ADEN — 7 m q — N O . XXXVII— 1883. 


No. XXXVII. 

Protectorate Treaty - with the Irka, — 18SS. 

The British Government and ’Awadth bin Mohammed ba-Das, Sheikh of 
’Irka and its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the 
relations of peace and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and ’Awadth 
bin Mohammed ba-Das, Sheikh of ’Irka and its dependencies, aforesaid, have 
agreed upon and concluded the following articles : — 


Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Sheikh ’Awadth bin Mohammed ba-Das, hereby undertakes to extend to ’Irka 
and its dependencies, which are under his authority and jurisdiction, the gracious 
favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article 2. 

The said Sheikh ’Awadth bin Mohammed ba-Diis agrees and promises, on 
behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into any cor- 
respondence, agreement or treaty with any foreign nation or power, except with 
the knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and further promises 
to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the 
attempt by any other power to interfere with ’Irka and its dependencies. 

Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at ’Irka this twenty-seventh 
day of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 


Iff fit ess 

C. E. Gissing, 

Commander, Royal Navy, 

Her Majesty’s “ Osprey ”, 


Witness : 

M. S. JaffeR, 

Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 


A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 


Sheikh ’Awadth Mohammed ba-Das, 

Sheikh of’ Irka. 


LANSDOWNE, 
Viceroy and Governor-General ■ 



ADEN — Jrqa— NOS. XXXVII— 1888 AND XXXVIII— 1902. Ill 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 26th day of February A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. CvNINGHAM, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. XXXVIII. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Irka, — 1902. 

The British Government and Sheikh Ahmcd-bin-Awadth-bin-Muhammad- 
ba-Das, Sheikh of Irka and its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and 
strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a Treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and Sheikh Ahmed- 
bin-Awadth-ba-Das, Sheikh of Irka and its dependencies, aforesaid, have agreed 
upon and concluded the following Articles 

Article I. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned, 
Sheikh Ahmed-bin-Awadth-bin-Muhammad-ba-Das, hereby undertakes to ex- 
tend to Irka and its dependencies, which are under his authority and jurisdic- 
tion, the gracious favour and protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

Article II. 

The said Sheikh Ahmed-bin-Awadth-bm-Mukauamad-ba-Das agrees and pro- 
mises, on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into 
any correspondence, agreement or treaty with any foreign nation or Power, 
except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and further 
promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, 
of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with Irka and its dependencies. 

Article III. 

The aforesaid Sheikh Akmed-bin-Awadth-bin-Muhammad-ba-Das hereby 
binds himself, his relations, heirs and successors and the whole tribe for ever that 
he or they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire or give, or otherwise dispose 
of the Irka territory, or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power other 
than the British Government. 

XI 


K 



112 , ADEN — Jnjd — NO. XXXVIII— 1002. 

Article IV. 

The above Treaty shall have effect, from this date, in witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures and seals at Aden this seventh of January 
one thousand nine hundred and two. 


P. J. Maitland, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident. 


Mark of 


Witnesses : 

R. S. Pottinger, Captain, 
Acting First Assistant Political Resident. 

\ 

M. Rustomjee, 

Acting Fourth Assistant Political Resident. 


Sheikh Ahmed-bin-Awadth-bin- 
Muhammad-ba-Das. 


CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Calcutta, on the 27th day of March, A.D. one thousand nine hundred 
and two. 

H. S. Barnes, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 



> ADEN-— Lower llama — NO. 'XXXIX — lS8&r'- v ... N _ ,„ r 

No. XXXIX. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Lower Haura, — 1888. 

The British Government and ’Abdalla bin Mohammed ba Shahid and his 
brothers ’Ahmed bin Mohammed, Said bin Mohammed, and ’Ali bin Mohammed, 
Sheikhs of Lower Haura and its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and 
strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C. B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Sheikh 
’Abdalla bin Mohammed ba Shahid and his brothers ’Ahmed bin Mohammed, 
Said bin Mohammed and ’Ali bin Mohammed, aforesaid have agreed upon and 
concluded the following articles : — 


Article 1. 

The British Government in compliance with the wish of the undersigned, 
’Abdalla bin Mohammed ba Shahid, and his brothers ’Ahmed bin Mohammed, 
Said bin Mohammed and ’Ali bin Mohammed, Sheikhs of Lower Haura and its 
dependencies, hereby undertake to extend to Lower Haura and its dependencies, 
which are under their authority and jurisdiction, the gracious favour and pro- 
tection of Her Majesty the Queen Empress. 


Article 2. 

The said ’Abdalla bin Mohammed ba Shahid and his brothers ’Ahmed bin 
Mohammed, Said bin Mohammed and ’Ali bin Mohammed, agree and promise, 
on behalf of themselves and their heirs and successors, to refrain from entering 
into any correspondence, agreement or treaty, with any foreign nation or power, 
except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government ; and further 
promise to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, 
of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with Lower Haura and its depen- 
dencies. 

Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Lower Haura this twenty- 
eighth day of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 


Witness : 


A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General. 

Political Resident, Aden. 


C. E. Gissing, 

Commander , Royal Navy, 

Her Majesty’s “ Osprey ”, 


K 2 



M. 4 . . ADEN— Lower Eaura — NOS. XXXIX — 1.888 AND XL — 1902. 

Sheikh Abdalla bin Mohammed ba Shahid, 

Owner of Haura, Lower. 

Mark of 

Ahmed bin Mohammed. 
Said bin Mohammed. 

Ali bin Mohammed. 

Witnesses : 

M. S. Jaeeer, 

Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 

At.t bin Sahib bin Abd-as-Samad, 

LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Eort William on the 26th day of February A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. Cuningham, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. XL. 

Protectorate Treaty— Haura, — 1902. 

The British Government and Sheikh Saleh-bin-Awadth, Sheikh of Haura 
and its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the rela- 
tions of peace and friendship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and Sheikh Saleh- 
bin-Awadth, Sheikh of Haura and its dependencies, aforesaid, have agreed upon 
and concluded the following articles : — 

Article I. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Sheikh-Saleh-bin-Awadth, hereby undertakes to extend to Haura and its depen- 
dencies, which are under his authority and jurisdiction, the gracious favour and 
protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 



ADEN — Loivcr llaum — NO. XL— 3902. 115 

Article II. 

The said Sheikh-Saleh-bin-Awadtli agrees and promises, on behalf of him- 
self, his heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into any correspondence, 
agreement or treaty, with any foreign nation or Power, except with the knowledge 
and sanction of the British Government, and further promises to give immediate 
notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the attempt by any 
other Power to interfere with Haura and its dependencies. 

Article III. 

The aforesaid Sheikh Saleh-bin-Awadtli hereby binds himself, his relations, 
heirs and successors and the whole tribe for ever, that ho or they will not cede, 
sell, mortgage, lease, hire or give, or otherwise dispose of the Haura territory, 
or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power other than the British Gov- 
ernment. 


Article IV. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date, in witness whereof the under- 
signed have affixed their signatures and seals at Aden this seventh of April one 
thousand nine hundred and two. 


P. J. Maitland, Brigadier-General , 

Political Resident at Aden. 


Mark of. 

Sheikh Saleh-bin-Awadth. 


PFitnesses. 

R. S. Pottinger, Captain, 

Acting First Assistant to the Political Resident. 


M. Rustomjee, 

Acting Fourth Assistant to the Political Resident. 


CURZOH, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the 13th day of Jiine A.D. one thousand nine hundred and 
two, 

H. S. Barnes, 

Secretary to the Government of India. 

Foreign Department. 



116^ _ ADEN — Jithan — NO. XLI — 1903. 

No. XLI. 

Treaty with Sharif Ahmad-am-Mohsin of Behan-al-Kasah, — 1903. 

The British Government and Sharif Ahmad-am-Mohsin of Behan-al-Kasah 
being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace and friend- 
ship existing between them ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., .Political .Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and Sharif Ahmad-am- 
Mohsin aforesaid have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles : — 

n ' I- 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Sharif Ahmad-am-Mohsin the 
British Government hereby undertakes to extend to the territory of Belmn-al- 
Kasab and its dependencies, being under the authority and jurisdiction of the 
said Sharif, the gracious favour and protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. ■ 

II. 

The said Sharif Ahmad am-Mohsin hereby agrees, on behalf of himself, his 
heirs and successors ,and of the people of Behan-al-Kasah under his jurisdiction, 
to refrain from entering into any r correspondence, agreement or treaty, with any 
foreign nation or power ; and further promises to give immediate notice to the 
Resident at Aden or other British officer, of the attempt by any Power to inter- 
fere with the territory of Behan-al-Kasah or its dependencies. 

III. 

The said Sharif Ahmad-am-Mohsin of Behan-al-Kasah hereby binds himself 
his heirs and successors, for ever, that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, 
hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of, the territory of Bckan-al-Kasab, or its depen- 
dencies under his jurisdiction, or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power 
other than the British Government. 


IV. 


The above treaty shall have effect from this date, in witness thereof the under- 
signed have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this twenty-ninth day of 
December one thousand nine hundred and three. 


P. J. Maitland, Major-General, 
Political Resident at Aden. 


Mark of 


Sharif Ahmad-am-Mohsin. 



Wilnessc 1 : 


H. M. Abuc, Lt.-Col., 
First Asst. Resident. 


6. W. Bury, 
Extra Asst. Resident. 


JFttoesses : 

Mark of 

Sheikh Samm-bin-Alt-bin- 

Nl MRAN-AL-MuRADI 


Mark of 

Ali-bin-Husen. 


Mark of 

Mohammed-bin-Shamakh-bin-Ghanam. 

Witnesses : 

Ali Jaffer, 

Head Clerk and Interpreter. 

Ali Ebrahim, 
Arabic Clerk. 


CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Backorguugc on 24th February 1904. 


Louis W. Lane, 

Secretary to the Government of India., 

Foreign Department. 



ADEN — The Yafai— NO. XLII— 1830. 


ii8 


No. XLII. 


Engagement of Friendship and Peace entered into, on the 21st February 
1839, by Sheikh Arsel bin Hydee bin Ahmed, Musaidee of a district of 
' the Yaffaees, and the accredited Agent from the ancient Chieftain Sultan 
Ali Ghalib, of the Yaffaees, with Commander Haines, of the Indian 
Navy, on behalf of the Honourable East. India Company. 

We agree that there shall be peace and friendship between us, and that the 
English at Aden shall be at peace with us. Should the subjects of either country 
enter the other’s territory, they shall not be molested or insulted but be con- 
sidered as friends. 

If kafilas from the YafTaee district wish to enter Aden by the Gar Wallah 
territory for trade, they shall not be molested, but the property respected by both 
parties, and the owners allowed free intercourse and barter. They may export 
from Aden, and they shall be respected. 


Dated Aden, the 21st February 1S39. 


Witness : 


Sheikh Hasil bin Hadee bin Ahmed. 


Ali Abdullah Syud Alowi. 


Literal Translation of a Treaty concluded by Sultan Ali Ghalib and 
his son Ahmed bin Ali Ghalib, of the tribe of Yaffaee alEfefee, 
—1839. " 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Clement 1 

We faithfully agree, on the part of ourselves and those who are subordinate 
to them, those of the tribe of Yaffaee and those who are dependent on them, and 
of the tribe of Mureedea and Sayeedeh and those dependent on them, and for 
Commander Haines, Governor of Aden, for all and every belonging to them, on 
Sultan Muhsin Fuzil Obaid Ali, Commander Haines, Governor of Aden, and re- 
presentative of the Company, and in the manner that went, the Sultan Obaid 
Ali, past aud future, and those of the tribe who arc gone and are coming, that 
they shall possess their own property, and that whatever they have shall be theirs, 
and whatever loss is occasioned to them in Lalicj or round about it, or in its en- 
virons, or in Aden, or on the road of Aden, are included in the same Treaty cou- 
cluded by Obaid Ali, and if any injury is occasioned by the tribe of Yaffaee or 
by its dependants Ali Ghalib shall be responsible, and if at any time Ali Ghalib 
will render assistance to any one of the Sultans, or any one of the other tribes, 
the Treaty confirmed by God will be violated between us and him, and our hand 
and the hand of Sultan Muhsin shall be as one, and our friends and the friends 



ADEN — the Eo/ai— NOS. XLII--1839 AND XXilli— 1895. 119 

of the Sultan shall be the same. If any of the above shall be plundered on the 
road of Lahej the Treaty will be infringed; and if anything which we have is 
broken or taken away, and if any one makes war in Lahej, or kills any one in 
Lahej, or in Aden, or on the road of Aden, and it shall be known that that man 
is of the tribe of Yaffaee or one of its dependants, he (Sultan Ali Ghalib) will be 
responsible. This Treaty of God which we have will never become old, but be 
always held to be new. We shall take what is agreed upon every six months, 
commencing the 1st Zilkad 1251 Hegira (18th January 1839), and what is agreed 
upon will be taken by us, or by the Sultan or by his son. This is what has been 
agreed upon and settled by Sultan Ali Ghalib and his son Ahmed bin Ali Ghalib 
and has been agreed to by their representatives, Hasil bin Ahmed bin Hadee and 
Hyder bin Ahmed, who have been sent by them, and they are the representatives 
of Ali Ghalib, and this is concluded this 25th day of Rubbec-ool-Awul 1255 Hegira 
(8th June 1839). 

Witnesses : 

Syed Mahomed bin Zain bin Boo Beer, 

Kazee Abdool Huza bin Ali Saad bin Musuooo, 

Hasil bin Ahmed bin Wadee, of the tribe of Mooredee, 

Vakeels of Ali Ghalib. 

Mahomed Ali Yehia. 

Jaffer. Moonshee, of the Company's Government. 

Hyder bin Ahmed Yaffaee, Vakeel of Ali Ghalib. 


No. XLIII. 


Protectorate Treaty— Lower Yafii, — 1895. 

The British Government and Bubakar bin Saif, the Yafii Sultan of Ivhanfar, 
A1 Husn Masana Ar-Rawwa Al-Kara and the Lower Yafii country with their 
dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of 
peace and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Charles 
Alexander Cuningham, Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 



£20 ADEN — The Yajai—80. XL1II— 1895. 

The said Brigadier-General Charles Alexander Cuningham and Sultan Bubakar 
bin Saif, the Yafii aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following Arti- 
cles : — 

Article I. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned, 
Sultan Bubakar bin Saif, the Yafii, hereby undertakes to extend to Khanfar, A1 
Ilusn, Masana, Ar-Rawwa Al-Kara and the~Lowcr Yafii country with tlieir depen- 
dencies, which arc under his authority and jurisdiction, the gracious favour and 
protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article II. 

The said Sultan Bubakar bin Saif the Yafii agrees and promises on behalf 
of himself, his relations, heirs, successors and the whole tribe to refrain from enter- 
ing into any correspondence, agreement or treaty, with any Foreign Nation or 
Power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and 
further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden or other British 
officer, of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with Khanfar, Al-Husn, 
Masana, Ar-Rawwa Al-Kara and the Lower Yafii country and their dependencies. 

Article III. 

The said Sultan Bubakar bin Saif, the Yafii, hereby binds himself, his rela- 
tions, heirs, successors and the whole tribe for ever that lie or they will not cede, 
sell, mortgage, lease, hire or give or otherwise dispose of the Lower Yafii terri- 
tory and its dependencies or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power, 
or person other than the British Government. 

Article IV. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this first day of August 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, A.D. 

C. A. Cuningham, Brigadier-General , 
Political Resident, Aden. 

Witness : 

W. B. Ferris, Major, 

First Assistant Resident, Aden. 

ELGIN, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 



ADEN — The Yafai — NOS. XLIII — 1895 AND XLIV-— 1903. 121 

This treaty was ratified -by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla, on the 28tb day of October A.D., one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-five. 

W. J. Ouningham, 


Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department . 


No. XLIV. 

Treaty with the Dthubi section of the Y a ffai- as-S a f eal, — 1903. 

The British Government and Muhammad Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar and his 
brother, Ainr Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar, the Sheikhs of the Dtlnibi Section of 
the tribe Yafiai-as-Saffal, being desirous of entering into relations of peace and 
friendship ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and the Shiekh 
Muhammad Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar and Amr Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar afore- 
said, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles : — 

I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and the Dthubi. The 
subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Dthubi shall each be free to enter 
the territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall be treated with 
respect at all times and in all places. The Sheikhs of the Dthubi shall visit Aden 
when they please. They shall be treated with respect and be given passes to 
carry arms. 

II. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Muhammad Muthanna-bin-Atif 
Jabar and Amr Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar, Sheikhs of the Dthubi, the British 
Government hereby undertakes to extend to the territory of the Dthubi and its 
dependencies, being under the authority and jurisdiction of the said Sheikhs, the 
gracious favour and protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

III. 

The said Sheikhs Muhammad Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar and Amr Muthanna- 
bin-Atif Jabar hereby agree and promise, on behalf of themselves, their heirs 
and successors, and the whole of the Dthubi clan, to refrain from entering into 
any correspondence, agreement* or treaty with any Foreign Nation or Power; 
and further promise to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other 



122 ADEN — The Yafai— NO. XLIV— 1903. 

"British officer, of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with the territory 
of the Dthubi and its dependencies. 


IV. 

The said Sheikhs Muhammad Mutlianna-bin-Atif Jabar and Amr Muthanna- 
bin-Atif Jabar hereby bind themselves and their heirs and successors for ever 
that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose 
of, the territory of the Dthubi or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power 
other than the British Government. 


V. 

The said Sheikhs Muhammad Muthanna-bin-Atif Jabar and Amr Muthanna- 
bin-Atif Jabar further promise, on behalf of themselves, their heirs and successors 
and their tribesmen, that they will keep open the roads in the country of the 
Dthubi, and that they will protect all persons who may be going in the direction 
of Aden for the purposes of trade, or returning therefrom. In consideration there- 
of the British Government agrees to pay to the said Sheikhs and to their succes- 
sor or successors a monthly sum of 40 (forty) dollars, the half of which is 20 dollars. 


VI. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this eleventh day of 
May one thousand nine hundred and three. 

P. J. Maitland, Brigadier-General, 
Political Resident. 

Witnesses : 

H. M. Amud, Lieut.-Col., 

Political Agent and First Assistant Resident. 


G. W. Bury. 

Extra Assistant Resident. 


Seal of Sheikh Muhammad Muthanna-bin-atif Jabar. 


Sheikh Amr-bin-Sheikh-Muthanna-bin-atif Jabar. 


Witnesses : 

Abdalla-bin-Aidaros, 

Mansab of Aden. 


Ali Jaffer. 


CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 



ADEN — The Yafni—TsOS. XLIV AND XL V— 1903. 123 


This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the 26th day of October, A.D., one thousand nine bundled 
and three. 

Louis W. Dane, 


Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. XLV. 

Treaty with the Mausatta section of the Yaffai-as-Saffal, — 1903. 

The British Government and Sheikh Ali-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim and his 
brother, Sheikh Mohsin-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim, the Nakibs of the Mausatta 
section of the tribe Yaffai-as-Saffal, being desirous of entering into relations of 
peace and friendship ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and the Nakibs 
Ali-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim and Mohsin-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim aforesaid have 
agreed upon and concluded the following Articles : 

I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and the Mausatta. 
The subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Mausatta shall each be free 
to enter the territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall be treated 
with respect at all times and in all places. The NakibB of the Mausatta shall 
visit Aden when they please. They shall be treated with respect and be given 
passes to carry arms. 

II. 

The said Nakibs Ali-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim and Mohsin-bin-Askar-bin-Ali 
Kasim hereby agree and promise on behalf of themselves, their heirs and succes- 
sors, and the whole of the Mausatta clan, to refrain from entering into any corre- 
spondence, agreement or treaty with any foreign nation or Power ; and further 
promise to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, 
of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with the territory of the Mausatta 
and its dependencies. . 

III. 

The said Nakibs Ali-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim and Mohsin-bin-Askar-bin-Ali 
Kasifn hereby bind themselves and their heirs and successors for ever that thej 7 
will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of, the terri- 



124 ADEN — The, Tafai — NO. XL V— 1003. 

tory of the Mausatta or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power other 
than the British Government. 

IV. • 

The' said Nakibs Ali-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim and Mohsin-bin-Askar-bin-Ali 
Kasim further promise on behalf of themselves, their heirs and successors and 
their tribesmen, that they will keep open the roads in the country of the Mausatta, 
and that they will protect all persons who may be going in the direction of Aden 
for the purposes of trade, or returning therefrom. In consideration thereof the 
British Government agrees to pay to the said Nakibs and to their successor of 
successors a monthly sum of 50 (fifty) dollars, the half of which is twenty-five 
dollars. 

V. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden, this third day of July 
one thousand nine hundred and three. 


TPifnesses : 


P. J. Maitland, Brigadier-Genera l, 

Political Resident. 


H. M. Abud, Lieut.-Col., 

Political Agent and First Assistant Resident, 


G. W. Bury, 

Extra A ssistant Resident- 


Witnesses : 

Alt .J after. 


Seals of Ali-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim and 
Mohsin-bin-Askar-bin-Ali Kasim. 


Abdul Bub Salim, A.G. 


CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India . 


This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla, on the 26th day of October, A.D. one thousand nine hundred 
and three. 


Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 



ADEN —The Y-afai—W XLVI— 19 03.^ 1 25 

No. xrn 

Treaty with the Muflahai section of. the Yaffat-as-Saffal, — 1903. 

The British Government and Abdul Rahman-bin-Kassim-as-Sakkaf, Sheikh 
of the Muflahai section of the tribe Yaffai-as-Saffal, being desirous of entering 
into relations of peace and friendship ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelham 
James Maitland,- G.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and the Sheikh Abdul 
Rahman-bin-Kassim-as-Sakkaf aforesaid have agreed upon and concluded the 
following Articles : — 

I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and the Muflahai. 
The subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Muflahai shall each be free 
to enter the territories of the other : they shall not be molested, but shall be treated 
with respect at all times and in all places. The Sheikhs of the Muflahai shall 
visit Aden when they please. They shall be treated with respect and be given 
passes to carry arms. 

II. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Abdul Rahman-bin-Kassim-as- 
Sakkaf, Sheikh of the Muflahai, the British Government hereby undertakes to 
extend to the territory of the Muflahai and its dependencies being under the 
authority and jurisdiction of the said Sheikh, the gracious favour and protection 
of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

III. 

The said Sheikh Abdul Rahman-bin-Kassim-as-Sakkaf hereby agrees and 
promises, on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and the whole of the 
Muflahai clan, to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or 
treat) 1, with any foreign nation or Power ; and further promises to give immediate 
notice to the Resident at Aden or other British officer, of the attempt by any 
other Power to interfere with the territory of the Muflahai and its dependencies. 

IV. 

The said Sheikh Abdul Rahman-bin-Kassim-as-Sakkaf hereby binds himself 
and his heirs and successors for ever that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, 
hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of the territory of the Muflahai, or any part of 
the same, at any time, to any Power other than the British Government. 

V. 

The said Sheikh Abdul Rahman-bin-Kassim-as-Sakkaf further promises on 
behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and his tribesmen that they will keep 



ADEN — The Yafcii— NOS. XLVI AND XLVII— 1903. 


126 

open the roads in the country of the Muflahai, and that they will protect all persons 
who may he going in the direction of Aden for the purpose of trade or returning 
therefrom. In consideration thereof the British Government agrees to' pay 
to the said Sheikh and to his successors a monthly sum of 40 (forty) dollars, the 
half of which is twenty dollars. 

VI. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Dthala, this twenty-seventh 
day of August one thousand nine hundred and three. 

P. J. Maitland, Major-General , 

Resident at Aden. 

Witnesses: 

G. Warneford, Captain, 

Assistant Political Resident at Aden. 

Syed Hamood-bin-Hason, 

Clerk. 

Abdul Rahman-bin-Kassim, al Muflahai, 


Witnesses : 

Saleh-bin-Kassim-as-Sakkaf, al Muflahai. 

Nashir Husen, al Muflahai. 

CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla, on the 26th day of October, A.D., one thousand nine hundred 
and three. 

Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to-the Government of India , 

Foreign Department. 


No. XLVII. 

Treaty with Sultan K ahtan-bin Omer Har-Hara of Yaefai-as-Sufal, — 

1903. 

The British Government and Sultan Kahtan-bin-Omer Har-Hara Sultan of 
Yaffai-as-Sufal, being desirous of entering into relations of pence and friendship ; 



ADEN— The Tafai— NO. XLYI1— 1903. 127 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and the Sultan Kahtan- 
biu-Omer Har-Hara of the Yaffai-as-Sufal aforesaid have agreed upon and con- 
cluded the following Articles : — 


I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and the tribesmen 
of Yaffai-as-Sufal. The subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Yaflai- 
as-Sufal under the authority of the said Sultan shall each be free to enter the 
territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall be treated with res- 
pect at all times and in all places. The Sultan of the Yaffai-as-Sufal and his 
successors shall visit Aden when they please. They shall be treated with respect 
and be given passes to carry arms. 


II. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Sultan Kahtan-bin-Omer Har- 
Hara, Sultan of the Yaffai-as-Sufal, the British Government hereby undertakes 
to extend to the territory of the Sultan of Yaffai-as-Sufal and its dependencies, 
being under the authority and jurisdiction of the said Sultan, the gracious favour 
and protection of His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

III. 

The said Sultan Kahtan-bin-Omer Har-Hara hereby agrees and promises 
on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and the tribesmen of the Yaffai-as- 
Sufal under his authority to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agree- 
ment, or treaty with any foreign nation or Power ; and, further, promises to give 
immediate notice to the Resident at Aden or other British officer of the attempt 
by any other Power to interfere with the territory of the Yaffai-as-Sufal and its 
dependencies. 


IV. 

The said Sultan Kahtan-bin-Omer Har-Hara hereby binds himself, and his 
heirs and successors for ever that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire 
or give, or otherwise dispose of the territory of the Yaffai-as-Sufal, being under 
his authority and jurisdiction or any part of the same at any time, to any Power 
other than the British Government. 


V. 

The said Silltd.it Kahtan-bin-Omer Har-Hara further promises, on behalf of 
himself, his heirs and successors, and his tribesmen and dependents, that tbeyT' 
will keep open the roads in tbe country of the Yaffai-as-Sufal, and that they will 



12$ ADEN— The-Yafai— NOS. XLVII AND XLVHI— 1903. 

protect all persons who may be going in the direction of Aden for tlie purpose 
of trade, or returning therefrom. In consideration thereof the British Govern- 
ment agrees to pay to the said Sultan and to his successor, or successors, a monthly 
sum of fifty (50) dollars, the half of which is twenty-five dollars. 

VI. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Dthala, this twenty-first 
day of October, one thousand nine hundred and three. 


Iff (nesses : 

G. Warneford, Captain, 
Assistant Political Resident. 


P. J. Maitland, Major-General, 

Political Resident at Aden. 


Saiyld Hamood-bin-Hason, 

Cleric. 


Seal of Sultan Khatan-bin-Omer IIar-Hara. 


Witnesses : , 

Sultan Muhammad-bin-Manassar Har-Hara. 


Sheikh Abdul Rahman Al Muflahai. • 

QUEZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 31st day of December, A.D., one thousand nine 
hundred and three. 

Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

• ■ Foreign Department. 


No. XLVIIL 


Treaty with the Hadthrami section of the Yatfai-as-Saffal, — 1903. 

V The British. Government and . Mohsen-bin-Mohsen-biu-Ghalib, Sheikh of the 
Hadthrami section of the tribe YafEai-as-Saffal, being desirous of entering into 
relations, oi'.peace and friendship ; . 


a 


ADEN— The Yafai— NO. XLVIII— 1903. 129 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and the Sheikh Molisen- 
bin-Mohscn-bin-Ghalib, the Hadthrami aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded 
the following Articles : — 

I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and the Hadthrami. 
The subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Hadthrami shall each be 
free to enter the territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall 
be treated with respect at all times and in ail places. The Sheikhs of the Hadth- 
rami shall visit Aden when they please. They shall be treated with respect and 
be given passes to carry arms. 

II. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Mohseh-bin-Mohsen-bin-Gkalib, 
Sheikh of the Hadthrami, the British Government hereby undertakes to extend 
to the territory of the Hadthrami and its dependencies, being under the authority 
and jurisdiction of the said Sheikh, the gracious favour and protection of His 
Majesty the King-Emperor. 

III. 

The said Sheikh Mohsen-bin-Mohsen-bin-Ghaiib hereby agrees and promises 
on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and the whole of the Hadthrami 
clan to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with 
any foreign nation or Power ; and further promises to give immediate notice to 
the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the attempt by any other Power 
to 'interfere with the territory of the Hadthrami and its dependencies. 

IV. 

The said Sheikh Mohsen-bin-Moksen-bin-Ghalib hereby binds himself and 
his heirs and successors for ever that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire, 
or give or otherwise dispose of, the territory of the Hadthrami, or ahy part of 
the same, at any time, to any Power other than the British Government. 

V. 

The said Sheikh Mohsen-bin-Mohsen-bin-Gkalib further promises on behalf 
of himself, his heirs and successors, and his tribesmen, that they will keep open 
the roads in the country of the Hadthrami, and that they will protect all persons 
who may be going in the direction of Aden for the purpose of trade, or returning 
therefrom. In consideration thereof the British Government agrees to pay to 
the said Sheikh and to his successor, or successors, a yearly sum of one hundred 
and twenty (120) dollars, the half of which is sixty dollars. 

x. 2 



130 


ADEN — The Yafai— NOS. XLVIII AND XLIX— 1903. 


YI. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Dthala this twenty-sixth day 
of September, one thousand nine hundred and three. 


P. J. Maitland, Major-General, 

Resident at Aden. 


Witnesses : 

G. Warneford, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


MonSEN-BIN-MoiISEN-GHALIB- 
al-IIadthiiami. 
Mark of Saleh Ahmed. 


Hamood-bin-Syed Hason, 
Clcrh. 


CUKZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This treaty was ratified by the 'Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William, on the 31st day of December, A.D., one thousand nine 
hundred and three. 

Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. XLIX. 

Treaty with the Shaibi tribe of Yaffai-as-Sufal, — 1903. 

The British Government and Ali-bin-Mane the Sakladi Sheikh of the Shaibi 
tribe, being desirous of entering into relations of peace and friendship ; 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Pelham 
James Maitland, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Major-General Pelham James Maitland, C.B., and the Sheikh Ali- 
bin-Mane the Sakladi aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following 
Articles : — 

I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British and the Shaibi. The 
subjects of the British and the tribesmen of the Shaibi shall each be free to enter 



131 


ADEN — The Yafai — NO. XL1X— 1903. 

the territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall be treated with 
respect at all times aud in all places. The Sheikhs of the Skaibi shall visit Aden 
when they please. They shall be treated with respect and be given passes to 
carry arms. 

II. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Ali-bin-Mane the Sakladi Sheikh 
of the. Skaibi, the British Government hereby undertakes to extend to the terri- 
tory of the Skaibi and its dependencies, being under the authority and jurisdic- 
tion of the said Sheikh, the gracious favour and protection of His Majesty the 
King-Emperor. 

III. 

The said Sheikh Ali-bin-Mane the Sakladi hereby agrees and promises on behalf 
of’ himself, his heirs and successors, and the whole of the Skaibi tribe to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign 
nation or Power ; and further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident 
at Aden, or other British officer, of the attempt by any other Power to interfere 
with the territory of the Skaibi and its dependencies. 

IV. 

The said Sheikh Ali-bin-Mane the Sakladi hereby binds himself and his heirs 
and successors for ever that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire or give, 
or otherwise dispose of, the territory of the- Skaibi, or any part of the same, at 
any time, to any Power other than the British Government. 

V. 

The said Sheikh Ali-bin-Mane the Sakladi further promises on behalf of him- 
self, his heirs and successors, and his tribesmen, that they will keep open the roads 
in the country of the Skaibi, and that they will protect all persons who may bo 
going in the direction of Aden for the purpose of trade, or returning therefrom. 
In consideration thereof the British Government agrees to pay to the said Sheikh 
and to his successor, or successors, a monthly sum of ten (10) dollars, the half of 
which is five dollars. 

VI. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof, the 
undersigned have affixed tlieir signatures or seals at Sulcik, this fifth day of Decem- 
ber, one thousand nine hundred and three. 

Signed by me at Aden, this fourteenth 
day of December, oue thousand nine 
hundred and three. 

P. J. Maitland, Major-General , 

Political Resident at Aden, 


Sheikh Alt Mann the Sakladi. 



] 32 ADEN — The Yajai— NOS. XLIX AND Ir-1903. 

Witnesses 

. H. M. Abud, Lieut.-Col., 

Political Agent and First Assistant Resident. ' 

Sheikh Mohsin Mane the Sakladi. 

E. O’Brien, Captain , 

Assistant Resident. 

A. Sabib, 

Clerk to Political Officer. 

CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Eort William on the 5th day of February, A.D., one thousand nine 
hundred and four. 

Louis W. Dane, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. L. 


Agreement between the Resident at Aden and the Sheikh Mutahir Ali of 
Ardaf in Shaib, regarding the care of the boundary pillars,— -1903. 

The Resident will pay always to the Sheikh Mutahir Ali from the kindness 
of Government the sum of dollars seven per mensem in token of the friendship 
and assistance rendered by the said Sheikh to the British Government, and parti- 
cularly to the Aden Boundary Commission. The said Sheikh agrees to always 
remain in friendship and obedience to the British Government and in assistance 
to its officers and also that he will preserve and guard the boundary pillars that 
have been put up on the frontier of the said Sheikh’s country and when they are 
damaged or broken that he will repair them. 

Signed at Dthala the twenty-fourth day of October 1903, corresponding to 
3rd day of Shaban 1321 H. 


Witness : 

Saiyd Hamud-Bin-IIasan. 


G. Warneford, Captain, ' 

Political Officer, on behalf of the Political . 

Resident, Aden. 


Mubaxd Bin .Mutahir, 
on behalf of Sheikh Mutahir Ali 



/hUlKCilX 


LI-1914. 


133 


No. LI. 

. - , Protectorate Treat? with tho Audali Sultan,— 1914. ; 

The British Government and Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed, the Audali, being 
desirous of entering into relations of peace and friendship ; 

Tho British Government have named and appointed Major-General Sir James 
A. Bell, K.C.V.O., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 


purpose. 

The said Major-General Sir James A. Bell, K.C.V.O., and Sultan Kasim bin 
Ahmed, the Audali, aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following 
Articles 

•• - I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British Government and all 
the tribesmen, subjects and dependents of the Audali Sultan. The subjects of 
the British and the tribesmen of the Audali and its dependencies shall bo free to 
enter the. territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall be treated 
with respect at all times and in all places. Tho said Sultan and other notable 
persons shall visit Aden when they please. They shall be treated with respect 
and be given passes to carry arms. 


n. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed, tho 
Audali, the British Government hereby undertakes to extend to the territory 
of the Audali and all its dependencies, being under the authority and jurisdic- 
tion of the said Sultan, the gracious favour and protection of His Majesty tho 
King-Emperor, 

III. 

The said Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed, the Audali, hereby agrees and promises on 
behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and the whole of the tribesmen, subjects 
and dependents, under his jurisdiction to refrain from entering into any corres- 
pondence, agreements, treaty or dealings with any foreign person, nation or 
Power except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government and 
further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden or other British 
Officer of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with the territory of tho 
Audali or any of its dependencies, 

. ' f : 

• ■ IV. • ‘ 

Tho said Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed, the Audali, hereby binds himself, and 
his heirs and successors for ever that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, 
hire or give, or otherwise dispose of the territory of the Audali and its depen- 
dencies* or any part of the same, at any time to any Power or to the subjects of 
any . Power other, than tho British Government,. 



134 


ADEN — The Am! kali— NO. LI— 1914. 


V. 

The said Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed, the Audali, further promises on behalf 
of himself, his heirs and successors and all his tribesmen, subjects and dependents,- 
that he will keep open the roads in the territory of the Audali and its dependencies, 
and that he will protect all persons who may be going in the direction of Aden 
for the purposes of trade, or returning therefrom and that lie will assist and pro- 
tect any British party which may have occasion to visit his territory. 

VI. 

In consideration of these undertakings and engagements tho British Govern- 
ment agree to pay to the said Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed, the Audali, and to his 
heirs and successors, a monthly sum of forty dollars, the half of which is twenty 
dollars. 

VII. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have allixed their signatures or seals this the nineteenth day of 
September in the year ono thousand nine hundred and fourteen. 

The English version of this treaty will be regarded as the authoritative 
version. 

Sultan Kasim bin Ahmed Al-Audalt. 


J. A. Bell, Major-General , 

Political Resident, Aden. 

II. F. Jacob, Lieut. -Col., 

First Assistant Resident, Aden. 

Witness ; 

Alt Jaffer, 

Head Residency Interpreter. 

II A It BINGE OF PENSIIURST, 
Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Delhi on the 10th day of November, A.D. one thousand nine hundred 
and fourteen. 


A. II. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 
Foreign and Political Department. 



ADEN— The Hausluibi — NO. IJ3— 1839. 135 


No. LI I. 

Translation of a Bond entered into by Sultan Man a bin Salam, of the 

Howshabee, and his son Salam bin Mana, of the Howshabee, — 1839. 

Sultan Mana bin Salam, of the Howshabee, and his son Salam bin Mana, of 
the Howshabee, declare of their own accord that they enter into an agreement 
with all those under them, belonging to Howshabee, their clans, and all those 
dependent upon them, the Chief of Haroor-ool-Awajcer, and the whole Howshabee, 
as before arranged with Commander Haines, Governor of Aden, who sincerely 
agrees to pay the allowances received by them from Sultan Muhsin Fadhl Abdalce. 
What has been arranged between them (Commander Haines and the Sultan) is 
that whatever belongs to the Sultans of Abdalee, former and succeeding, and 
to those of the Howshabee, former and succeeding, shall be theirs respectively. 

The Abdalee shall be responsible, as is agreed upon, for all outrages committed 
in Lahej, its neighbourhood, or within its limits, or in Aden, its roads, or within 
its boundaries, and Mana bin Salam for those perpetrated by the Howshabee, 
their clans, or those subject to them. In case Mana render any assistance to 
any other Sultan or tribe, this Bond is to be considered null and void. Our (Sultan 
Maua’s) hand is the same as that of Sultan Muhsin Fadhl, and our friend is identi- 
cal with Sultan Muhsin. In the event of any plunder by any of the above tribes 
on the roads or in Lahej, the Bond which we have shall be considered null until 
we make restitution of whatever may be carried away. Should any one commit 
an assault or murder in Lahej or Aden, or on the roads, and should such person 
bo proved to be one of the Howshabee or of their clans, he shall be seized and 
considered an offender. This Bond is binding and lasting. We shall receive our 
allowance from Government every six months or a part, if necessary, after two 
months. This is to commence from the month of Zilkad, Hegira 1251 (January- 
February 1839). The above people shall receive the allowance fixed for them 
through us or the Sultan (Muhsin) or his children. These arc the stipulations 
agreed upon by Sultan Mana bin Salam and Salam bin Mana, and which are me- 
diated by Abce Muhsin bin Wugces bin Kassim SufTeean, who is Vakeel of the 
Howshabee. These points are agreed to on Friday, the 2nd Rubec-oos-Sanee 
Hegira 1255 (14th June 1839). The allowance fixed for the Howshabee is 028 
Cooroosh Fransa per annum, half of which is 314 Cooroosh. 


IFiVumcs : 

Mahomed IIoussain bin Wais bin Kassim Suffeean Jaffer, 

Translator, 


Kazee-Abdooi, Eazzak bin Alt, 


Ali bin Abdoollah Alt. 



136 ADEN — The Haushabi — NOS. LIII— 1839 AND LIV— 1895. 

No. LIII. 

Treaty of Friendship and Peace between the English and Hazzabee 

Tribe,— 1839. 

- Bismillah L>Rehmah Ir-Rehim Be Minnet Allab ! '• • ■ / ■ . 

This agreement is between the Hazzabees for peace. On the part of ’Sheikh 
Abdoollah Hazzaab,. Sheikh Hamed bin Abdoollah Hazzeeb Mukee Hazzabee, 
and Commander Haines, the English Agent, on the part of Government, 
are now friends, and promise peace and friendship, great and lasting friendship, 
and that our hearts and wishes are one. 

Further, that there shall be peace and friendship with Aden, and that if any 
of our subjects or the subjects of Britain pass into each other’s territory, neither 
party shall bo insulted or injured ; we are one. If the subjects of either do wrong, 
they are to bo given over for punishment by their own laws. 

In the presence of — 

Syud Alowi bin Aidroos All bin 

Boo Bekr It ashed Abdoollah. 

Sheikh Mahomed bin Abdoollah 

Huzzeeb Mukee Hazzabee. 


15th Zilkadeh, 

31st Januaiy 1839. 


S. B. Haines. 


No. LIV. 

Articles of Agreement entered into by Sultan Mohsin bin ’Alt, the Hau- 
shabi, with the Sultan of the ’Abdali, — 1895. 

Article I. 

Mohsin bin ’Ali, the Haushabi, al Abd Farid, and Saud ba Salim Ahl Yehia 
bind themselves that they agree and will sign conditions which the Resident of 
Aden shall require for the protection of the Haushabi country, and that they 
shall have no connection with any Foreign Power, Turkish or others. 

Article II. 

That Ahl Fajjar and the Haushabis shall not appoint a Sultan except by the 
advice and consent of Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali, the ’Abdali. 

Article III. 

That the Haushabi taxes shall be under the supervision of Sultan Fadthl bin 
’Ali, the ’Abdali (Sultan of Lahej), and the collection of the same in his country 
wherever he wishes in his limits. That Mohsin bin ’Ali, the Haushabi, his rela- 
tives and those who have shares in the taxes keep a person they elect and trust 



ADEN— The Baushahi — NO. LIV — 1895. 137 

, . y -* _ 

j ' - >- 

to receive the taxes. The rates to be levied according to the paper (scale) given 
by him (Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali). 

Article IV. 

That the Haushabi Sultan shall not seize any merchant, muccadum, or any 
traveller, and he has no authority over them, nor power to inflict imprisonment 
on them, nor shall he demand advances from owners of loads or muccndums. 

Article V. 

The aforesaid Mohsin bin ’Ali binds himself that he shall not molest or oppress 
his relatives or Alii Yehia, but shall give them their rights. Ho shall pay every 
one who has claims in the taxes according to their custom and give maintenance 
to those who are entitled to it. 

t - ■ Article VI. 

Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali the ’Abdali has appointed Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani the 
Haushabi Sultan over the Haushabi country, and the said Mohsin bin ’Ali under- 
takes to protect and make restitution of any property looted on the road leading 
to Lahej and vice versa. 

Article VII. 

' That Dar-al-Avad, the fields of Shaamia and A1 Hur-Rakat and its lands and 
those who occupy them and their inhabitants and the country of Ali Amir and 
its population are to become the property of Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali, Sultan of 
Lahej, together with all their boundaries as compensation for his expenses, and 
Mohsin bin ’Ali, the Haushabi, binds himself not to accept any of them or to 
assist any of the aforesaid people who may rebel, and he also undertakes to Sultan 
Fadthl bin ’Ali to obey him whenever he is called to assist in punishing any of 
the above-mentioned rebels, and he (Mohsin bin ’Ali) may levy taxes on kafilas 
passing through the country of ’Ahl Ameri at the fixed custom-house of tho Hau- 
shabi in the limits of Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali the ’Abdali. 

Article VIII. 

That Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Maui, the Haushabi, and all his relatives, Ahl Fajjar 
and their tribes of the Haushabis, etc., are under obedience to Sultan Fadthl 
bin ’Ali Mohsin, the Abdali, and they offer to conform to him and to answer his 
summons to fight with him against any of his enemies. In the same way Sultan 
Fadthl bin ’Ali undertakes to Mohsin bin ’Ali to aid and assist him against any 
enemies who wish to molest the Haushabi country. 

Article IX. 

. Whenever any murder or loot takes place between the ’Abdali and the Hau- 
shabi, the settlement, of such is vested in Sultan Fadthl-bin ’Ali Mohsin bin ’Ali, 
and the elders of Ahl Fajjar. 



138 


ADEN— The Haushabi — NOS. LIV AND LY— 1895. 


Article X. 

That Mohsin bin ’Ali, the Haushabi, has agreed that Sultan Fadthl bin ’Ali 
the ’Abdali receive the stipend which he gets from the British Government, and 
that he (the ’Abdali) pay it to Mohsin bin ’Ali, the Haushabi. Mohsin bin ’Ali 
undertakes for the continuation of these terms with good behaviour, and these 
conditions are concluded on the 22nd (twenty-second) day of Al-Hijja, one thous- 
and three hundred and twelve. 


i.e., Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani (the Haushabi Sultan). 
i.e., Fadthl bin ’Ali (Sultan of Lahej). 

"Witnesses : 

i.e., Shaif bin Saif (Amir of ad Dhali). 

Mark X of Syed Ali Hamadi. 

M. S. Jaffer, 


Native Assistant Resident. 


At the request of the chiefs — signatories to this— this agreement was read over 
in my presence and agreed to by both and signed. 


The 6th August 1S95. 


C. A. Cuningham, Brigadier-General, 
Political Resident. 


No. LY. 


Protectorate Treaty with the Haushabi, — 1895. 

The British Government and Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi Sultan 
of Musaimir-bin-’Ubaid, Ar-Raha and the Haushabi country with their depen- 
dencies, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace 
and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Charles 
Alexander Cuningham, Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Charles Alexander Cuningham and Sultan Mohsin 
bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the fol- 
lowing articles : — 

Article I. 

The British Government in compliance with the wish of the undersigned Sul- 
tan Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Haushabi, hereby undertakes to extend to Mu- 
saimir-bin-’Ubaid, Ar-Raha and the Haushabi country with their dependencies, 
which are under his authority and jurisdiction the gracious favour and protec- 
tion of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 



ADEN — The JI.au shahi — NO. LV— 1895. 139 

Article II. 

The said Sultan Mohshi bin ’Ali ’Maui, the Ilaushabi, agrees and promises 
on behalf of himself, his relations, heirs, successors and the whole tribe to refrain 
from entering into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign 
nation or Power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Govern- 
ment, and further promises to 'give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden 
or other British officer of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with Musai- 
mir-bin-’Ubnid, Ar-Rnha and the Ilaushabi country and their dependencies. 

Article III. 

The said Sultan Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Ilaushabi, hereby binds himself, 
his relations, heirs, successors and the whole tribe for ever, that he or they will 
not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of the Ilaushabi 
territory and its dependencies, or any part of the same at any time to any Power 
or person other than the British Government. 

Article IV. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof tho 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this sixth day of August, 
one thousand eight huudred and ninety -five, A.D. 


C. A. Cuxixojf am, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 


IFiVhcss .* 

IV. B. Ferris, Major, 

First Assistant, Political Resident. 


I, Fadtlil bin ’Ali Mohsin Fadtlil nl ’Abdnli, Sultan of Laliej, certify that 
Mohsin bin ’Ali ’Mani, the Ilaushabi Sultan, enters into this treaty under my 
auspices and signs it with my full knowledge and consent. 


Fadthl nix ’Ali Mohsin, 

Sultan of Laliej. 


ELGIN, / ' 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 


This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the 20th day of October, A.D., one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-five. 


IV. J. Cuningium, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 



ADEN-r The Ilavshabi — NO. LVI— 1914. 


140 


No. LYI. 


Agreement with the Haushabi Sultan, — 1914. 

The British Government and the Haushabi Sultan being desirous of main" 
taining and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between 
them and of providing for the safety of the roads agree as follows : — 


Article I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British Government and the 
Haushabi. The subjects of the British Government and the tribesmen of the 
Haushabi shall be free to enter the territories of the other ; they shall not be molest- 
ed, but shall be treated with respect at all times and at all places. The said 
Haushabi Sultan and othet notable persons shall visit Aden when they please. 
They shall be treated with respect and given passes to carry arms. 


ArtIcle II. 

The said Haushabi Sultan Ali bin Mani promises on behalf of himself, his heirs 
and successors and all his tribesmen, subjects and dependents that he will keep 
open the roads in Haushabi territory and its dependencies, and that he will pro- 
tect all persons who may be going in the direction of Aden for the purpose of trade 
or returning therefrom. No new taxes or dues shall be levied upon goods on 
the roads within their territories without the previously obtained sanction of the 
Political Resident, Aden. 


Article III. 

In consideration of these undertakings and engagements being faithfully and 
fully carried out the Political Resident, Aden, on the part of the British Govern- 
ment, agrees to pay to the said Sultan Ali bin Mani and his successor or succes- 
sors a monthly sum of sixty-four dollars, half of which is thirty-two dollars, and . 
also to continue to him and his successor or successors the monthly stipend of 
dollars one hundred and thirty-six which is already granted to him under the 
agreement which was concluded between Mohsin bin Ali, the Haushabi, and the 
British Government on the 6th day of August 1895 A.D. 

Article IV. 

\ To assist him in carrying out the obligations imposed by this agreement the 
said Sultan Ali bin Mani engages on behalf of himself and his successors to estab- 
lish suitable posts at El-Mitlah, Am Tannan or such other places on the roads 
as may be necessary and to maintain a force of 50 men or such less number as 
the Political Resident, Aden, may agree to ; in consideration of which a present 
of 50 Martini-Henry rifles with 100 rounds of ammunition- per rifle will be granted 
to him by the British Government, and a reasonable supply of ammunition will 
be furnished to him hereafter for the Bame on payment. 



ADEN— The lUmhabT^&r .LVI— 1914. 


m 


Article V. 

The above agreement shall have effect from this date. In virtue thereof wo 
the undersigned have affixed our signatures and seals at Aden this twenty-fourth 
day of September 1914. 

J. A, Belt,, Major-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. ■ 

Witness : 

H. F. JAcob, Ll.-Colonel, 

1st Assistant Resident, Aden. 

Sultan Alt Mani, 

TImtshabi Sultan. 


Renewed at Aden this eleventh day of February nineteen hundred and twenty. 

Sultan Alt Mani, 

Uauslali Sultan. 


J. M. Stewart, Major-General, 
Political Resident, Aden. 



142 


ADEN — Alpwi — NO. LVll— 189S. 


No. LVII. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Alawi, — 1895. 

The British Government and Shaif bin Said, the Alawi Shaikh of A1 Kasha 
and the Alawi country with their dependencies, being desirous of maintaining 
and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Charles 
Alexander Cuningham, Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Charles Alexander Cuningham and Shaikh Shaif 
bin Said, the Alawi aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following 
articles : — 


Article I. 

The British Government in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Shaikh Shaif bin Said, the Alawi, hereby undertakes to extend to A1 Kasha and 
the Alawi country with their dependencies, which are under his authority and 
jurisdiction, the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Em- 
press. 

Article II. 

The said Shaikh Shaif bin Said, the Alawi, agrees and promises on behalf of 
himself, his relations, heirs, successors, and the whole tribe to refrain from enter- 
ing into any correspondence, agreement or treaty, with any foreign nation or 
Power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and 
further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden or other British 
officer of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with A1 Kasha and the 
Alawi country and their dependencies. 

Article III. 

The said Shaikh Shaif bin Said, the Alawi, hereby binds himself, his relations, 
heirs, successors, and the whole tribe for ever, that he or they will not cede, sell, 
mortgage, lease, hire or give or otherwise dispose of the Alawi territory and its 
dependencies or any part of the same, at any time, to any Power, or persons other 
than the British Government. 


Article IY. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this sixteenth day of 
July one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, A.D. 

C. A. Ouninsham, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident , Aden, 


143 


ADEN — Alarm — NOS. LVII — IB! >5 AN.1) LV11.1 -lOM. 


Witness : 

W. B. Ferris, Major, 


First Assistant Resident. 


ELGIN, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India 


This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla, on the 20th day of October, A.D., one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-five. 

W. J. Cuningiiam, 


Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. LV11I. 

Agreement with the Alawi Sheikh. — 1014, 

The British Government and the Alawi Sheikh being desirous of maintain- 
ing and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them 
and of providing for the safety of the roads agree as follows : — 


Article I. 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British Government and the 
Alawi. The subjects of the British Government and the tribesmen of the Alawi 
shall be free to enter the territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but 
shall be treated with respect at all times and at all places. The said Alawi Sheikh 
and other notable persons shall visit Aden when they please. They shall be 
treated with respect and given passes to carry arms. 

Article II. 

The said Alawi Sheikh Ali Nashcr promises on behalf of himself, his heirs and 
successors and all his tribesmen, subjects and dependents that he will keep open 
the roads in Alawi territory and its dependencies and that they will protect all 
persons who may be going in the direction of Aden for the purpose of trade or 
returning therefrom. The Alawi Sheikh undertakes not to levy any transit dues 
more than 12 annas per camel load and to receive them at Lahej. The Alawi 
Sheikh also agrees not to impose such dues at any other place. 

Article III. 

In consideration of these undertakings and engagements being faithfully and 
fully carried out the Political Resident, Aden, on the part of the British Govern- 
ment, agrees to pay to the said Sheikh Ali Nashcr and his successor or successors, 
a monthly sum of 25 dollars, half of which is 121 dollars, and also to continue 



ADEN — Alawi — NO. LYIII— 1914. 


IU 

to him and his successor or successors the monthly stipend of dollars 25 which 
is already granted to him under the agreement which was concluded between 
Shaif bin Said, the Alawi, and the British Government on the 16th day of July 
1895 A.D. The aforesaid payment shall he made to the Alawi Sheikh through 
the Abdali Sultan. 

Article IY. 

To assist him in carrying out the obligations imposed by this Agreement, 
the said Alawi Sheikh Ali Nashcr engages on behalf of himself and his successors 
to erect a suitable post at Mabaja and to maintain a force of 20'men, or such less 
number as the Political Resident, Aden, may agree to ; in consideration of which 
a present of 25 Martini-Henry rifles with 100 rounds of ammunition per rifle will 
be granted to him by the British Government, and a reasonable supply oi ammu- 
nition will he furnished to him hereafter for the same on payment. 

Article V. 

The above agreement shall have effect from this date. In virtue thereof we 
the undersigned have affixed our signatures and seals at this day of July 

1914. 



ADI'S — NOB. LI X — 1850 AND LX— 1804. 145 

No. LfX. 

T n a fj a ti o ?r of an Agreement signed by Amir Alt Morbid, of Dtitalt (Zhali), 
on the 2nd October 1SS0 and ratified by His Excellency t-hc Viceroy and 
Governor-General op India on the 1st May 1SS1. 

I, Amir AH Mokbi! of Zhali, of my own free will and accord, agree and bind 
myself, my heirs and successors, to keep peace and friendship in perpetuity with 
the Great British Government, to keep nil the roads leading through my territory 
to Aden safe and undisturbed, to protect the poor and the weak on the same, 
and to lie answerable for any outrage or wrong-doings committed by the tribes 
Uudfnn and Ilalimcin and all the tribes subject to me. I will do all in my power 
to preserve safety on the road to my utmost ability. In consideration of the 
above, a sum of $50 (fifty) to be paid to me by the Great English Government 
annually, half of which, viz., $25 (twenty-five) to be paid every six months, and 
this payment to be continued from generation to generation. If I, my children, 
relations, Sheikh or ciders, proceed to and from Aden, they should be respected 
and treated according to their position and dignity. God is the best witness. 

Dated Aden, 2nd October 18S0, corresponding to 27th Shawal 1297. 

Alt Mokbil. 

G. L. Goodfellow, 

Acting Political Resident. 


No. LX. 


Treaty with the Amir of D’Thala, — 1904. 

The British Government and the Amir Sbnif bin Scf bin Abdul Uadi bin ITasan, 
the ruler of D’thnln, and all its dependencies, having determined to firmly estab- 
lish the rotations of peace and friendship so long existing between them. 

The British Government have named and appointed Major-General Henry 
Macan Mason, Polit ical Resident at Aden, to conclude a Treaty for this purpose. 

The said Major-General Henry Macan Mason, and the Amir Shaif bin Sef 
bin Abdul Hadi bin Hasan aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the fol- 
lowing Articles 

I. 


There shall be peace and friendship between the British Government and 
all the tribesmen, subjects and dependents oi the Amir of B’thalu. The sub- 
jects of the British, and the people of D’thala and its dependencies, shall be free 
to enter the territories of the other ; they shall not be molested, but shall be treated 
wnh respect at. all times and at all places. The said Amir of D’thnla and other 
notable poisons shall visit Aden when they please. They shall be treated with 
respect and be given passes to carry arms. 


it 2 



ADEN— Dhala— NO. LX—1901. 


14G 


II. 

In compliance with the wish of the aforesaid Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul 
Uadi bin Hasan, the 'British Government hereby undertake to extend to the terri- 
tory of D'thala and all its dependencies the gracious favour and protection of 
His Majesty the King-Emperor. 

in. 

The said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Iladi bin Hasan hereby agrees, and pro- 
mises on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and the whole of the tribes- 
men, subjects and dependents, under ids jurisdiction, to refrain from entering 
into any correspondence, agreement or treaty with any foreign nation or Power ; 
and further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other 
."British officer, of any attempt, by any other Power, to interfere with the. terri- 
tory of D’thala or any of its dependencies. 

IV. 

The said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Iladi bin Hasan hereby binds him- 
self, and his heirs and successors, for ever, that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, 
lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of, the territory of D’thala, and its depen- 
dencies, or any other part of the same, at any time to any Power other than the 
British Government, 

V. 

The said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Iladi bin Hasan further promises on 
behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and all his tribesmen, subjects and 
dependents, that he will keep open the roads in the territory of D’thala, and its 
dependencies, aud that they will protect all persons who may be going in the 
direction of Aden for the purposes of trade, or returning therefrom. 

VI. 

The said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Hadi bin Hasan also engages on behalf 
of himself, his heirs and successors, and all his tribesmen, subjects and depen- 
dents to maintain the boundary which has been demarcated by the joint British 
and Turkish Commission, and to protect the boundary pillars. 

VII. 

Further the said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Hadi bin Hasan undertakes, 
on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, to maintain order within the boun- 
dary of the territories of D’thala and its dependencies, and to restrain his tribes- 
men, subjects and dependents from creating disturbances either in his own terri- 
tory, or in the country beyond the boundary line, and from interfering with the 
tribes who are subjects of the Turkish Government, 



ADEN — Dhala—$6. LX— 1904, , 147 

VIII. 


In consideration of these undertakings and engagements the British Govern- 
ment agree to pay to the said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Ilndi bin Hasan, and 
to his successor, or successors, a monthly sum of one hundred (100) dollars, the 
half of which is fifty (50) dollars. 


IX. 

To assist him in carrying out the obligations imposed by this Treaty the said 
Amir, on behalf of himself and his successors, engages to maintain a force of 50 
men, or such less number as the Resident may agree to. So long as this force 
is maintained in a state of efficiency to the satisfaction of the Resident, the British 
Government agree to pay to the said Amir Shaif bin Sef bin Abdul Hadi bin Hasan, 
and to his successor or successors, a monthly sum of one hundred (100) dollars, 
the half of which is 'fifty (50) dollars, this subsidy to be in addition to that men- 
tioned in Article VIII. 


X. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness thereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden this twenty-eighth 
day of November one thousand nine hundred and four. 


Witnesses : 


II. M. Mason, Major-General , 
Resident in Aden. 


J. Davis, Lieut. -Colonel, 

First Assistant Resident in Aden. 


Alt Jaffar, 

Head Interpreter. 


CURZON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India . 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at, Fort William on the 8th day of February, A.D. one thousand nine 
hundred and five. 

S. M. Frasf.ii, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of 
India in the Foreign Department'. 



X4S 


ADEN — Dhaht — NO. LXl— 1915. 

No. LXL 

Agreement with tlio Kotaibi Siieikti,— 1915. 

The .British Government and the Kotaibi Sheikh being desirous of maintain- 
ing and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them 
and of providing for the safety of the roads agree as follows : — 


Article I. • 

There shall be peace and friendship between the British Government and 
the Kotaibi. The subjects of the British Government and the tribesmen of the 
Kotaibi shall be free to enter the territories of tire other : they shall not be molest- 
ed, but shall be treated with respect at all times and at all places. The said 
Kotaibi Sheikh and other notable persons shall visit Aden when they please. They 
shall be treated with respect and given passes to carry arms. 

Article It. 

The said Kotaibi Sheikh Mahomed Saleh al Akhrarn promises on behalf of 
himself, his heirs and successors and all his tribesmen, subjects and dependents 
that he will keep open the roads in Kotaibi territory and its dependencies, and 
that he will protect all persons who may be going in the direction of Aden for 
the purpose of trade or returning therefrom. The Kotaibi Sheikh undertakes 
not to levy transit dues more than 10 annas per camel load and to recover his 
dues at Lahej and not impose them at any other place. 

Article III, 

In consideration of these undertakings and engagements being faithfidly and 
fully carried out the Political Resident, Aden, on the part of the British Govern- 
ment, agrees to pay to the said Sheikh Mahomed Saleh al Akhrarn and his suc- 
cessor or successors a monthly sum of 50 dollars, half of which is 25 dollars. The 
payment aforesaid shall be made to the Sheikh through His Highness the Abdali 
Sultan. 

Article IV. 

To assist him in carrying out the obligations imposed by this agreement of 
peace and friendship a present of 25 Martini -Ilcnry rifles with 100 rounds of ammu- 
nition per rifle shall bo granted to Sheikh Mahomed Saleh al Akhrarn by the Bri- 
tish Government and a reasonable supply of ammunition will be furnished to 
him hereafter for the same on payment. 

Article V. 

The above agreement shall have effect from this date. In virtue thereof we 
the undersigned have affixed our signatures and .seals at this day of 

June 1915. 


ADEN — 'i'/ic Wahidi — NO. LXU--1888. 149 

No. LXII. 

PROTECTORATE TREATY with tllC W AII IDT SULTAN of Bill Alt, JbS8. 

The British Government and Mohsin bin Saleh bin Holism, Saleh bin Ahmed 
bin Saleh, Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Saleh, Nasir bin Husain bin Mohsin, Bubakr 
bin Husain bin Mohsin, Saleh bin Abdalla bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Ali bin Abdalla 
bin Saleh bin Mohsin, and Nasir bin Talib bin Hadi, Sultans of the Wahidi tribe, 
being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace and friend- 
ship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Mohsiu 
bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Saleh bin Ahmed bin Saleh, Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Saleh, 
Nasir bin Husain bin Mohsin, Bubakr bin Husain bin Mohsin, Saleh bin Abdalla 
bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Ali bin Abdalla bin Saleh bin Mohsin, and Nasir bin Talib 
bin Hadi, aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles : — 

Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned, 
Mohsin bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Saleh bin Ahmed bin Saleh, Abdalla bin Ahmed 
bin Saleh, Nasir bin Husain bin Mohsin, Bubakr bin Husain bin Mohsin, Saleh 
bin Abdalla bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Ali bin Abdalla bin Saleh bin Mohsin, and Nasir 
bin Talib bin Hadi, Sultans of the Wahidi tribe, hereby undertakes to extend 
to Bir Ali and its dependencies, which are under their authority and jurisdic- 
tion, the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article 2. 

I'hc said Mohsin bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Saleh b n Ahmed bin Saleh, Abdalla 
bin Ahmed bin Saleh, Nasir bin Husain bin Mohsin, Bubakr bin Husain bin Mohsin, 
Saleh bin Abdalla bin Saleh bin Mohsin, Ali bin Abdalla bin Saleh bin Mohsin, 
and Nasir bin Talib bin Hadi, agree and promise on behalf of themselves and their 
heirs and successors to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agree- 
ment, or treaty with any foreign nation or Power, except with the knowledge 
and sanction of the British Government ; and further promise to give immediate 
notice to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the attempt by any 
other Power to interfere with Bir Ali and its dependencies.- 

Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness Whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Bir Ali this thirtieth day 
of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 


A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

. Political Resident., Aden, 



150 ADEN — The WnhuU— NOS. LX1I AND LX 1 1 1—1888. 

TFiYnm : 

C. E. Gissing, Commander, R.N., 

Her Majesty’s “ Osprey.” 

Mohrin Bin Salf.ti. 

Sat,eh Bin Aiimed, 
Abdalla Bin Atimeu. 
Nasir bin Husain. 

Mark of Buiiakr JTcsain. 
Saleh bin Ariulla. 

Ai.i bin Abdalla. 

Nasir bin Talib. 

Witness : 

M. S. Jaiter, 

Native. Assistant Resident, Aden. 

L ANSI) OWE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This Treaty was ratified by tlie Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 2Gth day of February A.D. one thousnnd eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. CuNlNOJTAM, 

Offy. Secy, to the Govt, of India, Foreign Department. 


No. Lxm. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Wauidi Sultan of Baladaf, — 1888. 

The British Government and Ilndi bin Saleh bin Nasir bin Abdalla bin Ahmed 
bin Hadi, on behalf of himself and his brothers Nasir bin Saleh, Ahmed bin Saleh, 
Mohsin bin Saleh, Husain bin Saleh, and Hason bin Saleh, and Saleh bin Abdalla 
bin Ahmed bin Nasir bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi on behalf of himself and 
his brothers Ahmed bin Ali and Bubnkr bin Nasir, Chiefs of the Wahidi tribe, 
being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace and friend- 
ship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Hadi bin 
Saleh bin Nasir bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Iladi, on behalf of himself and his 



ADEN — The Wahidi — NO. IiXfii— . x - AUA 

brothers Nasir bin Saleh, Ahmed bin Saleh, Mohsin bin Saleh, Husain bin Saleh 
and Hason bin Saleh; and Saleh bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Nasir bin Abdalln 
bin Ahmed bin Hadi on behalf of himself and his brothers Ahmed bin Ali 
and Bubakr bin Nasir, aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following 

Articles : — 

Article 1. 

The British Government, • in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Hadi bin Saleh bin Nasir bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi, on behalf of himself 
and his brothers Nasir bin Saleh, Ahmed bin Saleh, Mohsin bin Saleh, Husain 
bin Saleh, and Hason bin Saleh, and Saleh bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Nasir bin 
Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi on behalf of himself and his brothers Ahmed bin 
Ah and Bubakr bin Nasir, Chiefs of the Wahidi, hereby undertakes to extend 
to Balnhaf and its dependencies, which are under their authority and jurisdic- 
tion, the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article 2. 

The said Hadi bin Saleh bin Nasir bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi on behalf 
of himself and his brothers Nasir bin Saleh, Ahmed bin Saleh, Mohsin bin Saleh, 
Husain bin Saleh, and Hason bin Saleh, and Saleh bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin 
Nasir bin Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi on behalf of himself and his brothers 
Ahmed bin Ali and Bubakr bin Nasir, agree and promise, on behalf of themselves, 
their heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agree- 
ment, or treaty with any foreign nation or Power except with the knowledge and 
sanction of the British Government ; and further promise to give immediate notice 
to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the attempt by any. other 
Power to interfere with Balahaf and its dependencies. 


Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Bunder Balahaf this thirtieth 
day of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 

A. G. F. Hogg, Brigadier -General, 
Political Resident, Aden. 

Witness : 


C. E. Gissing, Commander, R.N., 

Her Majesty's “ Osprey 

ITaiu bin Saleh. 
Saleh bin Abdulla. 

Witness : 

M. S. Jaffer, 

Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 


LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor -General of India. 



152 


ADEN — The Wnb^ii- nob. nxi 11—1888 AND LXIV— 1895. 


This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 26th day of February A.D. one thousand chdit 
hundred aud ninety. 

W. J. CUNINGHAM, 


Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. LXIV. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Wahidi (BAIiAHAf), — 1895. 

The British Government and 

(1) Saleh bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Ndsir bin- ’Abdalla bin Alimcd bin 

Heidi. 

(2) His cousin AJmicd bin ’Ali, 

(3) His nephew Bubakr bin Ndsir, 

(4) Ahmed bin Saleh bin Ndsir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hddi, on behalf 

of himself and liis brother Nasir bin Saleh, and 

(5) Husain bin Saleh bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Iladi, 

Chiefs of the Wahidi tribe, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening 
the relations of peace and friendship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General John 
Jopp, C.B., A.D.C., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treat)' for this pur- 
pose. 

The said Brigadier-General John Jopp, C.B., A.D.C., and Saleh bin ’Abdalla 
bin Ahmed bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi, his cousin Ahmed bin 
’Ali, his nephew Bubakr bin Nasir, Ahmed bin Saleh bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin 
Ahmed bin Hadi, on behalf of himself and his brother Nasir bin Saleh, and Husain 
bin Saleh bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi aforesaid, have agreed upon 
and concluded the following articles : — 

Article I. 

The British Government in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Saleh bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi, his 
cousin Ahmed bin ’Ali, his nephew Bubakr bin Nasir, Ahmed bin Saleh bin Nasir 
bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi, on behalf of himself and his brother Nasir bin 
Saleh, and Husain bin Saleh bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Hadi, Chiefs 
of the Wahidi, hereby undertakes to extend to Bdlalidf and its dependencies which 
are under their authority and jurisdiction the gracious favour aud protection 
of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article II. 

The said Saleh bin ’Abdalla- bin Ahmed bin Ndsir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed 
bin Hadi, his cousin Ahmed bin ’Ali, his nephew Bubakr bin Nasir, Ahmed bin 



ADEN — The Wahiili— NO. LXIV— 1895. 153 


Saleh bin Nasir bln ’Abdalla bin Ahmed bin Iladi, on bebalf of himself and his 
brother Nasir bin Saleh, and Husain bin Saleh bin Nasir bin ’Abdalla bin Ahmed 
bin Hadi, agree and promise on behalf of themselves, their relations, heirs, suc- 
cessors' and the whole tribe to refrain from entering into any correspondence, - 
agreement or treaty with any foreign nation, Power or person except with the 
knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and further promise to give 
immediate notice to the ‘.Resident at Aden or other British officer of the attempt 
by any other Power to interfere with Balahaf and its dependencies. 


Article III. 

The aforesaid chiefs of the Wahidi bind themselves, their relations, heirs, . 
successors and the whole tribe for ever that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, 
lease, hire, or give or otherwise dispose of the territory of Balahaf and its depen- 
dencies or any part of the same at any time to any foreign Power or person other 
than the British Government. 


Article IV. 

The above treaty shall have effect from this date. Ill witness whereof the 
Undersigned, have affixed their signatures or seals at Aden, this fifteenth day of 
March one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five. 


Witness : 


John Jo it, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, Aden. 


0. W. II. Sealy, Lieutenant-Colonel , 
First Assistant Political Resident, Aden. 


i.e., Sultan SAleh bin ’Abdalla. 
i.e., Ahmed bin Saleh. 
i.e., Ahmed bin ’ Alt . 
i.e., Bubakr bin Nasir. 
i.e., Husain bin SAleh. 

Witnesses : 

i.e., Syeb ’Umar bin Mohammed MohdtiiAU, 

(Mansab of Ilabb&n). 

i.e., Shaikh Mohammed bin Abd-ur-Rahman ba Kadr, 

( Mansab of as-Sdid). 

i . e ., Shaikh Maiidi bin ’Abdalla ba Boraish, 



ADEN The Wahidi — NOS. LXJLV— 1895 ANl) LXV— 1896. 


154 


i . e ., Shaikh ’Ardalla bin Ahmed ba Fakir. - 


M. S. .Tatter, 

Native Assistant Resident, Aden. 


ELGIN, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


Tliis treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla, on the 10th da} 7 of June, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-five. 

W. J. Cuningham, 


Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. LXV. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Wahidi (Bir Alt),--] 896. 

The British Government and Salih bin Ahmed bin Salih bin Munef ; his brother 
Abdulla bin Ahmed bin Salih bin Munef ; his cousin Salih bin Abdulla bin Salih 
bin Mohsin ; his cousin Ali bin Abdulla bin Salih bin Mohsin ; his cousin Bubakar 
bin Hussain bin Mohsin on behalf of himself and his two cousins, namely, Munef 
bin Nasir bin Husain and Nasir bin Nasir bin Husain ; liis cousin Nasir bin Mohsin 
bin Salih bin Mohsin on behalf of himself and Ins brothers Salih bin Mohsin and 
Husain bin Mohsin and his cousin Nasir bin Talib bin Hadi, Chiefs of the Wahidi 
Tribe, being desirous of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace 
and friendship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Lieutenant-Colonel William 
Butler Ferris, Acting Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for this 
purpose. 

The said Lieutenant-Colonel William Butler Ferris and Salih bin Ahmed bin 
Salih bin Munef ; his brother Abdulla bin Ahmed bin Salih bin Munef ; his cousin 
Salih bin Abdulla bin Salih bin Mohsin ; his cousin Ali bin Abdulla bin Salih bin 
Mohsin ; his cousin Bubakar bin Husain bin Mohsin on behalf of himself and his 
two cousins, namely, Munef bin Nasir bin Husain and Nasir bin Nasir bin Husain ; 
his cousin Nasir bin Mohsin bin Salih bin Mohsin on behalf of himself and his 
brothers Salih bin Mohsin and Husain bin Mohsin ; and his cousin Nasir bin Talib 
bin Hadi aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles : — 

Article I. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Salih bin Ahmed bin Salih bin Munef ; his brother Abdulla bin Ahmed bin Salib 



155 


ADEN — The Wahidi— S'OrifSV— 1806. 

bin Munef ; liis cousin Salih bin Abdulla bin Salih bin Mohsin ; his cousin Ali bin 
Abdulla bin Salih bin Mohsin; his cousin Bubakar bin Husain bin Mohsin on be- 
half of himself and his two cousins, namely, Munef bin Nasir bin Husain and 
Nasir biu Nasir bin Husain ; his cousin Nasir bin Mohsin bin Salih bin Mohsin 
on behalf of himself and his brothers Salih bin Mohsin and Husain bin Mohsin ; 
and his cousin Nasir bin Talib bin Hadi, Chiefs of the Waliuli Tribe, hereby under- 
takes to extend to Bir Ali and its dependencies which are under their authority 
and jurisdiction the gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen- 
Empress. 

Article II. 

The said Salih bin Ahmed bin Salih bin Munef ; his brother Abdulla bin Ahmed 
bin Salih bin Munef ; his cousin Salih bin Abdulla bin Salih bin Mohsin ; his cousin 
Ali bin Abdulla bin Salih bin Mohsin ; his cousin Bubakar bin Husain bin Mohsin 
on behalf of himself and his two cousins, namely, Munef bin Nasir bin Husain 
and Nasir bin Nasir bin Husain ; his cousin Nasir bin Mohsin bin Salih bin Husain 
on behalf of himself and his brothers Salih bin Mohsin and Husain bin Mohsin ; 
and his cousin Nasir bin Talib bin Hadi agree and promise on behalf of themselves, 
their relations, heirs, successors and the whole tribe to refrain from entering into 
any correspondence, agreement or treaty with any foreign nation, Power, or per- 
son, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government, and 
further promise to give immediate notice to the llesidciit at Aden or other British 
officer of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with Bir Ali and its depend- 
encies. 

Article III. 

The aforesaid Chiefs of the Wahidi bind themselves, their relations, heirs, 
successors, and the whole tribe for ever, that they will not cede, sell, mortgage, 
lease, hire, or give, or otherwise dispose of the territory of Bir Ali and its depend- 
encies or any part of the same at any time to any Foreign Power or person other 
than the British Government. 

Article IV. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. 

In witness whereof the undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at 
Aden this first day of June one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, 

W. B. Ferris, Lieutenant-Colonel, 

Acting Political Resident, Aden. 

Witness : 

J. A. Bustomjee, 

Acting 6th Assistant Resident, Aden. 

ELGIN, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 



ADEN — The Walridi — NO. LXV — 1806. 


15G 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla, on the 29th day of July, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-six. 

H. S. Barnes, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 



ADEN — -Hothin — NO. lA'V 1—1918. 1C? 


No. LXVI. 

Qaiti-Katiiiri Agreement,— 1918. 

Written on 27th Shaaban , 1336. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

God has said in his Holy Book “ Ye are the noblest people that have been 
brought forth for the world, that ye may enjoin the doing of kindnesses, forbid 
the commission of that which is unlawful, and believe in God.' Again lie saitli ; 
“ As for those who, when we have enabled them to do so, in the world, perform 
their prayers, give alms, enjoin the doing of kindnesses, and forbid the commis- 
sion of that which is unlawful, behold the requital of all tilings is in the hands 
of God.” Behold, praise be to God, we believe in Him, we follow the guidance 
of our Prophet (upon whom be blessing and peace) and we believe in (combina- 
tion to effect) whatsoever shall bring benefits to Moslems, the good of mankind 
and the country — desiring whatsoever may bring security and peace to the people 
and their well-being both within and without the country. For that reason, 
the noble Qaiti governments and the family of Abdallah have signed a treaty 
together in perpetuity until the raven shall turn white and the earth shall fado 
away — the two parties being the Sultan Sir cl Ghalib bin Awab bin Omar and 
Omar bin Awad bin Omar el Qaiti — contracting on their own behalf and that 
of their heirs and successors, and of those who have commissioned them on the 
one hand ; and the Sultans Mansur bin Ghalib, and Muhsin bin Ghalib of tho 
family of Abdallah contracting on their own behalf and that of their heirs and 
successors and those who have commissioned them, on the other hand. The 
following are the conditions they have laid down : — 

.1 The Qaiti Sultan, lord of A1 Sliahr and A1 Mukalla, and the Sultans of the 
family of Abdallah al Kathiri recognise that the province of Iladramaut shall bo 
one province, the said province being an appanage of the British Empire under 
the Sultan of Al Sliahr and Mukalla. 

II. The Qaiti Sultan lord of Al Sliahr and Al Mukalla acknowledges that tho 
Sultans of the family of Abdallah are Sultans of Al Shanafir, but the family of 
Abdallah rule within Iladramaut over the towns and villages of Siwun, Terim, 
Toris, Al Gbaraf, Mariana and Al Ghcil. It is acknowledged that the sub-tribes 
of Shanafir mentioned as follows shall be under the Sultan of the family of Ab- 
dallah : namely the tribes of Omar and Aamir ; the sub-tribes of Al Kathiri, Al 
Awamir, Bag-iri and Gabiri and all that is within their boundaries, as is well known 
and recognised. 

III. The Qaiti Sultan lord of Al Shahr and Al Mukalla contracts on his own 
behalf and of his heirs and successors on the one hand, that he acknowledges and 
recognises tho rights and suzerainty of the Sultans of the family of Abdallah and 
their heirs and successors over the said towns and villages as well as the sub-tribe 
of Shanafir aforenamed in Article II above ; and also that ho will not iulerfere 



158 


ADEN —Kathiri—NQ. LXVI — 1918 . 

with it in any matter whatsoever, and that he recognises them as Sultans abso- 
lute in their own country as defined in Article II. 

IV. The Sultans of the Abdallah family admit on their own behalf and that 
of their heirs and successors on the other hand, that they will net interfere in 
any way soever with the Government of Hadramaut, with the exception of the 
towns and villages aforenamed in Article II and likewise the sub-tribe named in 
the said Article ; and agree that they have no power to interfere in any other 
places. 

V. The Abdallah Sultans acknowledge and recognise that the treaty signed 
between the British Government and the Qaiti Government in 1888 is binding 
upon them, just as if they had themselves made it, and they agree to conform 
to its conditions faithfully. They further recognise that all their negotiations 
and correspondence with the British Government shall be carried on through 
the Qaiti Sultan Lord of A1 Shahr and A1 Mukalla. 

VI. Both parties agree to suppress disorders both now and in fixture, imme- 
diately ; they agree to forgive and forget all that has passed and to renounce 
severally all vendetta or claims for compensation ; they hgree to preserve in future 
security on the roads existing within their well-known frontiers, to enforce jus- 
tice according to the Shoria and respect for the higher authority, to succour the 
oppressed and to maintain the common law within the stated boundary. 

VII. The aforesaid agree to give each other mutual assistance in case of any 
transgression committed by either of the two parties against their subjects or 
friends or any persons connected with them, or against a sherif, a wayfarer or 
any defenceless person. They agree mutually to defend life and property, as 
well as their followers and subjects and any who seek their hospitality, as long 
as the boundaries named shall endure ; they further agree to treat them with 
the same justice and equity that they show towards their friends. 

VIII. The aforesaid agree that absolute commercial freedom shall prevail, 
and that tithes shall be collected to the amount fixed from all persons impartially 
who are subjects of the aforenamed Sultans. 

IX. If either of the aforenamed Sultans desires to visit the other he must 
give notice of his intention, so that fitting preparations may be made to receive 
him ; and in no case soever must the number of the soldiers exceed 50, so as to 
avoid the occurrence of brawls between the soldiers. 

X. The Qaiti Sultans and those of the Katliiri family alike agree to give mu- 
tual assistance in so far as in them lies in any organisation which is directed to 
the promotion of the well-being and prosperity of the Hadramaut. 

XI. In order to promote the acceptance of the aforesaid conditions between 
the Sultan of Shahr and Mukalla and the Sultans of the family of Abdallah of 
the Kathiri family, the British Government shall endeavour to settle all difier- 



A DEN — Kathiri — NO. LXVI— 1918. 1 09 

ences arising in future between the aforesaid, from tbe date of tbe signature of 
this treaty through the intermediary of the Governor of Aden. 

Al Mansur kin Ghalib bin Abdalla al 
Kathiri. 

Muhsin bin Ghalib bin Muhsin bin Ahmed 
bin Abdalla Ghalib bin Awad. 

Witnesses : 

Hussein bin Hamid al Mahdad. 

Salim bin Gaafar bin Talib. 

NaSIR BIN OiMAR BIN TALIB. 

Sealed by — 

Al Mansur bin Ghalib Abdallah al Kathiri. 

Muhsin bin Ghalib al Kathiri. 

Praise be to God. I testify to the signatures of the Sultan al Mansir bin 
Ghalib and Muhsin bin Ghalib of the family of Abdallah al Kathiri, said and 
written by the Naib el Sharaa of Torim. 

Signed and sealed— 

Sh. Ali bin Saltm bin Omar Abakan, or Arga. 


si 



A DEN — Mulcalla — N 0 . LXVII— 1863. 


100 

No. LXVII. 

Engagement entered into by the Nukeeb of Maculla for tlie Abolition of 

tlio Slave Trade, — 1863. 

In the NAME of the Most Merciful God, and Him wo implore ! 

The reason of writing this Bond is that, influenced by motives of humanity 
and by a desire to conform to the principles on which the great English Govern- 
ment is conducted, wc lend a willing ear to the proposals of our sincere friend, 
Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan, Governor of Aden ; that we shall covenant 
noth him to abolish and prohibit the export or import of slaves from or to any 
part of our territory to any other place in Africa or in Asia, or elsewhere. 

Therefore I, whose name and seal are set to this Bond, do in the sight of God 
and of men solemnly proclaim my determination to prohibit the export or import 
of slaves by every means in my power. I will neither export nor import any 
myself, nor will I permit any subjects to do so ; and any vessel belonging to my 
subjects found carrying slaves shall be seized and confiscated by me or by any 
ship belonging to Her Majesty the Queen of England, and the slaves shall he 
released. Peace ! 

This covenant is to have effect at the expiration of one year from this date. 
Peace ! 


Silaii Mahomed. 

W. M. Coghlan, 

Political Resident, Aden- 


At Maculla, 14th May 1S63. 

Witnesses : 

Omar ba Salim Kais^n. 

H. Bassam, 

Assistant Political Resident. 

Dated 25th Zhee Alkada 1279. 

A precisely similar engagemeBt was concluded on the same date with All bin 
Nujee, the Nukeeb of Sliihr. 

Approved and ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General on 29th June. 

1863, 


ADEN — Mvhalla — NOS. LXVI.JI AND LXIX— -1873. 161 

No. LNVIII. 

Engagement entered into by the Nukeeb of Macule a for the abolition of the 
Slave Trade in his Dominions, — 1873. 

Whereas under date 14th May 1803 A.D. (25th Dhil-kaada 12/9 A. II.) a solemn 
Agreement was entered into by me, Silnh bin Mahomed, Nukeeb of Maculla, with 
Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan, covenanting to abolish and prohibit the export 
or import of slaves from or to any part of my territory, from or to any other place 
whether in Africa or in Asia or elsewhere ; And whereas His Excellency Sir Henry 
Bartle Edward Frere, G.C.S.I., K.C.B., Her Britannic Majesty’s Special Envoy, 
has now impressed on me the advantages of adhering in perpetuity to the terms 
of the said Agreement : Therefore and accordingly, I, Shall bin Mahomed, Nukeeb 
of Maculla aforesaid, on behalf of myself, my heirs and successors, do hereby 
solemnly confirm and engage to be bound by the terms of the aforesaid Agree- 
ment of 1 4th May 1863. 

Done at Maculla this seventh day of the month of April in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three. 

H. B. E. Frere, Special Envoy. 

Silait Mahomed. 

Witnesses : 

Lewis Pelly, Colonel, 

Fold. ItesiU. in (he Persian Gulf. 

C. B. Euan Smith, Major, 

Private Secy, to Sir B. Frere. 


No. LXIX. 


Engagement executed by the .Tejiadar op Shehr for the abolition of the Im- 
port or Export of Slaves to and from the port of Shehr and its Depend- 
encies, — 1873. 

This seventeenth day of November A.D. 1873, answering to the twenty-sixth 
day of Ramadhan A.I1. 1290, I, Abdullah bin Omar A1 Kajmtce, Ruler of Shelir, 
engage with the great English Government to abolish and prohibit the import 
and export of slaves to or from the port of Shehr and all the dependencies thereof 
from or to any other place in Africa or Asia or elsewhere ; and whereas His Ex- 
cellency Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, G.C.S.I., K.C.B., Her Britannic Majesty’s 
Special Envoy, has impressed upon me the advantage of adhering in perpetuity 
to the terms of the agreement entered into by Ali bin Najee, Nukeeb of Shehr, 

N % 



162 ADEN — Mu hallo— N OS . LXIX—1873 AND LXX— 1822. 

witli Brigadier William Marcus Coghlan, on the 14th day of May A.D. 1863 
answering to the twenty-fifth day of DM1 Kaada A.H. 1279 thereof, I and my 
brothers, Awadh and Saleh, on behalf of ourselves, our heirs and successors, do 
hereby solemnly confirm and engage to be bound by the terms of that Agreement. 

Abdoola bin Omar al Kayatee. ''j 

Awuz bin Omar Al Kayatee. 

Sultan Noor Ahmed Bahadur. 

W. F. Prideaux, 

Asstt. Resident, Aden. 


Ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, at 
Calcutta, on the eleventh day of February 1874. 

C. U. Aitchison, 

Step. to the Govt, of India , Foreign Dept. 


)>(in Arabic). 

J 

J. W. Schneider, Brigr.-Genl., 
Poltl. Resident at Aden. 

NORTHBROOK. 


No. LXX. 

Agreement entered into between the British Government, represented by 
Brigadier-General James Blair, Y.C., Political Resident at Aden, 
on the one part, and Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth al-Kayti, on beiialf 
of himself and his brother Awadth bin Umar, on the other part, — 1882. 

Whereas by means of assistance afforded to him by the British Government, 
Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth al-Kayti and Awadth bin Umar, his brother, were 
enabled in the month of October one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one 
to take possession of the ports of Burum and Mokalla and of the territory occu- 
pied by the Nakib Umar bin Salah al-Kasadi ; and whereas other favours have 
from time to time been shown them by the British Government ; and whereas 
the British Government has agreed to pay the said Abdalla bin Umar and his 
brother Awadth bin Umar, their heirs and successors, the annual sum of §360 
(three hundred and sixty dollars). 


Article 1. 

Now these presents witness that the parties hereto mutually undertake and 
agree with each other in manner following (that is to say) : — 

The said Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth al-Kayti binds himself and his brother, 
and his and their heirs and successprs not to sell ox mortgage or otherwise dispose 



163 


ADEN — Mukaila — NO. LXX — 188.2.^ 

of his possessions of Shihiy Mokalla, Burnm and the territories thereto apper- 
taining on the Hadthramut Coast of Arabia, or any part of such possessions and 
territories to any person ox Power other than the British Government, nor to 
pay allegiance to, or own the superiority of, any such Power without the express 
consent of the British Government. 

Article 2. 

As the territories formerly possessed by the Naldb Umar bin Salah al-Knsadi 
at Mokalla havo passed into the hands of the said Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth 
al-Kayti, and as the said Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth al-Kayfci has paid over 
§100,000 (one hundred thousand dollars) to the British Political Resident at 
Aden for the maintenance of the said Nakib Umar bin Salah al-Knsadi, the said 
sum shall be expended at the discretion of the Resident at Aden in behalf of the. 
said Nalcib Umar bin Salah al-Knsadi. 

Article 3. 

Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth al-Kayti, on behalf of himself and his brother 
Awadth bin Umar and his and their heirs and successors, agrees to abide by the 
advice, and to conform to the wishes, of the British Government in all matters 
relating to his dealings with the neighbouring Chiefs and with Foreign Powers. 

Article 4. 

So long as Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth al-Kayti and his said brother, their 
heirs and successors, continue to fulfil the stipulations hereinbefore contained, 
the British Government shall pay to the said Abdalla bin Umar and his said brother, 
their heirs and successors, the annual sum of three hundred and sixty dollars, 
the first of such payments to be made on the first day of April next. 

• Done at Mokalla this twenty -ninth day of May one thousand eight hundred 
and eighty-two, corresponding to the twelfth day of Rajab one thousand two 
hundred and ninety-nine of the Hijra. 

Abdalla bin Umar bin Awadth bin Abdalla al-Kayti, 

Jamadar of MoMla and Shihr. 

James Blair, Brigadier-General, 
Political Resident, Aden » 

Witness : 

C. W. H. Sealy. 

Witacss .- 

Saleh Mahomed. 

RIPON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 



1(34 


ASm~Muhalla-m&. LXX-4882 AND LXXI-1888. 


This Agreement was ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India at Simla on fclic twenty-sixth day of July A.D. one thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-two. 


C. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department, 


No.-LXXI. 

Protectorate Treaty with Jamadar Abdulla bin Umar and Awadth bin 

Umar, — 1888. 

The British Government and ’Abdalla bin ’Umar bin ’Awadth al-Ka’yti, on 
behalf of himself and his brother ’Awadth bin ’Umar al-Ka’yti, being desirous 
of maintaining and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing 
between them — 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, G.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-General Adam George Forbes Ilogg, G.B., and ’Abdalla 
bin ’Umar bin ’Awadth al-Ka’yti, on behalf of himself and his brother ’Awadth 
bin ’Umar al-Ka’yti, aforesaid, have agreed upon and concluded the following 
Articles : — 


Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
’Abdalla bin ’Umar bin ’Awadth al-Ka’yti on behalf of himself and his brother 
’Awadth bin ’Umar al-Ka’yti, hereby undertakes to extend to Mokalla and Skiin' 
and their dependencies which are under tlicir authority and jurisdiction, the 
gracious favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 


Article 2. 

The said ’Abdalla bin ’Umar bin ’Awadth al-Ka’yti agrees and promises, on 
behalf of himself and his brother ’Awadth bin ’Umar al-Ka’yti, and their heirs 
and successors, to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agreement, 
or treaty with any foreign nation or Power, except with the knowledge and sanc- 
tion of the British Government ; and further promises to give immediate notice 
to the Resident at Aden, or other British officer, of the attempt by any other 
Power to interfere with Mokalla and Shihr and their dependencies. 



: Al)13N — Makalla — NO. LXXI—1338. 105 

Article 3. 

Tbc above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Shihr this first day of May 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight, 

’Abdulla, bin ’Umar bin ’Awadth bin 
’Abdulla al-Ka’yti. 

A. 6, J. Hogg, Brigadier-General, 

Political Resident, 

Witness : 

M. S. Jaefer, 

Native Assistant Resident, 


Witness : 

C. E. Gissing, Commander, R.N., 

Her Majesty's “ Osprey .” 


LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India , 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 26 th day of February A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. Cuningham, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department, 



1 66 ADEN So qo tra and Qishn- NOS. LXXJI-1834 AND LXXII.I-1876 


No. LXXII. 

Translation of Agreement with the Sultan of Socotra,— 1834 . 

First the said Sultans do promise and agree to the British Government land- 
ing and storing on any part of the sea-coast of the Island of Socotra any quan- 
i .y of coals or other articles which may be sent now or hereafter from the British 
Government of India to be deposited on the Island. 

Secondly, Captain Daniel Boss on the part of His Excellency the Bight Honour- 
able the Governor-General do promise that there shall be no interference with 
the laws and customs of the Island of Socotra or with the interior of the Island, 
nor shall the inhabitants of such parts where the coals are deposited be ill-treated 
by the English vessels visiting the Island with the coals. 


Daniel Boss. 


No. LX XIII. 

Translation of Agreement entered into by the Sultan of Socotra, — 1876. 

Braise he to God alone ! 

The object of writing this lawful and honourable bond is that it is hereby 
covenanted and agreed between Ali bin Abdulla bin Salem bin Saad bin Afreer, 
Sidtan of Socotra, on the one part, and Brigadier-General John “William Schneider, 
the Governor of Aden, on behalf of the British Government, on the other part, 
that the said Ali bin Abdulla bin Salem bin Saad bin Afreer, Sultan of Socotra, 
does pledge and bind himself, his heirs and successors, never to cede, to sell, to 
mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, the 
Island of Socotra or any of its dependencies — the neighbouring islands. 

In consideration of the above covenant, the said All bin Abdulla bin Salem 
bin Saad bin Afreer, Sultan of Socotra, has received from Brigadier-General John 
William Schneider, the Governor of Aden, on behalf of himself, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, an immediate payment of $3)000 (three thousand), and he, his heirs and 
successors, shall further receive from the British Government a yearly subsidy 
of $360 (three hundred and sixty), it being understood that this stipend imposes 
on the aforesaid Ali bin Abdulla bin Salem bin Saad bin Afreer, Sultan of Socotra, 
his heirs and successors, the obligation of rendering assistance to any vessel, 
whether belonging to the British or any other nation, that may be wrecked on 
the Island of Socotra or on its dependencies— the neighbouring islands, and of 
protecting the crew, the passengers, and the cargo thereof, for which act of friend- 
ship and good-will towards the British Government a suitable reward will also 
be given to Ali bin Abdulla bin Salem bin Saad bin Afreer, Sultan of Socotra, 
and to his heirs and successors after him. 



ADEN Soqoiva and Qishn-^ NOS. LXXT1J — 1876 AND_LXXI\ 188G. 107 

In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond, Ali bin Abdulla 
bin Salem bin Saad bin Afreet, Sultan of Socotra, and Brigadier-General John 
William Schneider, the Governor of Aden, the former for himself, his heirs and 
successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each, in the 
presence of witnesses, affix their signatures on this twenty-sixth day of Zilhujjch 
(A.II.) 1202, corresponding with the 23rd day of January (All.) 1S7G. 

Sur.TAN or SocoTJtA. 

J. \V. Schneider, lirigr.-Gcnl ., 
Political Resident, Governor of Aden. 


Witnessed by : 

Signature in Vernacular. 

In the presence of — 

Lindsay Brink, 

Captain of 77. Majesty's Ship “Briton." 

Salkii Jaffer, 

Interpreter to the Resident, 

On board II. J/.’s Ship u Briton 
off Kishc.cn . 


23rd January IS7G. 


NORTHBROOK, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


Ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India at 
Calcutta on the first day of March 187G. 


T. II. Thornton, 

OJfg. Secy, to the Govt, of India. 


No. LXXIV. 


Protectorate Treaty with the Surtax of Socotra and Kisiin,— 1880. 

The British Government and Ali bin Abdulla bin Salem bin Sand bin Afreor, 
Sultan of Socotra and its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining and streng- 
thening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General 
A. G. E. Hogg, Political Resident at Aden, to concludo a Treaty for this purpose. 



J-GS ADEN Soqolru and Qishn- — NO. LXX1V— 1886. 


Tlio said Brigadier-General A. G. F. Hogg and Sultan AH bin Abdidla afore- 
said Have agreed upon and concluded tbo following Articles 

Article 1. 

Tho British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Sultau Ali bin Abdulla, hereby undertakes to extend to the Island of Socotra 
and its dependencies, which are under his authority and jurisdiction, the gracious 
favour and protection of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress. 

Article 2. 

The said Sultan Ali bin Abdulla agrees and promises on behalf of himself, 
his heirs and successors, to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agree- 
ment, or treaty with any foreign nation or Power, except with the knowledge 
and sanction of the British Government. And further promises to give imme- 
diate notice to the Resident at Aden or other British officer of the attempt by 
any other Power to interfere with the Island of Socotra and its dependencies. 


Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. 

In witness whereof the undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at 


Kislm this twenty-third day of April, 
six. 

Charles W. H. Sealy, Second 
Assistant Resident, on behalf of 
Brigadier-General A. G. F. IIogg, 
Political Resident of Aden. 

TFif ness : 

M. S. Jamhjr, 

Native Assistant Resident, 
Aden- 


one thousand eight hundred and eighty- 

Translation of the Arabic signatures is 

as follows : — 

Mark of Sultan Ali bin Abdalla 
bin Salim bin Saad bin Ta Wari 
bin Afrar, Sultan of Socotra and 
its dependencies. 

Witnesses : 

Sultan Salim bin Ahmed bin Saad 
bin Afrar Saad bin Mubarak, 
Kadthi of Kislm. 

Mahomed bin Saad, Kadthi of 
Kollonsia and Socotra. 

DUFFERIN, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the twenty-third day of .Tune, A.D. one thousand eight hundred 

-and eighty-six. H. M. Durand, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 
Foreign Department! 



160 


ADEN— Soqotrd and Qistm — NO. IjXXV — 1888. 


No. LXXV. 

Protectorate Treaty with the Mahri Tribe, — 1888. 

Tko British Government and Ali bin Abdalla bin Salim bin Saad bin Afrir 
al Maiiri, Sultan of Kishn and its dependencies, being desirous of maintaining 
and strengthening the relations of peace and friendship existing between them : 

The British Government have named and appointed Brigadier-General Adam 
George Forbes Hogg, C.B., Political Resident at Aden, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose. 

The said Brigadier-Genera! Adam George Forbes Hogg, C.B., and Sultan 
Ali bin Abdalla bin Salim bin Saad bin Afrir al Mahri, aforesaid, have agreed 
upon and concluded the following articles 


Article 1. 

The British Government, in compliance with the wish of the undersigned 
Sultan Ali bin Abdalla bin Salim bin Saad bin Afrir al Mahri, hereby undertakes 
to extend to Kishn and its dependencies, which arc under la's authority and juris- 
diction, the gracious favour and protection of Het Majesty the Queen-EmprcBB, 


Article 2. 

The said Sultan Ali bin Abdalla bin Salim bin Saad bin Afrir al Mahri agrees 
and promises on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, to refrain from enter- 
ing into any correspondence, agreement, or treaty with any foreign nation or 
Power, except with the knowledge and sanction of the British Government ; and 
further promises to give immediate notice to the Resident at Aden, or other Bri- 
tish officer, of the attempt by any other Power to interfere with Kishn and its 
dependencies. 


Article 3. 

The above Treaty shall have effect from this date. In witness whereof the 
undersigned have affixed their signatures or seals at Kishn this second day of 
May, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 


A. G. F. Ilocici, Brigadier-General, 
Political Resident. 


Witness : 

Frederick Rooms, Lieutenant, Royal Navy, 

Her Majesty's “ Osprey 



170 ADEN — Soqoira and Qiskn— NO. LXXV— 188&. 

Mark of Sultan Ali bin Abdalla bin 
Salim bin Saab bin Tawari 
bin Amur, 

Sultan of Kishn and its Dependencies. 
Mark of Tawari bin Amr bin Tawari 

BIN AFRIR. 


Saab bin Salim bin Amr bin 
Tawari bin Afrir. 


\ 

M. S. Jaffer, 

'Native Assistant Resident, Aden . 


Saaib bin Mubarbk bin Sabin, 
Kadlhi of Kishn. 


LAN8D0WNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


Tin's Treaty was ratified by tbe Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Fort William on the 2Cth day of February, A.D. one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety. 

W. J. CuNINGHAM, 


Offg. Secretary to the Government of India , 

Foreign Department. 



172 


ADEN — Yemen — NO. LXXVI— 1821. 


Article 3. 

A piece of ground to be allotted 
for a cemetery ; and none of those 
under the British Government and 
flag to be spoken to or insulted on 
account of their religion. 

Wm. Bruce, 

Clovl. Agent. 


Article 4. 

The Resident to have free per- 
mission to proceed to Senaa and 
communicate with His Highness the 
Imam whenever lie may deem it 
necessary to do so, the Dola on 
these occasions furnishing a guard 
or escort if it should be deemed 
requisite. 

Wm. Bruce, 

Govl. Agent. 


Article 5. 

That the anchorage duty of (400 
G.C.) four hundred German crowns 
shall henceforth cease on British 
ships, which has hitherto been levied 


say a word to him ; and to him (there 
shall be) respect as at the other ports, 
Bagdad, Busrak, Ubooshuhur, and the 
port of Muscat. 

It is finished besides this. 

Signed by the six Members of ilia Molclia 
Council. 


Article 3. 

The dead of the English, that the 
Almighty and Supreme God orders 
their souls to be snatched away, there 
slmll be a place appointed and set 
apart from them that they may bury 
their dead in it ; no one shall say to 
them, “ the practice of your ‘ sect is 
such or such ; ’ it is not good”. 

It is finished besides this. 

Signed by the six Members. 

Article 4. 

The Agent (Vakeel) of the English 
Government who is stationed at the 
port of Molcha, if it should please his 
mind to go out, he may go out to Senaa 
to His Highness the Imam Mehdi for 
recreation of the miud. No one shall 
hinder him, and the Hakim of Mokkn 
shall grant of his own army an escort 
for a safeguard on the road, and there 
is nothing contrary to him. 

It is finished besides this. 

Signed by the six Members. 

Article 5. 

The merchant ships which are de- 
pendent on the English Government, 
there was a custom that they should 
pay 400 rials as anchorage duty ; but 



ADEN — Yemen — NO. LXXVI 1821. 


173 


on all merchant ships when they 
landed cargoes. Hereafter im c n y 
on this account shall he paid whether 
cargo is landed or not, the same 
as His Majesty’s ships and the 
Honourable Company’s vessels pt 
war. 

Wm. Bruce, 

Govt. Agent- 


from this day it ceases ; there is nothing 
(leviable) on them; their situation is 
that of the Government vessels and 
the King’s ships. If its cargo should 
be brought on shore, there is nothing 
(leviable) on them of the 400 rials. 
This affair was discussed and fixed 
without being referred to Senaa, on 
the condition of the cessation of hos- 
tilities and the removal of the blockade 


of the port. 

It is finished besides this. 


Signed by the six Members. 


Article G 

All subjects of the British Gov- 
ernment trading to Mokha, and par- 
ticularly the merchants of Surat, 
shall do so under the protection 
of the British flag (if of the Islam 
faith, and wish to settle their dis- 
putes according to the Mahomedan 
Sharah, they shall be at liberty 
to do so, a person on the part of 
the, Resident attending), and all 
differences among themselves shall 
be decided by the Resident ; in the 
event of any of the Imam s subjects 
being concerned in the dispute, by 
an Agent on the part of the Resi- 
dent (or himself if he pleases) and 
the Governor conjointly ; if the Imam’s 
subject is wrong, the Governor shall 
punish him : if, on the contrary, 
the Resident. Also that all the de- 
pendants of the factory of every 
denomination, from broker down- 
wards, shall be wholly under the 
protection of the British flag and 
control of the Resident, who shall 
alone possess the power of punishing 
them and redressing all complaints 
against them. ■ 


> Article 6. 

That all merchants who are the de- 
pendants of the English Government 
under their protection and under their 
flag may transact their affairs (trade 
at the Bunder of Mokha, especially 
the natives of Surat. If there be Mus- 
sulmen among them, and disputes should 
happen between them, and any of them 
may desire (to have) the law (Mussul- 
man), no opposition is to be made to 
them (meaning to their wishes). 

Whenever there may be (any dis- 
pute) between the people (“ Jumaut ”) 
of resident and the subjects of Mokha, 
a person may come (be present) on the 
part of the Resident before the Hakim 
of Mokha, who will observe in what 
manner the wrong has been commit- 
ted, and by whom. If the native of 
the country be in the wrong, the Hakim 
of Mokha is to punish him ; but if the 
crime or wrong should have been com- 
mitted by the English military 
(“ Uslrur ”), then the Resident is to 
punish them. 

This Article, the sixth, is one of the 
two which were referred to the Imam 
Mehdi for his consideration, and the 



174 


ADEN— r emcn—N 0. LSXVI— 1821 , 


This sixth Article lias been ex- 
pressly admitted by separate grant 
to Captain Bruce by His Highness 
the Imam. 

Wm. Bruce, 

Govt. Agent- 

Article 7. 

That the export duty on the British 
trade shall be hereafter 2| per cent., 
the same as the French and not 
3| as hitherto, and that the import 
duty shall be the same to the English 
and all their subjects, and no more 
shall be levied than 2| per cent, 
upon imports and exports. 

This Article is expressly granted 
by separate Firman from His High- 
ness as a particular mark of his 
friendship to the British nation. 

Wm. Bruce, 

Govt. Agent. 

Mokha, 

15th January 1821. ) 

Signed and sealed by Umeer Fut- 
teh-oolla and all the Members of 
the Mokha Council to each sepa- 
rate Article, as also by Captain 
Bruce. 

Approved. 

John Kish Lumle y, 

Cap. of E. M.’x Ship, 

“ Topaze ” and Senior 
Officer. 


Shureef’s answer having arrived, was 
(given into) the hands of Mr. Bruce, 
a copy being retained by the Umeer 
Futteh-oolla ; and on receipt of the 
answer, there was an argument bet- 
ween Mr. Bruce and the Umeer Futteh- 
oolla, the (substance of) which is written 
above. 

Article 7. 

In regard to duties on what is ex- 
ported from the port of Mokha, two 
dollars and a quarter shall he paid on 
one hundred, as the French, who pay 
two dollars and a quarter on the hun- 
dred ; and the imports into the port 
of Mokha shall he like that for the 
English Government and for the English 
merchants. 

The seventh Article is (one) of the 
two Articles which were referred for 
the consideration and decision of His 
Highness the Shureef Mehdi, and to 
which the answer returned by the 
Shureef was as follows : — 

“We have reduced the duties three- 
quarters of a dollar per cent, out of 
three dollars, and this is upon all goods 
imported into the port in the name 
of the English Cirkar and their mer- 
chants ; there is not (to he) more (re- 
quired) from them than two and a 
quarter dollars per cent, alone, both 
upon goods imported and on goods 
exported, and this is as a mark of our 
regard and respect for the said two 
(the English Government and their 
merchants) and for the preservation 
of the intercourse and friendship bet- 
ween us both, as was (the case) with 
those who existed before us (in former 
times). 

“ Dated RvMcc-oo-Sance 1230 of the 
Hijra, A.D. 1821. 

Signed by the six Members.” 



ADEN — Yemen— NO. LXXV1I — 1840. 


175 


No. LXXVII. 

Commercial Treaty entered into between Sharif Hussain bin Ali bin Haidar 
ul Husaini, Governor of Mokha, for himself and posterity, and Captain 
Robert Moresby, of the Indian Navy, on the part of the Hon ble the 
East India Company, — 1840. 

It being advantageous to both parties to enter into a treaty of peace and 
commerce, and that a mutual good understanding should exist between each 
other, Sharif Husain bin Ali bin Haidar ul Husaini and Captain Robert Moresby, 
of the Indian Navy, being fully authorized to do so, agree to the following Capi- 
tulations and Articles : — 

1st . — That friendship and peace shall be lasting between the States of Mokha 
and its dependencies and tbe British Government. 

2nd ,— That the English nation, and all vessels lawfully sailing under the Bri- 
tish flag having merchandize of any description shall be respected and permitted 
without the slightest prejudice or molestation of their persons or effects to enter 
and trade in the port or ports of Mokha and its dependencies, English horn sub- 
jects paying a duty of 2J- per cent, upon all produce, other British subjects pay- 
ing duty according to the records of former treaties and custom, and the subjects 
of the Sharif of Mokha shall pay the usual duty as heretofore paid in British ports. 

3rd . — The port of Mokha and the adjacent ports under the Government or 
Mokha are to be open to tbe introduction and reception of all goods, merchan- 
dize, etc., brought in ships or vessels lawfully trading under the British flag. Fur- 
ther, Sharif Husain bin Ali bin Haidar ul Husaini will endeavour all in his power 
to introduce British produce into the interior States of Mokha and its dependen- 
cies. 

4th . — Sharif Husain bin Ali bin Haidar ul Husaini, Governor of Mokba, en- 
gages at all times to respect and regard tbe friendly advice of any authorized 
person belouging to tbe English Government, and agrees not to enter into any 
treaty or bond with any other European nation or person, without, in the first 
instance, bringing the subject to the notice of the British Government or autho- 
rities at Aden, so that the same may in no manner prove detrimental to his friends, 
the English, and their commerce. In return for these conditions the English 
Government will observe the interests of the States of Mokha and its dependen- 
cies, and do all in their power to assist in improving its commercial resources 
connected with these Articles. The Sharif of Mokha and its dependencies is allow- 
ed to trade with any European nation, and Sharif Husain bin 'Ali bin Haidar ul 
Husaini engages never to enter into any agreements or bond with any other Eu- 
ropean power, and should he find any European or Native power at enmity or 
war with the English, he will cease communicating with such powers. 

■5th . — Any subjects of either power having committed crime or offence is to 
be brought before tbe Judge or Kazi through the Government Agent ; should 
it not be settled at this tribunal, the British Agent and the Governor of the place 
will decide upon the case. 

XI 


o 


1 70 


ADEN — Yemen — NO. hXXVH— 18)0. 


Gtli . — Sharif Husain Inn Ali bin TTaidnr ill ITusaini engages to respect, nnd pro- 
tect- any merchants or other British subjects residing in his territories, provided 
the sanction of this Government- be previously obtained, the British Government 
guaranteeing the same privilege to their people of Moldm nnd its dependencies. 

7th . — Tn entering into nnv bond or treaty, or trading with either European 
or other power, Sharif Husain hin Ali bin TTnidnT nl ITnsaini engages thnt.no bond 
or treaty shall he acceded to or acquiesced in by him, which will either at, the 
present, or any future period prove detrimental to the interest of the English 
either in n political or commercial point, of view, nnd in return for such agree- 
ment the British promise they will act in no manner which may hear an evil ten- 
dency towards the States of Molrha. 

Sth. — Wo, Sharif Husain hin Ali hin TTnidar, ratified the. above Articles for 
the benefit of both powers. 

In witness whereof we, this 1st day of September 1 8-10, corresponding with 
the 3rd of 'Rajah 1*250 of the Hijra, have attached our seals. 

Translation of a treaty bv ,T. Knlehatoon. 

.V. H . — At the conclusion fit the 7th Article if is 
inserted by Slinrif Husain that lie does net nidi nnv 
injuries to the Priti'h Government either from French 
or other Kurnjv'.nn powers or Mnhnmnmil Al l’adifi, 
nnd ho will consider the enemies ot tlie Rngli'h nre hin 
nnd hin heirs. 


Eonnr.T Mmtrsnv, 
Captain, huljjvi A'nn/. 

Mokua, Iff Sept. IS t0. 


ADEN — Idrisi — NO. LXXVTII 1915, 177-. 

No. LXXYIIL 

Treaty with the Idrisi, — 1915. 

This Treaty of Friendship and Goodwill is signed by Major-General D. G. L. 
Shaw, the Political Resident, Aden, on behalf of the British Government, and 
by Sayed Mustafa bin Sayed Abdul Ali on the part of His Eminence Saiyid Muham- 
mad bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Idris, the Idrisi Saiyid and Amir 
of Sabia and its environments. 

2. Its main objects are to war against the Turks and to consolidate a pact 
of friendship between the British Government and the Idrisi Saiyid, abovemen- 
tioned and his Tribesmen. 

3. The Idrisi Saiyid agrees to attack and to endeavour to drive the Turks 
from their stations in the Yemen and to the best of his power to harass the Tur- 
Idsh troops in the direction of the Yemen, and to extend his territories at the 
expense of the Turks. 

4. The Saiyid’s prime objective will be against the Turks only, and he will 
abstain from any hostile or provocative action against Imam Yahya so long as 
the latter does not join hands with the Turks. 

5. The British Government undertakes to safeguard the Idrisi Saiyid’s terri- 
tories from all attack on the seaboard from any enemy who may molest him ; 
to guarantee his independence in his own domain and at the conclusion of the 
war to use every diplomatic means in its power to adjudicate between the rival 
claims of the Idrisi Saiyid and the Imam Yahya or any other rival. 

6. The British Government has no desire to enlarge its borders in Western 
Arabia, but wishes solely to see the various Arab Rulers living peacefully and 
amicably together each in his own sphere, and all in friendship with the British 
Government. 

7. As a mark of its appreciation of the work to be performed by the Idrisi 
Saiyid, the British Government has aided him with both funds and munitions 
and will continue to assist him in the prosecution of the war so long as it lasts 
in accordance with the measures of the Idrisi’s activities. 

8. Finally, while maintaining a strict blockade on all Turkish ports in the 
Red Sea, the British Government has for some months past been giving the Idrisi 
Saiyid full and free scope to trade and traffic between his ports and Aden, and 
this concession the British Government in token of the friendship existing will 
continue uninterruptedly to maintain. 

9. This Treaty will be held to be valid after its ratification by the Government 
of India. 

Signed this day Friday the thirtieth of April 1915 A.D., corresponding' with 
the fifteenth of Jamad Sham' 1333 Hijra. 

D. G. L. Shaw, Major-General, 
Political Resident, Aden, 
o 2 


178 


ADEN— Jf/risi— NOS. LXXVI1I— 1915 AND LXXIX— 1917 . 

Saiyid Mustafa bin Saiyid Abptt’l 
Alt on behalf of the Idrisi 
Saiyid. 

H. F. Jacob, Lient.-Colond, 

First Assistant Resident , Aden. 

Sheikh Muhammad bin Awad 
Ba Salu. 

C. K. Bradshaw, Major-General , 
Staff Officer, Aden Brigade. 

HARDINGE OF PENSHURST, 
Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Delhi on the sixth clay of November A.D. one thousand nine hundred 
and fiftcon. 

A. H. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign and Political Department. 


No. LXXIX. 

FARSAN ISLANDS. 

Supplementary Agreement concluded between His Majesty's Government 
and Saiyid Muhammad bin Alt bin Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Idris the 
Idrisi, — 1917. 

I. This agreement in no way annuls the conditions of the Treaty already con- 
cluded between the aforesaid Parties and dated 30th April 1915 A.D. correspond- 
ing to 15 Jurand al Tbani 1333 A.H. 

II. His Majesty’s Government recognise that the Fnrsan Islands have been 
captured by the Idrisi Saiyid from the hands of the Turks and have become part 
and parcel of the Idrisi’s domains, in all of which his independence is assured. 

III. The Idrisi Saiyid engages not to cede, mortgage or surrender these islands 
nor the places situate on his sea-hoard, including the interests connected there- 
with, to any Foreign Power, and further to call on His Majesty’s Government 
for assistance if these places or the interests therein are assailed or threatened 
from without. 

IV. His Majesty's Government undertake to protect these islands and the 
Idrisi sea-board from all hostile action without any interference on their part 
with his affairs and independence ; and again, in return for his engagement to 
preclude the intervention of any Foreign Power in his territory or with its interests, 
His Majesty’s Government engage to afford the Idrisi Saiyid the requisite help 
qua the sinews of war such as arms and ammunition and the like, both now during 



ADEN- Idrisi— NO. LXXIX— 1917. 


179 


the duration of this General War and afterwards; and to facilitate the neces- 
sary avenues to the acquisition by him of such benefits as regards a telephone 
system and various developments such as the prospecting for mines and the ex- 
tension of commerce and similar benefits ; and, further, will vouchsafe his conve- 
nience and that of his followers in the choice of a secure asylum in the event of 
a crisis arising in his country — which God forbid — together with such support of 
Government as shall assure his dignity and well-being and shall use every en- 
deavour to restore him to his former condition without any diminution therein. 

V. The Idrisi Saiyid engages to keep a body of his armed retainers in the 
Farsan Islands as a token of his independence and to maintain his effective occu- 
pation therein. 

YI. The Idrisi flag shall fly permanently over the Farsan Islands and in 
his other territories as a sufficient sign-visual of itself to all ships of his occupa- 
tion and this without an) r other ancillary token. 

VII. The rights and duties of the Idrisi Saiyid herein detailed shall be extended 
to include his family, kinsmen, heirs and successors. 

kill. This agreement is signed by the Idrisi Saiyid on the one hand and on 
the other by Lieut.-Colonel II. F. Jacob, the representative of the Resident, 
Aden, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government and shall be held binding on both 
parties. 

Dated Jizan 22nd January 1917 A.D., corresponding to 28 Rabi al Awwal 1833 
A.H. 

H. F. Jacob, Lieut. -Colonel, 

On behalf of the Resident, Aden, 

G. A. H. Arnot, 

Commander, R.O., R.N.R., 

H. M. S. Perth in Command. 

L. F. Nalder, Lieut., R. R. L. R. 



-nTAisr GULF — Ncjd. 183 

■ ' * - *+ 

PART 11. 

Treaties and Engagements 

relating to 

The Arab Principalities 
in the 

Persian Gulf. 


T HE whole of the northern shore of the Persian Gull belongs to Persia. 

That portion oi the coast which extends from below Moliammerali 
to tire shrine of Shah A bul Shah, near Bandar Dilam, is inhabited 
mainly by Chaab Arabs and their dependents. The Cliaab country, as 
well as the districts of Moliannnerali, Sliatt-al-Arab and Karun, was 
under the immediate jurisdiction of the Shaikh of Moliainmerali who, in 
addition to his dc jure position as Governor, was dc jacto hereditary ruler, 
under the Shah of Persia, of the locally autonomous district of Moliam- 
merah. Shaikh Kliazal Khan, however, defied the Government and in 
April 1925 his heritage was confiscated and he himself arrested and car- 
ried to Tehran, where he has since been detained as a political prisoner. 

The Persian coastal tract is now administered by the Persian Govern- 
ment; from Moliannnerali to Shall Abul Shah inclusive through the 
Governor-General of Khuzistan, and from thence on to Busliire through 
the Governor of all the Ports and Islands in the Persian Gulf, whose 
jurisdiction extends down to Clialibar. Both these officials hold their 
appointments under the Ministry of the Interior, and are in control of 
subordinate governorships which administer outlying portions of terri- 
tories included in the respective major appointments. 

The port of Bandar Abbas was field in farm by tlie Sultans of Muscat 
from 1798 till 1853, when the Shah of Persia resumed possession of Bandar 
Abbas and its dependencies; but he restored them to Saiyid Said in 
185G, though on much less advantageous terms than formerly. The rent 
was raised from 6,000 to 16,000 tomans a year, and tlie islands of Hormuz 
and Qish.ni, tlie hereditary possessions of tlie Sultans of Muscat, 

( 181 ) 


were 



/ 


'cecha l o Persia.* On the death of Saiyid Thuwaini and succession of 
us son Saiyid Salim in 1SG6, the Persian Government appeared at first 
inclined to renew the lease of Bandar Abbas to Saiyid Salim, hut at an 
increased rent and on the condition that his uncle Saiyid Turin should he 
appointed Governor. Subsequently, however, on the ground that Saiyid 
Salim, as grandson of Saiyid Said, could not continue to hold under a 
lease granted, as it was alleged, only to Saiyid Said and his sons,t the 
Persian Government renewed the lease at an enhanced rate of 20,000 
tomans in favour of the former Arab Governor Shaikh Said, a relation 
of the Muscat family, not as a representative of Muscat, but as a direct 
dependent of Persia. Throughout the winter of 1S67 Saiyid Salim was 
too much occupied in securing himself in the government of Muscat to he 
able to give his attention to the former dependencies of his family on the 
northern shore of the Persian Gulf. Meantime Shaikh Said refused to 
pay the balance of tribute due by him to Persia, and preparations were 
made for coercing him. In April 18GS, however, Saiyid Salim threatened 
to blockade Bandar Abbas unless the lease was renewed to him; and, as 
the Persian Government had no naval force, it solicited British inter- 
vention. The Resident in the Persian Gulf was accordingly instructed 
to negotiate for a renewal of the lease, and this was finally effected^ for 
a period of eight years at a rent of 30,000 tomans. One of the condi- 
tions of the lease was that, if a conqueror obtained possession of Muscat, 
the Persian Government was not to be bound by any conditions of the 
covenant. Accordingly, on the expulsion of Saiyid Salim in October 
1868 by Azzan bin Qais ( see Oman, Part III of this volume), the lease 
became null and avoid, and the Persian Government appointed Haji 
Ahmad, formerly minister of Saiyid Salim, to the charge of Bandar 
Abbas and its dependencies. In February 1870 Haji Ahmad was ex- 
pelled from Bandar Abbas by Shaikh Said, acting on the part of Azzan 
bin Qais, but subsequently regained bis position. Since then the Per- 
sian Government has declined to renew the lease of Bandar Abbas to the 
Sultan of Muscat. 

At the close of 1903 Lord Curzon, then Viceroy of India, made a state 
tour in the Persian Gulf, in the course of which he visited Muscat, Shar- 
gah, Bandar Abbas and the islands adjacent thereto, Lingeh, Bahrain, 
Kuwait, Busliire and the British station of Basidu. This was the first 
occasion on which an Indian Viceroy had ever visited the Gulf. 

1. The Wahhabis and Nejd. 

It Wag by instigating the Qawasim tribe of Arabs to acts of piracy in 
the Persian Gulf that the Wahhabis first attracted the attention of the 
British Government. 

* See Appendix No. II. , 

.f The word in the original is “ Aulad,” which may also he translated des- 
cendants.’ 

X See Appendix No. III. 



PERSIAN GULP — Ncjd. 183 

This sect liad adopted strict and puritanical doctrines. They denied 
divine honours to Muhammad; abhorred and destroyed all holy tombs; 
abstained from the use of tobacco; and waged war against all Muham- 
madans who did not accept their peculiar views. 

When in 1809 it became necessary to’ send a second expedition against, 
the Qawasim (sec Trucial Arab Shaikhs of Oman, infra} the ruler of 
Muscat was found to he in considerable danger from the aggressions of 
tbe Wabbabis. It was decided, however, not to attempt any operations 
by land, and to show extreme forbearance to the Wahhabi Amir. In 
1811 tbe Wabbabis appeared in the vicinity of Muscat and plundered the 
territory of Saivid Said. Application was made by him for the assist- 
ance of the British Government, but the request was refused on the 
ground that the British Government had recently co-operated with him 
merely for the extirpation of the pirates who interrupted the commerce of 
the Persian Gulf, not in prosecution of war against the Wahhabis. A 
heavy money payment induced them to retire for the time, but the in- 
vasion was renewed by tbe Wabbabis under their general Mutlak-ul- 
Mutairi in 1813. 

Saiyid Said was relieved from this danger by the Wahhabi general’s 
death, followed in 1814 by that of the Amir Sand, and by the invasion of 
ffejd from the westward by the Egyptians in 1S16. An envoy had been 
sent by the Amir before his death to endeavour to negotiate a treaty of 
friendship and commerce with the British Government ; hut it was deemed 
inexpedient to negotiate any treaty or to form any intimate connection 
with the Amir, though a friendly intercourse was to be maintained with 
him. 

Meanwhile the Egyptian troops had taken the holy places of the 
Muhammadan faith, and the Wahhabi power in that quarter was broken 
for the time. In 1818 Daraiyah, the Wahhabi capital, was taken by 
Ibrahim Pasha and razed to the ground. The Wahhabi Amir Abdulla 
(Saud’s successor) was sent prisoner to Constantinople and there beheaded, 
and the overthrow of the Wahhabis appeared to be complete. In 1824, 
however, an insurrection against the Egyptians was headed by Turin, 
the son of Abdulla ; the Egyptian Governor was compelled to retire, and 
Turki was proclaimed Amir of Nejd. Overtures were made by him to 
the Arab Shaikhs of the Persian Gulf to renew their former relations with 
the Wahhabis, and in 1825 the Shaikh of the Qawasim solicited the ad- 
vice of the British Government as to the course lie should pursue; he was 
warned against any proceedings bearing a predatory character or evincing 
unfriendliness towards tbe ruler of Muscat. During the next five or six 
years Turki was employed in recovering the provinces formerly subject 
to the Wahhabis, and at the same time he endeavoured to conciliate the 
Pasha of Egypt by the payment of a small tribute. In 1831 Saiyid Said 
entered into an engagement acknowledging his supremacy and agreeing 
to pay an annual tribute, and the whole of the coast from Bus al Badd to 



184 


PERSIAN GULF— 


JluTvuJi with the exception of Ain, Dhabi, became subject to bis authority. 
Al)ou(, tins time the \\ alihabi Amir expressed a desire to enter into inti- 
mate relations with the British Government; to this a reply in general 
but friendly terms was returned. 

in 1881 a strong force of Wahhabis advanced into Oman. Strict 
neutrality was enjoined on the British authorities in the Persian Gulf 
but the "Wahhabis were diverted from schemes of foreign invasion by the 
murder of lurid by his nephew Mushari. He was in turn put to death 
by lurid s son l'aisal, wbo then succeeded to power. Two years later a 
huge Egyptian force was assembled at Medina, and Faisal was sum* 
moned to contribute a contingent of troops. He evaded tbe demand; 
the Egyptians therefore advanced into Kcjd, defeated him near Riyadh, 
and m December 188; 3 obtained possession of Al Hasa and Qatif. Faisal 
(hen surremfereif, and was sent prisoner to .Egypt. The proceedings of 
the Egyptians were not viewed with indiflerence by the British Govern- 
ment : a formal protest was entered by the Resident in (lie Persian Gulf 


against (he proceedings of Khurshid Pasha, the Egyptian Commander: 
and assurances were given by the Trucial Shaikhs that they would abide 
by the wishes of the British Government and resist all attempts of 
Khurshid Pasha to subjugate them. At length, in consequence of the 
strong remonstrances of the British Government, the Egyptians evacu- 
ated .Kejrl in May 1840; leaving, however, Faisal’s cousin Klialid as 
Governor on behalf of the Porte. It was in this way that the claims of 
the Turkish Government to sovereignty in Central Arabia originated, 
though until about 190G Turkish authority was neither represented nor 
recognised in Kejd. During Khalid’s short rule a British officer was 
deputed to visit him at Al llasa, and obtained from him an assurance 
that he had no intention of invading Oman, as was then currently re- 
ported. In February 1842 Khalid was deposed by bis cousin Abdulla bin 
Sunaiyan ; but in tbe following year he was dispossessed by Faisal, who 
had returned from his imprisonment in Egypt. 

In 1845 Said bin Mutlak, Faisal’s lieutenant, ravaged Sohar ter- 
ritory, compelled the Chief to pay a heavy tribute, and put to death the 
garrison of the fort of Mujis. At the same time he demanded a heavy 
tribute from -Muscat and prepared to enforce the demand by the in- 
vasion of Muscat territory. In consequence of this wanton aggression 
on tbe dominions of Saiyid Said, a strong demonstration was made by a 
British naval force oh the Bntinah coast, and forcible remonstrances 
were addressed to tbe Wahhibi Amir and Iris lieutenant. These measures 
proved successful. The Muscat Government agreed to pay Faisal an 
annual tribute of 5,000 crowns and made a present of 2,000 crowns to 
Said bin Mutlak. For these considerations the Wahhibis evacuated the 


fort of Mujis. 

In 1851 Faisal attempted to assert authority over the Shaikh of Bah- 
rain, but a British naval force was despatched thither with instructions 



PERSIAN GULF— Nejd. 


186 


to interfere if necessary: and Faisal found himself obliged to make peace 
witlv the Shaikh. 

In 1852, during the absence of Saiyid Said at Zanzibar, and while his 
son Saiyid Tkuwaini was in charge of the government, Abdulla bin Faisal 
invaded Oman witli a large force of Wahhabis, and. demanded the cession 
of Sohar and the payment of a heavy tribute. Owing to the intervention 
of the British Resident, Saiyid Thnwaini was enabled to enter into 
negotiations which resulted in an agreement by the Muscat State to pay 
the "Wahhabi Amir an annual tribute of .12,000 crowns, besides arrears to 
the extent of 60,000 crowns and the usual supply of provisions and 
stores. The Wahhabi Amir on bis part agreed to assist the ruler of 
Muscat in every difficulty. The boundaries of the two States remained 
as before. 

In, 1859 Faisal again interfered in Bahrain affairs, and made exten- 
sive preparations at Qatif and Dammam for the invasion of the island in 
favour of Muhammad bin Abdulla, the refugee Shaikh of Bahrain. The 
attitude assumed by the British naval force in the Persian Gulf induced 
him to abandon, his design. He was then required to expel Muhammad 
bin Abdulla from Dammam, where for sixteen years his intrigues for the 
recovery of Bahrain had been the cause of constant disquietude. Dam- 
mam was bombarded in November 1861, and Muhammad bin Abdulla 
was compelled to evacuate the fort. 

In August 1865 the Jaunabah tribe resident at Sur, a town eighty 
miles south of Muscat, discontented with Saiyid Thnwaini, invited Ab- 
dul Aziz, a brother of the Wahhabi lieutenant, to join them in an attack 
on Sur. The town was captured and a large amount of property, be- 
longing chiefly to British subjects, was plundered. Remonstrances were 
addressed to the "Wahhabi Amir, who replied that he had directed the 
release of British subjects imprisoned at Sur and the protection of their 
property, but approved the action of Abdul Aziz. He was then required 
to send a written apology, to pay compensation for the plundered pro- 
perty, and to give a written assurance that such outrages would not be 
repeated. As no reply was received within the prescribed time, the boats 
of the Highflyer destroyed a fort in Qatif harbour and a war-vessel, but 
met with a check at Dammam : the forts at Sur were also destroyed, and 
the vessels of the Jannabah tribe were confiscated. 

Amir Faisal bin Turki died towards tbe close of 1865. His son and 
successor, Abdulla, sent an envoy in 1866 to tbe British Resident to 
discuss matters, with a written Declaration (No. I) that he would not 
injure British subjects within his dominions, or attack tbe territories of 
the Arab tribes in alliance with the British Government, especially those 
of Muscat, and would limit his demands on that State to receiving the 
customary tribute. These assurances were considered satisfactory, and 
the matter was allowed to drop. 



186 


PERSIAN GULF— Nejd. 


^ yr ^ 

AlnlTiVa bin Faisal had been 


■'ob 1 

l on 
succession 
Turk 


K8. 


. IKa ^ ^ ,!U ^ heen virtually ruler of Hepl for many years 

(hiring- the old age and blindness of his father. Soon after his accession 
a struggle for power commenced between him and liis brother Saud 
which ended early in 1871 in the defeat and flight of Abdulla and the 
on of Sand. Abdulla bin Faisal appealed for assistance to the 
. 10 despatched an expedition from Baghdad for the purpose of 
nuppuj i-ing him and lesioring tranquillity in Nejd. These proceedings 
were accompanied by explicit assurances that the Porte had no inten- 
tion of obtaining supremacy over Bahrain, Muscat, or the maritime 
tribes, or of undertaking any naval operations. During 1871 the Turks 
succeeded in possessing themselves of the district and port of A1 Hasa, and 
apparently intended to occupy the couutiy permanently. Abdulla bin 
Faisal, finding that his restoration to power was not included in the 
Turkish scheme, escaped from their camp, hut was unable to cope with 
the superior forces of his brother Saud, who occupied Riyadh and the 
heart of the "Wahhabi country. Early in 1872 Sand bin Faisal, having 
failed to procure the arbitration of the British Government, or an as- 
surance that they would protect his territories from attacks by sea, opened 
negotiations with the Turks, hut with no other result than the detention 
of his brother Abdur Rahman at Baghdad as a hostage. Communica- 
tions also passed between Abdulla and the Turks, hut without any definite 
result. The Turkish policy in Nejd afterwards underwent a change. 
The regular tvoops were withdrawn, B email bin Areyr, of the friendly 
Beni Khalid tribe, was appointed Governor of Al Hasa, and a police force 
was raised for the defence of the frontier. Abdur Rahman bin Faisal 
was detained at Baghdad till August 1874 ; on his release he remained 
for a short time at Bahrain and then proceeded to the mainland, where 
he raised the Arab tribes in favour of Saud against the Turkish authori- 
ties at Hasa ; he met with considerable success and a large Turkish force 
had to be sent against him. During these operations Saud bin Faisal 
died, and the contest was for a while carried on by his brother Abdur 
Rahman. In 1S78-79 the sous of Saud bin Faisal effected a coalition, 
and endeavoured to raise a rebellion against the Turks. Qatif was closely 
invested by Bedouin bands by land and sea, and owed its relief primar- 
ily to the appearance off the coast of the British gun-boat Vulture , 
cruising against pirates. Reinforcements were afterwards sent from 
Basrah and Baghdad and the insurrection was quelled. A garrison, com- 
posed mainly of regular troops, was stationed at Hasa and a Turkish 
Governor was posted there. 

, The sons of Saud, having thus failed in their attempt against the 
Turks, united with their uncle Abdulla to make the best of their isolated 
position at Riyadh and other districts in Nejd. Abdulla bin Faisal was 
reeoSmed as Amir with the title of Imam, religious head, of the 
Walihahibof Riyadh, and the military power was entrusted to his nephew 

Muhammad bin Saud. 



PERSIAN GULP — Nejd 


187 


In 1882 hostilities occurred between. Abdulla bin IT aisal and tbe Amir 
of Tabal Sharamar, Muhammad bin Rashid, which broke out again in 
• subsequent years and led to important changes in Nejd. 

In 1886 the sons of Saud bin Faisal seized and imprisoned their 
uncle Abdulla bin Faisal, and Muhammad bin Saud assumed the title 
of Amir; whereupon Muhammad bin Rashid marched upon Riyadh, which 
he captured, and reinstated Abdulla as nominal Amir of the Wahhabis 
with the title of Imam. Abdulla was, however, taken to Hail and Bin 
Rashid placed an agent of his own at Riyadh. Three sons of Saud bin 
Faisal continued to reside at Khar] near Riyadh until 1888, when they 
were put to death by order of Muhammad bin Rashid, whose authority 
thus became paramount throughout Nejd. In 1889 the Amir Abdulla 
was permitted to return to Riyadh, where he died some years later. 

For the nest thirteen years the power of the Rashid rulers of Hail 
remained paramount in Central Arabia. Abdur Rahman bin Faisal 
made an incursion in 1891, during which he captured Riyadh but he was 
soon dispossessed of it by Muhammad bin Rashid. Abdur Rahman then 
fled and at first joined the Bedouins of Hasa among whom he sojourned 
in constant fear of capture by the adherents of Muhammad bin Rashid. 
Later he lived at Qatar under the protection of the Shaikh of Doliah 
being joined there by his family from Bahrain, and finally in 1892, at 
the invitation of the Turkish Wali of Basrah be settled down in Hasa 
on a pension granted him by the Porte. 

In 1897 Muhammad bin Rashid died and was succeeded by his nephew 
Abdul Aziz, who was soon embroiled with Shaikh Mubarak of Kuwait. 
The latter, who had advanced into the centre of Arabia, met with de- 
feat; but in 1901 Abdul Aziz, son of Abdur Rahman bin Faisal and 
commonly known by the family patronymic of Bin Saud, who was a 
refugee in Kuwait, suddenly made a surprise attack on Riyadh, which he 
captured: and from that moment the fortunes of the Bin Saud family 
revived. Abdur Rahman bin Faisal stood aside in favour of his son 
Abdul Aziz (Bin Saud), who resisted all the attempts of Bin Rashid 
to turn him out of Riyadh, and in 1903 made his first overtures to the 
Resident at Bushire. The next year he captured Buraidah and again 
defeated Bin Rashid, though the latter had the assistance of 2,500 Turks. 

The Turks now awakened to the fact that they had been backing the 
Wrong horse in supporting Bin Rashid : and a meeting was arranged at 
Safwan between the Wali of Basrah, Bin Saud and Shaikh Mubarak of 
Kuwait. At this meeting Bin Saud accepted a position of general sub- 
ordination to Turkey. 

In 1906 Abdul Aziz bin Rashid was defeated and slain in a battle 
with Bin Saud s TVhlikabis, and the rapid murder of his two successors 
hastened the decline of the Bin Rashid family. 

In the same year Bin Saud, through the intermediary of the Shaikh 
of Kuwait and Shaikh Jnssim of Qatar, renewed his overtures for some 



188 


PERSIAN GULF — Nejd. 


ovxn o£ British recognition. He expected soon to occupy the Arabian 
Boast and was hopeful of the extension to his territories of the Mari- 
am e Truce and consequent British protection against the Turks by sea. 
His Majesty’s Government decided that there was not sufficient justifica- 
tion tor departure from their policy of absolute aloofness from the affairs 
of JNejd, and the Shaikhs of Qatar and Kuwait were informed that the 
overtures could not he entertained. 


In 1910 the Sharif of Mecca made an incursion into Central Arabia 
in which he gained some temporary success. The next year Bin Sand 
visited Kuwait and had friendly interviews with the British Political 
Agent. 


In 1913 Bin Sand turned the Turks out of Hasa, which he occupied 
himself. At the end of the year he had a friendly meeting with the 
Political Agents of Bahrain and Kuwait. In the following year he met 
Turkish Commissioners near Kuwait and arrived at a settlement of his 
affairs with them, though the outbreak of the Great War rendered this 
abortive. 


From the outbreak of the Great War Bin Saud declined all requests 
for assistance emanating from Constantinople and threw in his lot with 
the British Government, even agreeing to accept a British political 
officer. This officer, Captain Shakespear, was unfortunately killed with- 
in a month of his arrival in the battle of Jerrnb between Bin Saud and 
Bin Rashid. 


In December 1915 Bin Saud met Sir Percy Cox at Darin in Tarut, 
where a Treaty (No. II) was arranged by which the British Government 
acknowledged his independence and agreed to render aid in certain con- 
tingencies. Bin Saud agreed not to alienate any portion of his terri- 
tories to a foreign power. This agreement was subsequently annulled 
by the Treaty of Jeddah (No. VII) in 1927. 

In 1916 the Sharif of Mecca rebelled against the Turks and for the 
next few years the British Government’s policy was to keep the peace 
between the rival rulers of Arabia. They attempted to arrange a settle- 
ment between Bin Saud and Bin Rashid, who had been carrying on a 
desultory warfare of raid and counter raid. Bin Sand leaning to the 
British side and Bin Rashid supporting the Turks. In furtherance of 
the general policv a meeting was arranged at Kuwait in November 1916 
which was attended by Bin Saud, the Shaikhs of Kuwait and Moliam- 
merah, and various Bedouin leaders. Certain outstanding differences 

were settled. . , 

During 1917 and 1918 Political Officers from Mesopotamia visited 

Central Arabia to discuss outstanding questions with Bin Sand. 

The political relations of Ilis Majesty’s Government with Nejd, which 
were conducted prior to 1921 through the Government of India, have 
since been conducted direct. 



PERSIAN GULF — N ejd. 


189 

• .• »/" 

Tlie main preoccupation of the ruler of Nejd was his relations with 
the King of the Hejaz; but he also had minor difficulties with Bahrain 
in connection with the levy of customs dues on through traffic with his 
dominions, with Kuwait over boundaries and with the Amir of Ibho in 
As hir. He conducted a war against Jabal Shammar, which ended when 
Hail capitulated in November 1921 and the last scion of the family of 
Bin Rashid was led away captive. 

After removing this enemy on his flank Bin Saud considered him- 
self strong enough to concentrate on his main enemy the King of the 
Hejaz. He had already occupied Khurma and Tabura in 1919. In 
1924 his troops captured Taif and Mecca, and by 1925 he was in full 
possession of the Hejaz. 

The difficulties with Bahrain were composed by the Shaikh’s accept- 
ance of a proposal that the rate of customs duty on goods for re-export 
should be reduced from five to two per cent, ad valorem, on the other 
hand agreement with the Shaikh of Kuwait on the long outstanding 
question of customs and transit dues has not yet been reached. 

Difficulties which- had arisen between Nejd on the one side and 
.Iraq on the other were composed by an Agreement (No. TIT) between 
Nejd, Iraq and British representatives, signed at Mohammerah in May 
1922. The boundary between the two countries was subsequently laid 
down by protocols to this Agreement, signed at TJqair in December 
1922. 

The Kuwait boundary difficulty was composed in December 1922 by 
an Agreement (No. IY) made at TJqair between the Political Agent at 
Kuwait and a representative of Bin Saud. 

In May 1923 the Sultan of Nejd granted to the Eastern and General 
Syndicate, Limited, of London, an oil concession covering the province 
of Hasa. In May 1924 the Sultan of Nejd and the Shaikh of Kuwait 
jointly granted an oil concession to the same Syndicate in respect of the 
neutral zone between the two principalities. As the Syndicate has not 
complied with its obligations to commence and carry on operations, both 
concessions are subject to forfeiture and cancellation, if not actually null 
and void. 

In November 1925 two agreements were signed, known as the Balira 
Agreement (No. Y) for the regulation of tribal matters and for setting up 
a tribunal to deal with tribal raids between Iraq and Nejd, and the 
Hadda Agreement (No. VI) which defined relations between Nejd and 
Trans- Jordan. 

In hi ay 1927 a Treaty (No. YII) was concluded at Jeddah between 
His Britannic Majesty and ITis Majesty the King of the Hejaz and Nejd, 
which cancelled the treaty of December 1915 and defined afresh the 
relations between the contracting parties. 


190 


PERSIAN GULF — Hahvaiu. 


r, , . 1S tI)e + erectlo , n of p° hce P° st s by the Iraq. Government at 
■Busaiyah a watering place some 60 miles on the Iraq side of the Iraq- 
is ejd frontier, was greatly resented by Bin Sand and some of bis tribes 
ms '' ^ ^l man oiid Mntair, Shammar, Harb and Ataibah. The latter 
regarded the establishment of these posts as a serious restriction on their 
right of access to water, and consequently on their accustomed mode of 
Me, and set about raiding on an extensive scale into Iraq. This made 
Bin Sand decide to summon the tribal Shaikhs to a conference at which 
he issued orders for the suspension of raids for a period of two months 
pending further discussion with the British Representative, Sir Gilbert 
Clayton, on the question of the posts and certain other matters of common 
interest between Iraq and Nejd. The tribes, however, soon became 
restive at the delay and early in 1929 rebelled against Bin Sand and 
recommenced raiding. Extensive operations, which had therefore to he 
undertaken against them, ended in their surrender and subsequent punish- 
ment, and in February 1930 a meeting between the King of Iraq and 
Bin Sand on board H.M.S. Lupin in tlie Persian Gulf, was facilitated 
by tbe British Government. At this meeting an amicable agreement on 
the question of the posts at Busaiyak and certain other outstanding ques- 
tions was reached. 


2. Bahrain . 

The island of Bahrain, owing to the richness of its pearl-fisheries, was 
long a field of contention between the different powers that have held 
supremacy in the Persian Gulf. 

Prom the eleventh to the beginning of tbe sixteenth century the in- 
habitants of Bahrain, to whom an Arab and Persian descent has been 
variously assigned, were governed by their own chiefs and were not sub- 
ject to any foreign control but in tbe time of Albuquerque tbe island fell 
into the hands of the Portuguese and was retained by them till 1622, 
when they were expelled by tbe Persians. After tbe death of Karim 
Khan in 1779, the petty chiefs of the Persian Gulf, who had been kept 
in check bv tbe strong band of Nadir Shah and his successors, became 
involved in contests for supremacy : and in 1783 tbe Atbi tribe of Arabs, 
who bad for some years inhabited Zubarah on the mainland and were 
virtually independent, made themselves, with the help of the Al Subak 
tribe, masters of tbe island. In 1800 the Imam of Muscat succeeded in 
conquering Bahrain, but was driven out in the following year by the 
Atbi (Arabic plural : ’ Utah), who were on this occasion assisted by the 
Wahhabis. In 1S10 the Atbi drove out the Wahhabi governor by whom 
the administration of tbe island Avas conducted, and in 1816 repelled 
an attack by the ruler of Muscat. Since then the Atbi have enjoyed 
independence of foreign control. 

In 1S20, after the capture of Ras-nl-Kh aimali by the British expedi- 
tion sent against the piratical tribes in tbe Gulf, an authorised agent on 



PEBSIAN GULF— Bahrain. 


191 


behalf of Shaikhs Sulaiman bin Ahmad and Abdulla bin Ahmad, who 
then ruled Bahrain conjointly, signed a preliminary Engagement (No. 
VIII) not to permit in Bahrain the sale of property procured by plunder 
and piracy, and to restore all Indian prisoners then in tlieir possession. 
The Shaikhs also subscribed the General Treaty of 1820 (see Irucial Arab 
Shaikhs of Oman, No. XIX) for the pacification of the Persian Gulf. 

In 1821 the Shaikhs of Bahrain agreed to pay a fixed annual tribute of 
30,000 crowns to the ruler of Muscat; but the guarantee of the British 
Government, for which both parties were anxious, was not given. Sub- 
sequently the tribute was reduced to 18,000 crowns, but ceased with the 
failure of an attack made on the island by Saiyid Said in 1828. In 
1830 tribute was demanded by the Wahhabis, and their protection was 
purchased by an annual payment of 4,000 crowns. Three years later 
Shaikh Abdulla of Bahrain refused allegiance to the Wahhabis, induced 
the neighbouring tribes to make incursions into tlieir territory, and block- 
aded their ports. The dispute terminated by his promising to pay them a 
tribute of 2,000 dollars, on the understanding that they would assist him 
against any invaders of Bahrain, and would not demand his co-operation 
against Muscat. On the death in 1834 of his nephew and colleague 
Shaikh Khalifa bin Sulaiman, Shaikh Abdulla became sole ruler of Bah- 
rain. In 1839 the commander of the Egyptian forces in the neighbour- 
hood of Bahrain announced his intention of attacking the island, as 
forming part of Ncjd, over which claims were asserted by Egypt. He 
was informed that the British Government could not admit any claim of 
Egypt to Bahrain. In 1843 the British Government declined to recog- 
nise similar claims advanced by Persia to sovereignty over Bahrain. 
Shortly after the conclusion of the Engagement of 1847 (No. XX.IIT), 
overtures were made to the Shaikh of Bahrain by the Turkish authorities 
at; Basrah with the object of obtaining liis recognition of the supremacy 
of the Porte. The ministers of the Sultan were informed that, as the 
British Government had had treaty relations with Bahrain as an inde- 
pendent power, they could not acknowledge or acquiesce in any arrange- 
ment for placing the island under the sovereignty or protection of the 
Porte. 

The Shaikhs of Bahrain were not parties to any of the agreements con - 
cluded after 1820 with the Arab Shaikhs, except the Engagement (.sec 
Trucial Arab Shaikhs of Oman, No. XXIII) for the suppression of the 
slave trade, signed in 1847 by Muhammad bin Khalifa, and an additional 
Agreement (No. IX) concluded with him in 1850, by which lie bound 
himself to seize and deliver to British vessels of war slaves brought to his 
territories from any quarter whatever, and to put an embargo on any 
vessel belonging to him or his subjects, which might he ascertained to 
iiave carried slaves. 

Muhammad bin Khalifa was the grandson of Sulaiman bin Ahmad 
who had signed the General Treaty (No. XIX) in 1820. Sulaiman bin 



192 


PERSIAN GTJLF — Bahrain. 


Ahmad died in 3825, and his son Khalifa, who had succeeded to his share 
in the government, died m 1884, Muhammad bin Khalifa was for some 
years ke pt out of power by liis grand-uncle Abdulla bin Ahmad; but in 
,, s ^ lccee ded not only in recovering his rights but in expelling 
Abdulla bin Ahmad from Bahrain. The latter, who found refuge in 
Dammam, made several unsuccessful attempts, with the help of the 'Wah- 
habis and the Shaikh of Kuwait, to recover his power. He died in 1848, 
but his son Muhammad bin Abdulla continued the feud. His warlike 
preparations and his piracies so endangered the peace of the Gulf that in 
1859 he was declared a public enemy and expelled from Dammam by.. a 
British force. Ko sooner was this done than Muhammad bin Khalifa of 


Bahrain began to levy imposts on Wahhabi vessels, and to carry off their 
property. On being remonstrated with lie made simultaneous applica- 
tions for protection to the Persian Governor of Kars and the Turkish Wali 
of Baghdad. The Persian flag was hoisted on the arrival of an Agent of 
the former, only to he immediately pulled down and replaced hy the 
Turkish flag on the arrival of an Agent of the latter. Both Agents dis- 
appeared from Bahrain after a short interval, during which representa- 
tions had been made, and assurances secured, by His Majesty’s Minister 
at Tehran. Earlv in 1861, therefore, when the Shaikh of Bahrain, in 
violation of his treaty engagements, again blockaded the Wahhabi ports, 
he was forced by the Resident in the Persian Gnlf to withdraw the 
blockade, and was required to conclude a perpetual Treaty (Ko. 5) of 
peace and friendship, binding himself to abstain from war, piracy and 
the importation of slaves by sea, on condition of protection against 
similar aggressions, and to permit all British subjects to trade with 
Bahrain on payment of an ad valorem duty of 5 per cent, on their goods. 


In 1S63, in consequence of complaints made against the lawless people 
on the south-east coast of the peninsula, Shaikh Muhammad bin Khalifa 
sent his cousin Muhammad bin Ahmad to Qatar to act as his Amir or 
-deputy. This official arrested and deported to Bahrain the local Shaikh 
of Wakrah, and made himself so unpopular during the next two or three 
years that lie was at last compelled to return to Bahrain. Shaikh Muham- 
mad bin Khalifa thereupon, in October 186T, sent a force from Bahrain 
under the command of his brother Ali to punish the people of Qatar; 
and at the same time invited the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi to co-operate vitli 
bis troops, as Bida (now known as Dob ah) and Wakrah had long been 
harbours of refuge for seceders from Oman. Shaikli Zaid bin Khalifa 
promptly accepted the invitation and joined Shaikh Ali with 2,000 men : 
and the combined forces, after destroying a. large number of Qatar boats, 
attacked and sacked the towns of Wakrah and Bida with circumstances 
of peculiar barbarity, and plundered property of the estimated value ol 
eleven laklis of loans. 

As both the Bahrain and Abu Dhabi Shaikhs were bound by their 
engagements with the British Government, to abstain, from aggression of 



PERSIAN GULF— Bahrain. 193 

every kind by sea; to appeal to the British Resident as arbitrator; and 
to afford full redress for all maritime offences which could justly be charg- 
ed against them or their subjects, steps were taken to exact reparation for 
these outrages. Before this could be effected the tribes of Qatar retaliated 
by an attack on Bahrain which proved unsuccessful; but in the naval 
action which took place a number of vessels were destroyed and great loss 
of life occurred. 

The Resident in the Persian Gulf, accompanied by TI.M.S. Vi plant 
and the gun-boats Clyde and Thigh Jdosc, proceeded to Bahrain. Muham- 
mad hin Khalifa fled to the Qatar coast, and an Agreement (No. XI) was 
signed hy his "brother Ali hin Khalifa and the principal persons in Bah- 
rain, by which they declared Muhammad bin Khalifa io have forfeited 
by pig piratical outrages all claim lo fbe chief ship of Bahrain, and Ali 
bin Khalifa hound himself to pay a fine of one hundred thousand dollars. 
Under these conditions he was permitted to continue in power; but the 
Abu Maliur fort near Muharraq was destroyed, and the war craft belong- 
ing to Muhammad bin Khalifa were burnt. After about one-fifth of the 
fine had been realised and distributed ratcably nmongjhe sufferers, the 
remainder was remitted. 

Through the mediation of the Resident an agreement* was also con- 
cluded between the Shaikh of Bahrain and the Shaikhs of the Qatar 
tribes, determining the amount of tribute annually payable by the latter 
and the manner of its payments. The tribute, which was only paid for 
two years, was discontinued when the Turks established themselves in 
Bida. 

The deposed Shaikh was forbidden to reside at. Bahrain; but in Janu- 
ary ISfiO, at the request of Ali bin Khalifa, who believed lie could keep a 


* We, the undersigned Chiefs, all residing in the province of Qatar, do hereby 
solemnly agree and hind ourselves to pay to Shaikh Ali hin Khalifa, Chief of 
Bahrein, the sums of money per annum heretofore paid hy us to the Chiefs of 
Bahrein, ns follows: this total sum to be paid hy us to Muhammad bin Thani of 
Doha and hy him to the Resident for delivers' to the Agent of the Chief of 
Bahrein, at Buslu're: — 

1,700 Ivrnns on account of the Malianda tribe, 

1,500 Krnns on account of the A1 Bn Anincn and Nayim tribes, 
500 Ivrnns on account of the Scmscmieli tribe (i.e., the A1 Bu 
Kmvnra, who live at Sumosma), 

500 Krans on account of the Keleb tribe, 

1.500 Krnns on account of the Sudan tribe, 

2.500 Krans on account of Muhammad hin Thani (Chief of the 

Mnadhid) and the Musnllam tribe, 

800 Krans on account of the Amnmora tribe. 


9,000 


Krans. 


Total. 


And we, the said Chiefs, understanding that the Bahrein Chief claims from us 
a total of 15,000 Krans per annum in lieu of 9,000 as above set forth, wo do 
hereby further agree to pay any extra sums not aggregating a total larger than 
15,000, which the Resident after judicial investigation may decree. 


Written on the 


25th .Tninadi-nl-Awal 1285, 
13th Soptembor 1868. 


P 2 



194 


PERSIAN GULP — Bahrain. 


better control over Ins brother if lie resided at Bahrain, Muhammad bin 
Khalifa was allowed to return there. He soon, however, began to in- 
inguo, ami it became necessary to deport him to Kuwait, whence he 
afterwards proceeded to Qatif. In September 1869 Muhammad bin 
m ifa, aided % his relative Nasir bin Mubarak and a considerable 
^ 10 ^ aui , Ha i ir sailed for Bahrain and attacked the fort 

of Hifa-ash-Sliarqi, then held by Muhammad bin Abdulla, son of the 
Shaikh who died in ISIS. An engagement ensued in which, owing 
mainly to the treachery of Muhammad bin Abdulla, tbe Bahrain force 
was defeated, Ali bin Khalifa, one of his sons and several of his Shaikhs, 
were killed, and the invaders took possession of Manamah and Muhnrraq, 
the two chief towns of Bahrain. Manamah was given up to plunder, and 
property belonging to British subjects and others, of the estimated value 
of upwards of twelve lakhs of rupees, was carried oh. Muhammad bin 
Abdulla then imprisoned Muhammad bin Khalifa and assumed the 


government of the island. In order to exact reparation for this unpro- 
voked outrage the British Resident proceeded thither, accompanied by 
H.M.S. Daphne and Nymph c and the gun-boats Hugh Rose and Clyde of 
the Bombay Marine. Tbe fort of Manamah on the sea-shore was bom- 
barded and destroyed : and, with the exception of Nasir bin Mubarak, 
who escaped to the mainland, all the leading marauders, including 
Muhammad bin Klmlifa and Muhammad bin Abdulla, were captured, 


and Isa bin Ali bin Khalifa, a son of the late Shaikh, was installed as 


Shaikh, on the understanding that the property of the pirate leaders 
would bo considered as forfeited and applied in the first instance towards 
the reimbursement of the persons plundered. The prisoners, five in 
number, were taken to Bombay and confined as State prisoners in the fort 
of Asirgarh, whence they were afterwards removed to Chunar. Two of 
them, Nasir bin Ahmad (the Wazir of Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa, who de- 
serted to the side of Nasir Bin Mubarak) and Muhammad bin Abdulla 
died there, tbe former in 18T3 and the latter in 1877. The remaining 
three prisoners were in 1878 removed to Aden where in 1S80 two of them, 
Jasim bin Muhammad Hasan, Wazir of Muhammad bin Abdulla, and 
Ali bin Nasir Al Abdulla, were released. The last of the five, Muham- 
mad bin Khalifa, was finally released in 1887 on the sole condition of 
residence in the holy cities of Arabia. He died at Mecca in 1890. His 
numerous sons were provided with certain personal allowances by the 
Shaikh of Bahrain. In October 1888 Shaikh Ahmad bin Ali, the most 
influential of Shaikh Isa's brothers, died. He had, in accordance with 
an old custom, enjoyed a moiety of the revenues of the island and exer- 
cised a considerable amount of power and authority. The Shaikh of 
Bahrain then appointed his own eldest son Selman as successor to his late 
brother. On Selman’s death in 1893 the Shaikh’s second son Hamad was 


nominated as his heir. 

The weakness of Isa bin Ali’s rule more than once led to intrigues 
for the restoration of the exiled (Al Abdulla) branch of the family; 



Persian gulp — Bahrain. 195 

and in 1874, in 1880, in 1892, and again in 1894 an attack on Bahrain 
was threatened by their partisans, the Bani Hajir tribe, bnt was prevented 
by the presence of British vessels and by the warnings addressed by the 
British authorities to the various Shaikhs upon the coast. The Turkish 
authorities of Hasa, originally at the instigation of Jasim bin Thani, 
on more than one occasion expressed the intention of rebuilding the 
town of Zubarah on the west coast of Qatar opposite Bahrain and estab- 
lishing a military post there; but the Shaikh of Bahrain invariably pro- 
tested on the ground of his ancient rights there and of the menace to 
Bahrain which such proceedings would involve. (Prior to the conquest 
of Bahrain by the A1 Khalifa family, Zubarah was their head-quarters ; 
but it was left unoccupied bj T Shaikh Isa.) The Porte as well as Nasir 
bin Mubarak and Jasim bin Thani were frequently informed by the 
British Government that no hostile settlement would be permitted at 
Zubarah. 

In March 1895 an act of violence committed by Shaikh Khalid bin 
Ali, for which liis brother Shaikh Isa failed to give redress, brought 
matters to a climax. The A1 Bin Ali tribe of Bahrain removed in a 
body to Qatar, where their leader, Sultan bin Salama, promptly entered 
into relations with Shaikh Jasim bin Thani. The latter, after osten- 
sibly endeavouring to effect a reconciliation between the Bahrain Shaikh 
and the seceding tribe, resolved to settle the A1 Bin Ali at Zubarah. 
This proposal was supported by the authorities of Ilasa, who at once 
despatched a Mudir and a gun-boat to the scene and caused the Ottoman 
flag to be hoisted there. In spite of the presence of two British men-of- 
war, H.M.S. Sphinx and II.M.S. Pirjcon, an invasion of Bahrain was 
seriously threatened, and a large number of boats was collected by Shaikh 
Jasim for the purpose. Eventually the British vessels opened fire on. the 
Arab fleet, disabling 40 boats. Shaikh Jasim then offered full submis- 
sion ; the Mudir retired to Hasa; and 120 more boats were surrendered 
and removed to Bahrain, two-thirds of them being subsequently burnt 
and one-third restored to their owners on payment of an indemnity. The 
majority of the A1 Bin Ali returned to Bahrain, though their Shaikh ac- 
companied Shaikh Jasim to Bida (now known as Dohah). Zubarah was 
completely evacuated. ,, 

After the accession of Shaikh Isa, the Turkish authorities on several 
occasions evinced a disposition to interfere in the affairs of Bahrain; but 
the British Government invariably asserted the Shaikh ’s independence 
from Turkish control. 

In 1880 Shaikh Isa signed an Agreement (No. XII) undertaking to 
abstain from entering into negotiations or making treaties with any 
foreign power without the consent of the British Government. 

In 1892 Shaikh Isa signed an Agreement (No. XIII) promising to 
enter into no agreement or correspondence with any other power than the’ 
British; to disallow the residence within his territory of the agent of any 



i96 


PERSIAN GULP — Bahrain. 


othei powei , and neither to cede, sell, mortgage nor otlierwise give for 
occupation any part of his territory save to tire British Government. 

In 1S93 the Porte objected to British officials taking up the cases of 
Bahrain subjects suffering from the piracies of the Bani Hajir. Thev 
mere informed in reply that Bahrain was under British protection. 
Later in the same year a claim was put forward by the Porte to treat 
the people of Bahrain as Turkish subjects within Ottoman territories. 
The British Government, however, maintained its right to extend British 
piotection to the subjects of the Shaikh whenever occasion might demand. 

In 1898 Shaikh Isa signed an Agreement (No. XIV) absolutely pro- 
hibiting the importation and exportation of arms into and from his ter- 
ritory. 

In 1900 a Political Agency, subordinate to the Political [Resident in 
the Persian Gulf, y-as established at Bahrain. 


In December 1900 a cousin of the Shaikh of Bahrain named Salman 
bin Diaij, liis son, nephew and 23 followers, were attacked on the Dhah- 
ran coast of the mainland and murdered by Bedouins of the Beliaih 
section of the A1 Morrah tribe. The incident caused great concern to 
Shaikh Isa. His demands for the surrender or punishment of the 
offenders, and for compensation for the families of his cousin’s retainers, 
were not complied with by the Turkish authorities. 

In 1905 Shaikh Ali bin Ahmad, a nephew of the Shaikh, was de- 
ported to Bombay for five years, owiug to his being concerned in two 
serious cases of assault on German and Persian subjects. 

In 1909 His Majesty’s Government approved of a proposal by the 
Government of India to raise the local personal salute of Shaikh Isa from 
5 to II guns,, and granted a salute of 3 guns to Ins eldest son when 
representing his father; the salutes to be fired on the termination of the 
official visits of the Shaikh or his son, as his representative, to any of 
His Majesty’s ships. 

In the same year Shaikh Isa wrote to the Political Agent that he 
desired the British Government to exercise jurisdiction over foreigners. 
The Turks annexed Zakhnuniyah island, which had hitherto been 
regarded as a possession of the Shaikhs of Bahrain, hut subsequently 
evacuated it after a British protest. 

In 1911 Shaikh Isa undertook not to allow the establishment at Bah- 
rain of the post offices of any Government other than the British: ami 
in the same year gave an undertaking, similar to that given by the 
Shaikh of Kuwait (see Kuwait, No. XXXIX), not to respond, without 
consulting the Resident in the Persian Gulf, to overtures for pearling 
concessions and sponge fishing in respect of the banks over winch he 

possessed rights. 

In 1012 Shaikh Isa granted (No. XV) the British Government 
piece of land for the erection of a wireless telegraph installation. 


a 



w 


PERSIAN GULF — T racial Arab Shaikhs ojOman. 

In May 1913 Bin Saud, Amir of Nejd, drove the Turks out of Ilasa : 
and great improvement in the safety of tire trade routes in that province 
quickly followed. 

In 1914 the Shaikh gave a written undertaking (No. AVI) that he 
would neither himself embark on the exploitation of oil nor entertain 
overtures for concessions from any quarter without the approval of the 
British Government. 

In October 1914 ships bearing troops which subsequently assisted in 
the capture of Basrah arrived at Bahrain. The attitude of Shaikh Isa 
and his son Shaikh Abdulla was helpful. 

The next year the Turks, who had retained a garrison at Al Bida in 
Qatar after the evacuation of Hasa, abandoned this post: and with it dis- 
appeared the last vestiges of Turkish influence in the Bahrain area. 

' In,. 1911 began a period of misgovernment particularly affecting the 
Shia inhabitants of Bahrain, culminating in 1923 in attacks by the 
Dawasir and other Sunni tribes on Shia villages,- and a riot in Man-amah 
town between Persians and Nejdis. As a result Shaikh Isa agreed in 
that year to resign all power into the hands of his son Shaikh Hamad, 
while retaining his titular position. The Jlawasir, tribe, who bad hither- 
to enjoyed a privileged position, alleging that tlu:}- were unable to submit 
to the new regime, migrated to the mainland from which a considerable 
number of them have since returned. 

The Bahrain Order in Council was brought into force in February 
1919. 

In 1920 Bin Saud expressed a wish to improve his ports of Uqair, 
Jubail and Qatif; but nothing has yet been accomplished in this matter. 
In the same year customs duty levied at Bahrain on cargo bound for the 
ports of Ilasa was reduced from five to two per cent. 

Since the accession of Shaikh Hamad to power as Deputy Shaikh, 
many improvements have been effected in the administration, and the 
worst of the abuses existing under the rule of Shaikh Isa have been 
abolished. 

3. Tuucial Auau Shaikhs of Oman. 

The possessions of the so-called Trueial Shaikhs* of: the maritime 
tribes of the Persian Gulf with whom the British Government, have con- 


* Tract. | Shaikhs. 

1. Abu Dhabi (Abutliabi). Shakbut Bin Sultan 

2. Dilmi .... Said Bin Maktuiu . 

3. Shargali . . Sultan Bin Saqar 

4. Ajman . . . Rashid Bin Humaid 

6. Umm-nl-Qahvain (Am- Alunad Bin Rashid . 
uigavmo), ) 

6. Ras-al-Khaimali . . 1 Sultan Bin Salim 


. Tribe. 

Bani Yas. 

Al bn Felasah, a branch 
of Bani Yas. 

Al Qawasim, 

Al lm Ali. 

Al bu Ali. 


Al Qaivnsim. 



PERSIAN GULP — Trucial Arab Shaikhs of Oman. 

eluded treaties extend from Odeid on the border of A1 Qatar (Guttur) 
beyond tlie island of Bahrain along tlie coast eastward to Ras-al-Khaiinah 
Treaty relations also exist with the Shaikh of Qatar (see infra). 

The Trucial Shaikhs are all independent rulers. At one period in the 
past they were directly or indirectly liable for a tribute to the Wahhabi 
Amirs of Nejd but with the advent of the Turks and the subsequent 
isolation of the Wahhabis in tlie highlands they emancipated themselves 
from any such payment. 

The Qawasim, who have occupied the province of Sir from the earliest 
times, carried on a vigorous and profitable trade by sea, till in 1805 they 
succumbed to the influence of the Wahhabis and were drawn into the 
piratical projects of that turbulent sect. Under their influence the 
Qawasim plundered two British vessels and treated the commanders with 
great cruelty. An expedition was sent to the Persian Gulf to punish 
them for this aggression and to co-operate with the Imam of Muscat, who 
was then at war with them. The expedition resulted in tlie conclusion 
of a Treaty (No. XVII), in February 1S0G, binding tlie Qawasim to 
respect the flag and property of the British, and to assist vessels touch- 
ing on their coast. This treaty appears to have been concluded without, 
reference to the Wahhabis. 

The spread of the Wahhabis in Oman soon threatened the ruler of 
Muscat with destruction: and the British Government determined to 
support him and, as the only means of preserving the peace of the Gulf, 
to destroy the piratical fleets. A strong force was despatched in 1809, 
which took Bas-al-Khaimah, Lingeh, La ft and Shinns, and destroyed the 
boats of the pirates. No treaty could at this time be concluded with the 
Qawasim, whose government bad been completely overthrown by the 
Wahhabis, nor were any permanent measures taken to secure the advan- 
tages gained in 1809; consequently, piracy soon re-appeared. In 1814 
the Qawasim professed a desire to be at peace with the British Govern- 
ment, provided they were left at liberty to make war on the neighbour- 
ing Arab tribes. They even expressed themselves ready to abstain from 
molesting their Arab neighbours, if the British Government would 
guarantee them protection from the vengeance of the Wahhabi Amir; but 
they were quite unable to make good their professions. Even after the 
negotiation of preliminary articles of peace with the Resident at Bushire, 
the Qawasim attacked and plundered British vessels: other tribes were 
soon drawn under the Wabbabi influence, and piracy increased to an 
intolerable extent. An expedition "was therefore despatched to the 1 er 
sian Gulf in 1819 for the purpose of completely crushing them. Eas-nl- 
Khaimah was taken, and Engagements (No. XVIII) were made with the 
Arab Shaikhs preliminary to the conclusion of a General Treaty (No. 
XIX). The object of the preliminary engagements was to include all 
matters of a temporary or individual character, so as to reserve Hie 
general treaty exclusively for arrangements of a permanent nature 
common to all the Arab Shaikhs who might be disposed to sign it. 



PERSIAN GULF — Trucial Arab Shaikhs of Oman . 


199 


By the 9th article of the Treaty of 1820 carrying off ^ tom the 
coasts of Africa or elsewhere, and transput mg • em 1 ^ j or _ 

declared to be plunder and piracy; but tins uas not m p 
bidding traffic in slaves, but as prohibitag kidnapping only A ^ 
extensive trade in slaves was carried on from the ports .of the BecB bea 
and the Persian Gulf with Kathiawar, Cutch 
the west coast of India; but under the rnterpretatron put on 
of 1820, the British Government had no power to interfere with this 
trade In April 1838, under instructions from Government, the Beside 
tZ Persian Gulf obtained from the Trucial Shaikhs of W-Khaimah 
Aiman, Dihai and Abu Dhabi an Agreement (Bo. XX), giving to Buti h 
cruisers the right to detain and search vessels suspected of being em- 
ployed in carrying off slaves, and to confiscate the vessels if found so em- 
ployed. In the following year the Shaikhs of Ras-al-Khaimah, Dihai, 
Abu Dhabi and Umm-al-Qaiwain (Amulgavme) entered into an Agree- 
ment (Bo. XXI) containing three articles. The first and second of these 
articles gave the British Government the right to search and confiscate 
slave vessels found beyond a line from Cape Delgado, on the African 
coast, passing two degrees east of Sokotra, and ending at Cape Gwadar, 
on the Hainan coast, unless driven beyond that line by stress of weather 
or other necessity. By the third article the sale of persons of the Somali 
tribe was declared to be piracy. The same Shaikhs, and also the Shaikhs 
of A jin an and Bahrain, entered into Engagements (Bo. XXIII) in 
J847, binding themselves to prohibit the exportation of slaves from the 
African coast, or elsewhere, in vessels belonging to themselves or their 
subjects, and authorising British cruisers to confiscate vessels found 
engaged in the forbidden traffic. In 185G the Trucial Shaikhs signed an 
Agreement similar to that concluded with the Shaikh of Bahrain (Bo 
IX). 


The treaty concluded with the Trucial Arab Shaikhs in 1820 did not 
limit the right of the Shaikhs to carry on acknowledged war with each 
other, by sea, that is to say, war proclaimed and avowed by one Shaikh 
upon another. All other hostile aggressions, however, were declared to 
he piratical. But under the name of acknowledged war many acts of 
piracy were committed, especially during the pearl-fishing season. The 
Shaikhs were therefore induced in 1835 to bind themselves, by a maritime 
truce, not in any circumstances to engage in hostilities by sea for a period 
of six months, on the understanding that the British Government would 
not interfere with their wars by land. The effects of this truce were so 
marked that the Shaikhs were easily persuaded in the following year, and 
again in 1837, to renew it for eight months. Thereafter it was renewed 
annually till 1843, when it was prolonged (Bo. XXII) for ten years. 
On the expiry of the ten years’ truce in 1853 a Treaty (Bo. XXIY) of 

* An Act of Parliament, 12 and 13 Vic., Cap. LXXXIV, was passed to give 
effect to tlicse engagements. (See Appendix No. I.) - 



200 Pbl?St AN GDl/i 1 ' — Tnicinl Arab Shaikhs oj Otnuh, 

V - 

porpc iptxT peace was concluded, which provided that there should he a 
ooiirplcte cessation of Iiosliliiies at sen between the subjects of the sub- 
scribing parties; that in t!ie event oi agressions on any one bv sea, the 
injured tribe should not retaliate, but refer the matter to tlie British 
authorities in the Persian Gulf; and that the British Government should 
watch over the peace of the Gulf and ensure at all times the due observ- 
ance of the treaty. 

In 1804 the Trucial Shaikhs hound themselves (No. XNV) to prevent 
their subjects from interfering with tlie telegraphic operations in or near 
their territories. 

In 18G7 (he Shaikh of Abu Dhabi joined tlie Shaikh of Bain a in in a 
piratical outrage on the tribes inhabiting the AI Qatar coast. On the 
appearance of British vessels of war off Aim Dhabi the Shaikh signed an 
Agreement (No. XX\I) not to commit any breach of the maritime peace 
and to pay a fine of 25,000 dollars. After about one-fifth of this fine had 
been realized (lie remainder was remitted in consequence of the subse- 
quent good behaviour of the Shaikh. 

At the same time an Agreement (No. XXVII) was signed by Muham- 
mad bin Tlvani, the principal Shaikh of Al Qatar, by which he hound 
himself not to put to sea with hostile intentions, to have no connection, 
with Muhammad bin Khalifa, and to refer any dilVcrenoe of opinion with 
the Shaikh of Bahrain to the arbitration of the British llosidcnt. 

In 1S7-3 the Trucial Shaikhs renewed (Nos. NXV11I and XXIX) their 
engagements to prohibit the traffic in slaves. 

In 1878 the Shaikh oi Ahu Dhabi was allowed to assert his rights of 
possession at Al Odaid, adjoining Al Qatar. 

In 1870 the Trucial Shaikhs entered into a mutual agreement regard- 
ing the surrender of fraudulent absconders or payment of their liabilities. 
This agreement is, however, not an engagement to tlie Paramount Power, 
nor guaranteed in any way. 

In 1802 the Trucial Shaikhs signed Agreements (No. XXX) promising 
not to enter into any agreement or correspondence with any power other 
than the British; not to admit the agent of any other government; and 
not to part with any portion of their territories save to the British 
Government. 

In 1000, on the death of the Shaikh of jRas-al-Khaimali, Humaid bin 
Abdulla, the place was annexed by the Shaikh of Sliargab to bis 
dominions from which it had been separated in 1809. 

1902 Agreements (No. XXXI) were obtained from the Shaikhs of 
Dibai, Sliargab, Unun-al-Qaiwain, Ajman and Abu Dhabi, in which they 
bound themselves to prohibit live importation and exportation of arms 
into and from their respective territories. 



PERSIAN GULF- 


-i'rkcM'Arlii) Shaikhs oj Oman. 


In 1910 Shaikh Salim bin Sultan, an uncle of tlie ruling Shaikh of 
Sb argali, assumed charge of Ras-al-Khaimali without the latter s consent. 

•The same year a naval party from H.M.S. Hyacinth , which landed at 
JJibai to search for arms, was fired on. 5 men were killed and 9 wounded ) 
the Arabs were reported to have lost 37 men. The Shaikh was immedi- 
ately fined Rs. 50,000 and the townsfolk 400 rifles : and the Shaikh was 
forced to agree, in accordance with his treaty obligations, to the accept- 
ance of a telegraph station at Dibai, and to replace immediately a tide 
pole which had been removed. No telegraph station, however, was 
opened. 

In 1911 the Trucial Shaikhs gave undertakings, similar to that given 
by the Shaikh of Kuwait (No. XXXIX), not to respond, without consult- 
ing the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, to overtures for pearling 
concessions and sponge fishing in respect of the banks, over which they 
possessed rights. 

In 1912 the Shaikh of Shargali agreed (No. XXXII) to the construc- 
tion by the British Government of a lighthouse on Tamb Island. 

In 1914, owing to his contumacious attitude and disregard of Govern- 
ment’s advice in regard to the treatment of his brother, the Shaikh of 
TJmm-al-Qaiwain was fined Rs. 15,000 and compelled to pay Rs. 10,000 
in settlement of his brother’s claims. 


In 1916 the Shaikh of Qatar signed a Treat}' (No. XXXIII) with the 
British Government undertaking obligations and accepting privileges 
similar to those of the Trucial Shaikhs. It was agreed at the time that 
the bringing into operation of articles VII, VIII and IX should be post- 
poned, and these articles have not yet been brought into operation. 

In the same year the Shaikh of Qatar issued a Proclamation prohibit- 
ing traffic in arms in his territory. 

On the death in 1919 of Shaikh Salim, his sou Shaikh Sultan suc- 
ceeded him as Shaikh of Ras-al-Khaimali : and in 1921 his independent 
status was recognised by Government. 

In 1922 the Trucial Shaikhs signed undertakings (Nos. XXXIV and 
XXX V) not to grant any concessions for oil within their territories ex- 
cept with the permission of the British Government. 

In October 1925 a cousin of the Residency Agent, Shargali, was killed 
in an unsuccessful attempt on the Residency Agent’s life. After in- 
vestigation the Shaikh’s father-in-law, Abdur Rahman, was deported to 
Aden for four years. The Shaikh of Shargah was fined Rs. 3,000 and 
compelled to pay 800 dollars as blood money. 

In 1925 the fort of Fujairah was bombarded and the Shaikh fined 
Rs. 1,500 because of his defiant attitude in a slavery case. Fujairah was 
a feudatory of the Shaikh of Shargah until 1901, when the Shaikh of 
Fujairah asserted his independence; which has, however, never been 
formally recognised. 



^EIISTAN GULF— Kuwait. 

' -\. v • *■ ' • " ' ' - 

Soon after, hostilities broke out between Fujairah and Kalba, a de- 
pendency of Shargah. Intermittent hostilities continued till the Bummer 
of 1927 when, at the instance of the Political Resident, a settlement was 
brought about by the Senior Naval Officer, Persian Gulf. 

4. Kuwait. 

Kuwait w as founded about the beginning of the eighteenth century by 
settlers ol the TJtub, over whom the Subah family enjoyed predomin- 
ance, and grew rapidly in the first fifty years of its existence. 

Ihe recorded history of British relations with Kuwait opens in 1775, 
when, on Die investment of Basrah by the Persians, the British desert 
mail from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo was first despatched from Kuwait, 
an arrangement’ which continued until 1779. 

In 1805 the Shaikhs of Kuwait and Znbarah asked the British Govern- 
ment to guarantee them a safe retreat in Bahrain, in the event of their 
severing their connection with the Wahhabis, who, they said, might 
otherwise force them to engage in depredations on British trade. Their 
proposals were not entertained. 

In 1809 an offer by the Shaikh of Kuwait to join the British expedi- 
tion against Ras-al-Khaimah with his fleet, was refused. 

In December - 1 821, on account of difficulties with the Turkish authori- 
ties, the British Residency at Basrah was temporarily removed to an 
island in Kuwait territory. 

In 1841 Shaikh Subah bin Jabir, on behalf of his father, signed an 
undertaking to adhere to the Maritime Truce for a period of one year. 

In May 1S9G Shaikh Mubarak became ruler of Kuwait. At first the 
attitude of the Turks towards him was one of neutrality, hut in 1897 
they appointed him Qahn-vwqmn of Kuwait. In February 1S97 the 
Turks sent a quarantine official to Kuwait, and in the same month the 
Shaikh asked for an interview with the Political Resident or an agent 
deputed by him. The Extra Assistant to the Resident eventually ar- 
rived in Kuwait in September, and the Shaikh intimated that he and his 
people would like to come under British protection to avoid annexation 
by the Turks. He repeated his request a year later. Her Majesty's 
Government did not, however, accede to his request. 

In January 1899 the Shaikh signed an Agreement (No. XXXYI) 
binding him and his successors not to alienate any part, of his territory 
without the consent of the British Government : and Her Majesty’s 
Government: undertook, so long as he and his heirs and successors acted 
up to their obligations under Die agreement, to support, them and accord 
them their good offices. 

In May 1S99 Shaikh Mubarak established regular customs at Kuwait, 
and began to realise an enhanced duty of five per cent, on all imports, 
including those from Turkish ports. In September a Turkish harbour- 


PERSIAN GULF— iKutoaii. 203 

master ■with five soldiers arrived to take charge of the port hut had to 
return to Basrah, as the Shaikh would not receive him. 

In May 1900 Shaikh Mubarak agreed (No. XXXVII) to prohibit the 
importation of arms into Kuwait, and their exportation therefrom, and 
issued notifications to that effect, and to the effect that vessels suspected 
of carrying arms were liable to be searched, and all arms found confis- 
cated. 

In the summer of 1900 the series of events began which led eventu- 
ally to the restoration of the Wahhabi dynasty in Nejd. Before that was 
brought about, however, Shaikh Mubarak led a remarkable incursion in 
their interests into the very heart of Central Arabia. A severe engage- 
ment took place at Sarif, near Buraidah, which, though attended by 
heavy losses to both sides, obliged Mubarak to retreat to Kuwait. The 
seriousness of the situation was soon brought home to liim. Accordingly 
he approached the Political Resident through the Comihnnder of IT.M.S. 
Sphimv with a request that the British Government would assume a per- 
manent protectorate over Kuwait as soon as possible. His request was, 
however, rejected. 

In December 1901 the Turkish sloop of war 7vhaf arrived at Kuwait 
and delivered an ultimatum to the Shaikh, requiring him either to re- 
ceive a Turkish military detachmeut at Kuwait or to leave Kuwait and 
retire to Constantinople. The Shaikh gave a- politic hut negative reply 
and the Zithaf withdrew 

Towards the end of the same month there was reason to think that a 
land attack on Kuwait was contemplated by a combined force of Turks 
and Bin Rashid’s followers. Dispositions were immediately made by 
the British naval force to co-operate in the defence of the town. This 
deterred Bin Rashid, who withdrew to his own part of the desert. 

The most dangerous direct attack to which Mubarak had been exposed 
was arranged for the autumn of 1902 by Yusuf bin Abdullali of Dorali : 
its object was to seize Kuwait by a coup de main. A large body of 
Sliarifat Arabs from the Persian side, under the Shaikh’s nephews, em- 
barked at Dorah on the Sliatt-al-Arah. The Commander of H.M.S. 
Lapwing received news of the expedition on the 3rd September at Kao, 
and immediately hastened to Kuwait to give the alarm, hut found the 
town already under arms. Search for the enemy was made, at first 
without success, but on the 5th they were discovered. Two boats con- 
taining a hundred and fifty riflemen were pursued by the armed boats 
of the. Lapwing. After a sharp fight the boats and their contents, in- 
cluding scaling ladders, were captured. 

The visit paid by the Viceroy (Lord Curzon) iu November 1903 mark- 
ed the consolidation of British influence in Kuwait, and placed in a clear 
light the Shaikh s cordial relations with the British Government. 

In 1904 the Shaikh agreed (No. XXXVIII) not to allow the establish- 
ment of a post office by any other Government’, ' 



204 


PERSIAN GULF — Kuwait . 


'TKe appointment of a British Political Agent to Kuwait was 
authorised in June 1904, and the first incumbent of the post arrived in 
August. 

In 1907 the Shaikh agreed to lease in perpetuity to the British Gov- 
ernment a plot of land to the south of Bandar Shmvaikh for Rs. 00,000 
per annum, leaving to them the right to relinquish the lease at any time 
should they wish to do so. At the same time the British Government 
assured Shaikh Mubarak that they recognised that the town of Kuwait 
and its boundaries belonged to him and to his heirs after him: that all 
his arrangements, including customs arrangements, would remain in his 
bands and in those of his heirs after him : and that the British Govern- 
ment would collect no customs duties in the Bandar Shmvaikh lands or 
in any other lands that they might thereafter lease from him or his 
heirs after him. The Bandar Shmvaikh lease was relinquished in 1922. 

In 1911 Shaikh Mubarak gave an undertaking (No. XXXIX) not to 
respond, without consulting the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, 
to overtures for pearling concessions and sponge fishing in respect of the 
hanks over which he possessed rights. 

In 1912 Shaikh Mubarak agreed (No. XL) to the erection of a wire- 
less telegraph installation. 

In 1913 Shaikh Mubarak gave a written undertaking (No. XLI) not 
to permit the exploitation of oil in his territories hv any one except a 
person recommended by the British Government. 

The outbreak of the Great War excited little interest in Kuwait until 
the entry of Turkey into the War, which aroused some sympathy with 
her. This, however, did not. last, and in return for Shaikh Mubarak’s 
unswerving loyalty and offer of co-operation during the War, the British 
Government guaranteed him against all consequences of his attack on 
Sat wan, Umm Qasr and Bubivan, and assured him that his date gardens 
between l ? ao and Qurnali would remain in the possession of himself and 
his heirs and he immune from taxation for ever and that Kuwait would 
be recognised as an independent principality under British protection. 
(No. XLII). 

It had been agreed in 1913 that an Indian Post Office should be estab- 
lished at Kuwait on the ratification of the Anglo-Turkisli Convention, ami 
an Office was in fact, opened under the orders of the Government, of India 
at the beginning of 1915. 

In February 1915 the Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, visited Kuwait. 

Shaikh Mubarak died in November 1915 and was succeeded by his 
eldest son Jahir, to whom the Viceroy sent a letter congratulating him. on 
his succession, and assuring him that, so long as lie acted up to exist- 
ing arrangements with the British Government, he might expect the 
saipe support as had been enjoyed by his father. 



PEESIAN; GULF— Kuwait. 205 


Shaikh. Jabir died in February 1917 and was succeeded by his brother 
Salim, to whom the assurances given to his predecessor were renewed. 

In February 1918 it was found necessary to enforce a blockade of 
Kuwait, which lasted until the conclusion of the armistice vith luikej, 
and in July the Shaikh was warned that the assurances given to him and 
to his father, and the friendship, protection and assistance of the British 
Government enjoyed by his father, would be continued only on the condi- 
tion that lie should be personally responsible for, and prevent, all acts 
in his territory whether committed by his own subjects or by other 
persons, which might be against the interests of the British Government. 

The latter part of Salim’s reign was marked by increasingly strained 
relations between him and Bin Sand. 

In 1920 difficulties in connection with the question of customs and 
transit dues in Kuwait induced Bin Saud to place an embargo on trade 
with Kuwait, as the result of which the prosperity of the principality has 
been seriously affected. There has been no development of importance in 
recent years but the position remains unsatisfactory. 

Shaikh Salim died in February 1921 and was succeeded, in March, 
by his nephew the present Shaikh Ahmad-al-Jabir who, at the time of 
his uncle’s death, was absent in Nejd on a mission to try and improve 
the relations between Nejd and Kuwait. The assurances, given to his 
predecessors, were renewed to him. 

At a conference, held at TJqair at the end of 1922, between the High 
Commissioner for Iraq and Bin Saud, at which the Political Agent, 
Kuwait, was also present, the question of the frontier between Kuwait 
and Nejd came up for discussion. The southern boundary of the recog- 
nised territory of Kuwait was demarcated (.sec No. IV), and also a tract 
of country in which it was agreed that the Rulers of Nejd and Kuwait 
should enjoy equal rights. 


In April 1923 the Shaikh of Kuwait was informed (No. XLIII) 
through the Political Agent that His Majesty’s Government recognised 
the Jraq-Kuwait frontiers claimed by him. 

In May 1924 the Sultan of Nejd and the Shaikh, of Kuwait jointly 
granted an oil concession to the Eastern and General Syndicate, Limited, 
of London, in respect of the neutral zone between the two principalities. 
As the .Syndicate has not complied with its obligations to commence and 
carry on operations, the concession is subject to cancellation and for- 
feiture, if not actually null and void. 

In October 1925 an Order in Council came into effect providing for 
British jurisdiction over British subjects and foreigners within the prin- 
cipality of. Kuwait. 


The frontier troubles between Iraq and Nejd. a net the rebellion in 
1929 of the Ajman and Mutair tribes against Bin Sand (see 1, The Wah- 
habis and Nejd), have placed the Shaikh of Kuwait in a difficult position. 



206 


PERSIAN G UTjE — N cj d — N OS . I — 18G6 & 11—1916. 


No. I. 

Translation of the Declaration of the Waiiabee Ameer, dated the 21st April 

1866. 

T, Mahomed bin Abdullah bin Maneh, ara certain on the following points 

I am authorized by Imaum Abdullah bin Fysul to request the Sahib, the Resi- 
dent in the Persian Gulf, to become the medium of friendship between Imaum 
Abdullah bin Fysul and the British Government ; 

Secondly . — I assure the Resident in the Persian Gulf on the part of Imaum 
Abdullah bin Fysul that he will nob oppose or injure British subjects residing in 
territories under the authority of Abdullah bin Fysul ; and 

Thirdly . — I assure the Resident in the Persian Gulf on the part of Imaum 
Abdullah bin Fysul that he will not injure or attack the territories of the Arab 
tribes in alliance with the British Government, specially on the Kingdom of Mus- 
cat, further than in receiving the zukat that has been customary of old. 

Written by my hand at Bushirc, on Saturday, the 5th day of Zilhejeh 1282 
(21st day of April 1866). 

Mahomed bin Abdullah bin Maneh. 


No. II. 

Treaty between the British Government and the Ruler of Nejd, El IIassa, 

Qatif, etc., — 1915. 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

Treaty Between the British Government and ’Abdul ’Aziz bin ’Abdur 
Raiiman bin Faisal Al-Sa’ud, Ruler of Najd, Ei, IIassa, Qatif, etc., 
dated the 26th December 1915. 


Preamble. 

The High British Government on its own part, and ’Abdul ’Aziz bin ’Abdur 
Rahman bin Faisal Al-Sa’ud, Ruler of Najd, El IIassa, Qatif and Jubail, and the 
towns and ports belonging to them, on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, 
and tribesmen, being desirous of confirming and strengthening the friendly rela- 
tions which have for a long time existed between the two parties, and with a view 
to consolidating their respective interests — the British Government have named 
and appointed Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox; K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., British 
Resident in the Persian Gulf, as their Plenipotentiary, to conclude a treaty for 
this purpose with ’Abdul ’Aziz bin ’Abdur Rahman bin Faisal Al-Sa’ud. 



) 


207 


PERSIAN GULF — Nr.jri — NO. 11—1015. 

The said Lieutenant-Colonel .Sir Percy Cox and ’Abdul ’Aziz bin ’Abdiir 'Rahman 
bin Faisal Al-Sa’ud, hereafter known as “ Bin Sa’ud,” have agreed upon and oop* 
eluded the following articles 

I. 

Tlie British Government do acknowledge and admit that Najd, A1 Jlassa, 
Qatif and Jubail, and their dependencies and territories, which will be discussed 
and determined horeafter, and their ports on the shores of the Persian Gulf are 
the countries of Bin Sa’ud and of his fathers before him, and do hereby recognise 
the said Bin Sa’ud as the Independent Ruler thereof and absolute Chief, of their 
tribos, and after him his sons and descendants by inheritance ; but the selection 
of the individual shall be in accordance with the nomination (i.c., by the living 
Ruler) of his successor ; but with the proviso that he shall not be a person anta- 
gonistic to the British Government in any respect ; such as, for example, in regard 
to the terms mentioned in this Treaty, 

II. 

In the event of aggression by any Foreign Power on the territories of the coun- 
tries of the said Bin Sa’ud and his descendants without reference to the British 
Government and without giving her an opportunity of communicating with Bin 
Sa’ud and composing the matter, the British Government will aid Bin Sa’ud to 
such extent and in such a manner as the British Government after consulting 
Bin Sa’ud may consider most effective for protecting his interests and countries. 

III. 

Bin Sa’ud hereby agrees and promises to refrain from entering into any corres- 
pondence, agreement, or treaty, with any Foreign Nation or Power, and further 
to give immediate notice to the Political authorities of the British Government 
of any attempt on the part of any other Power to interfere with the above terri- 
tories. 


IV. 

Bin Sa’ml hereby undertakes that lie will absolutely not cede, pell, mortgage 
lease, or otherwise dispose of the above territories or any part of them, or grant 
concessions within those territories to any Foreign Power, or to the subjects of 
any Foreign Power, without the consent of the British Government. 

And that lie will follow her advice unreservedly provided that it be not da- 
maging to his own interests. 


V. 

. Bin Sa’ud hereby undertakes to keep open within his territories, the ronds 
leading to the Holy Places, and to protect pilgrims on their passage to and from 
the Holy Places. 

xi 


0 



208 


PERSIAN GULF — Nejd — NO. Ilf— 1922. 

VI. 

Bin Sa’ud undertakes, as bis father did before him, to refrain from all aggres- 
sion on, or interference with the territories of Kuwait, Bahrain, and of the Shaikhs 
of Qatar and the Oman Coast, who arc under the protection of the British Gov- 
ernment, and who have treaty relations with the said Government ; and the limits 
of their territories shall be hereafter determined. 

VII. 

The British Government and Bin Sa’ud agree to conclude a further detailed 
treaty in regard to matters concerning the two parties. 

Dated 18th Safar 1334 corresponding to 26th December 1915. 

Abdul ’Aziz Al-Sa’ud. 

P. Z. Cox, Lt.-Gol., 

British Resident in the Persian Gulf. 

CHELMSFORD, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

This Treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Council at Simla on the 18th day of July A.D. one thousand nine hundred and 
sixteen. 


A. H. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign and Political Department. 


No. III. 

Treaty between the Government of ’Iraq and the Sultan of Najd, — 1922. 

/ 

Treaty and Undertakings in force between the Government of ’Iraq and His 
Highness the Sultan of Najd, signed at Mohammerah on the 5th May 1922. 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

With a view to securing friendship and good relations between the two Gov- 
ernments of ’Iraq and Najd. 

We, the undersigned delegates, appointed by His Majesty Faisal I, King of 
’Iraq, and by His Highness ’Abdul Aziz ibn Sa’ud, Sultan of Najd, and its depen- 
dencies, and by His Excelleucy Major-General Sir P. Z. Cox, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., 
K.C.S.I., His Britannic Majesty’s High Commissioner in ’Iraq in order to draft 



PERSIAN GULF — Ntijd — NO. 111—1922. 209 

a Treaty between the ’Iraq and Najd Governments, have agreed upon tlic follow- 
ing articles 

Article 1. 

(а) The tribes known as the Muntafiq, Dhafir and Amarat, will belong to 
’Iraq. Both Governments, that is to say the Government of ’Iraq and the Gov- 
ernment of Najd, guarantee mutually that they will prevent aggression by their 
tribes on the tribes of the other, and will punish their tribes for any such aggres- 
sion, and should the circumstances not permit of such punishment, the two Gov- 
ernments will discuss the question of taking combined notion according to the 
good relations prevailing between them. 

(б) The Najd delegate having refused to accept the boundaries asked for by 
the ’Iraq Government, the following principle was laid down 

According to Artiolo 1(a) the Muntafiq, Dhafir and Amarat tribes belong to 
’Iraq, similarly the Shammer Najd belong to Najd. The wells and lands 
used from old times by the ’Iraq tribes shall belong to ’Iraq and the wells 
and lands used from old times by the Shammar Najd shall belong to Najd. 
In order to determine the location of these lands and wells and to fix a 
boundary line in accordance with this principle a Committee shall be 
formed consisting of two persons with local knowledge from each Gov- 
ernment, and presided over by a British official selected by the High 
Commissioner ; the Committee will meet in Baghdad to fix the final boun- 
daries, and both parties will accept these boundaries without any ob- 
jection. 

Article 2, 

The two Governments, ’Iraq and Najd, guarantee to ensure the safety of the 
pilgrim routes and protect pilgrims from every kind of molestation so long as they 
are within their boundaries, as has already been guaranteed by the Sultan of 
Najd to His Britannic Majesty’s Government in Article 5 of the Treaty between 
them. 


Article 3. 

(а) The two Governments agree that commercial intercourse shall be free 
from restrictions, and that each Government shall treat merchants belonging 
to the other in the same way as it treats its own merchants. 

(б) Raw or manufactured products of Najd when imported into ’Iraq, and 
similarly raw and manufactured products of ’Iraq when imported into Najd shall 
be subject to the same tariff as prevails in the case of other friendly countries 
in respect of import, export, transit, and re-export duties, and all other Custom 
matters. 

(c) The two Governments shall have the right to increase their Customs duties 
and to levy fresh local and special taxation not in force at the present time, pro- 
vided that such alteration shall be similar to those enforced against other friendly 

Q 3 



210 PERSIAN GULF— Nc/rf— NO. 111—1022. 

countries, Each Government shall inform the other of any regulations issued 
by it in those matters. 

Article i. 

The two Governments agree to freedom of travel in their respective countries 
for purposes of trade or pilgrimage, provided that travellers are in possession of 
passports issued by their own Government. Each Government shall inform 
the other of any regulations issued by it in this matter. 


Article 5. 

Any tribes belonging to one of the coiintyies which settles in the qtlier country 
shall pay grazing fees, 

Article 0. 

Ip tjio event (which God forbid) of a breach in the relations between either 
of the Goyernnaents and th.e British Government, this treaty shall bocame pul] 
and void. 

Signed (at Failiyali near Mphammerah), on Friday, 7th Ramadhan, 1340, 
equal to May 5th, 1922, 


Delegate of the King of 'Iraq, King Faisal 1, 
Subih. 

Minister of Communications and TForfcs, 
Delegate of His Highness the Sultan of Najd 
and its Dependencies, ’ Abdul ’Aziz ibn Sa’itd, 

Ahmad Al Thanaiyan Al Saoud, 
Secretary to His Highness. 

Delegate of His Excellency the High Commissioner 

of His Britannic Majesty. 
B. II. Bourdillon, 

Secretary to His Excellency. 


Postscriptum. 

1. This treaty shall not be valid until it has been ratified by Their Majesties 
the rulers of ’Iraq and Najd, and by His Excellency the High Commissioner. 

2. The delegate of Najd guarantees that, pending the decision of the Committee 
which will meet in Baghdad, the tribes of Najj<j will not attack the tribes of ’Iraq. 



PERSiiN QVhW-^kejd— N(j. 111—1022. 21 1 

PROTOCOL No. 1. 

Pai'Sal i bn At HusAin, 

King of ’Iraq. 

’About. ’Aziz ibn ’Abdul Rahman Al Sa’ud, 

The Svltan of Najd and its Dependencies. 

Has agreed to the Articles of this Protocol. 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

This Protocol defining the boundaries between the two Governments of Iraq 
and Najd is appended to the agreement made at Muhammcrah on the seventh 
day of Ramadhan, the Blessed in the Year 1340, which corresponds to the fifth 
day of May of the Year 1922. 


Article 1. 

(a) The frontier from the east begins at the junction of the Wadi al ’Aujah 
(W. el Audja) with A'l-Batin, and from this point the Najd frontier passes in a 
straight line to the well called Al-Wucpibali (El Ukabba), leaving Al-Lulaindyah 
(Dulaimiya) and Al-Wuqubak (El Ukabba) north of the line, and from Al-Wuqu- 
bah (El Ukahha) it continues N. W. to Bir Ansab (Bir Unsab). 

(b) Starting from the point mentioned above, i.e., from the point of the junc- 
tion of the Wadi al-’Aujah (W. el Audja) with Al-Batin (El Batin), the ’Iraq bound- 
ary continues in a straight line N. W. to Al-Amghar (El Amgluir), leaving this 
place to the South of the line and from thence proceeds S. W. in a straight line 
until it joins the Najd frontier at Bir Ansab (Bir Unsab). 

(c) The area delimited by the points enumerated above which includes all 
these points will remain neutral and common to the two Governments of. ’Iraq 
and Najd who will enjoy equal rights in it for all purposes. 

(d) Prom Bir Ansab (Bir Unsab) the boundary between the two States pro- 
ceeds N. W. to Birkat al-Jumaimah (Birkat el Djumeima) and from thence north- 
wards to Bir al-’Uqbah (Bir el Akaba) ap'd Qfasr ’Utliaimin (Kasr Athmiu), from 
there westwards in a straight line passing through the centre of Jal al-Batn (Djal 
cl Batn) to Bir Lifiyak (Bir Lifa) and then to Bir al-Mana’iyah (Bir el ftfaniya) 
and from there to jadidat ’Ar’ar (Djadaidat el Arar) from there to Mukur and 
from Mnkur to the Jabal ’Anazan (Anaza), situated in the neighbourhood of the 
intersection of latitude 32° (north) with longitude 39° (east) where the ’Iraq- 
Najd boundary terminates. 


ARi'ictfe 2» 

Wlihleds ffiahy of the Wefts fall within Hie Tra'q bburidaries and fclib Najd sid 
is deprived of them the Tfitq GovefinrielVt pledges itself hot to interfere wfrli thos 
N:'ijd tribes living ill the Vicinity of the border should it be ncceSsAry for (hbf 
to’ resbrt to the neighbouring ’Iraq wefts for water, provided that; theke Wefts af 
nearer to them than those tvithih. the Najd boundaries, 



212 


PERSIAN GULF — Nejd — NO. Ill— 1922.' 


Article 3. 

The two Governments mutually agree not to use the watering places and wells 
situated in the vicinity of the border for any military purpose, such as building 
forts on them, and not to concentrate troops in their vicinity. 


Article 4. 

The delegates of the two Governments have agreed to the above terms of 
this Protocol and have affixed thereto their signatures in ’Uqair, on the 12th day 
of Rabi ’ II, 1341 , corresponding to December 2nd, 1922. 


Sunin, 

Representative of His Majesty the King of 'Iraq. 

Abdullah Sa’id Damluji, 
Representative of His Highness the Sultan of Najd. 

The Sultan of Najd and its Dependencies ’Abdul ’Aziz Bin ’Abdur 
Rahman til Sa’ud has agreed to the Articles of this Protocol. 


PROTOCOL No. 2. 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. 


Article 1. 

"Whereas the two Governments of ’Iraq and Najd have mutually agreed upon 
the definition of their respective boundaries they further agree that should any 
tribe or section of a tribe which is outside the boundaries of, and not subject to 
either Government desire to offer its allegiance to one of them, they will not 
prevent it from doing so. 


Article 2. 

Whereas the Customs duties in both countries are mutually known, all mer- 
chandise, exported from, imported into, or passing through the territory of either 
country, shall be subject to these recognised duties and Customs regulations. Both 
Governments further agree mutually by all means in their power to put an end 
to the practice prevailing among the tribes of taking Khawah. 



PERSIAN GULF — ticjd — NOB. iil & IV— i922. 213 

j Article 3. 

The duly appointed delegates of "both Governments have agreed to the fore- 
going clauses of this Protocol and have set to it their signatures in ’ Uqair, on the 
12th day of Rabi ’ II, 1341, corresponding to the 2nd of December, 1922. 

Subih, 

Representative of His Majesty the King of ’Iraq. 

Abdullah Sa’id Damluji, 
Representative of Ilis Highness the Sultan of Najd. 

The Sultan of Najd and its Dependencies ’Abdul ’Aziz ibn ’Abdul Rahman 
al Sa’ud has agreed to the Articles of this Protocol. 

. (Translator’s note . — The references are to Map Asia 1-1 ,000,000 Geographical 
Section, General Staff, War Office, 1917-18. The spelling of the place names in 
brackets is that given in the above map.) 


No. IV. 

KUWAIT-NAJD BOUNDARY CONVENTION,— 1922. 

Kuwait-Najd Boundary Convention. 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. 

The frontier between Najd and Kuwait begins in the West from junction of 
the Wadi al Aujali (W. al Audja) with the Batin (El Batin), leaving Racj’i (Rikai) 
to Najd, from this point it continues in a straight line until it joins latitude 29° 
and the red semi-circle referred to in Article 5 of the Anglo-Turkish Agreement 
of 29th July 1913. The line then follows the side of the red semi-circle until it 
reaches a point terminating (sic) on the coast south of Ras al-Qali’ah (Ras el Kali- 
yak) and this is the indisputable southern frontier of Kuwait territory. The 
portion of territory bounded on the North by this line and which is bounded on 
the West by a low mountainous ridge called Shaq (Esh Shakk) and on the East 
by the sea and on the South by a line passing from West to East from Shaq {Esh 
Shakk) to ’Ain al ’Abd (Ain el Abd) and thence to the coast north of Ras al Mi- 
sh’ab (Ras Mishaab), in this territory the Governments of Najd and Kuwait will 
share equal rights until through the good offices of the Government of Great Bri- 
tain a further agreement is made between Najd and Kuwait concerning it. 

The map on which this boundary has been made is Asia 1-1,000.000, made 
by the Royal Geographical Society under the direction of the Geographical Sec- 
tion General Staff and printed at the War Office in the year 1918. < 



214 PERSIAN GULF— Ncjd— NOS. IV— 1922 & V— 1926. 

Written in the port of ’Uqair and signed by the representatives of both Gov- 
ernments on the second day of December 1922 corresponding to 13th of Rabi’al 
Thani, 1341. 

Abdullah Sa’id Damluji, 
Representative of His Highness the Sultan of Najd. 

J. 0. More, Major, 

Political Agent, Kuwait. 

I have agreed to the contents of this agreement. 

’Abdul ’Aziz bin ’Abdul Rahman as-Sa’ud, 

Sultan of Najd and its Dependencies. 
I have agreed to the contents of this agreement. 

Ahmad al-.Tabir as-Subah, 

Hakim of Kuwait. 

(Ti an sh tor’s note . — The spelling of place names in brackets is that used in 
the map referred to in the treaty.} 


No. V. 

THE BAHRA AGREEMENT. 

Agreement between the Sultan of Nejd and the British Government on be- 
half of the Iraq Government to regulate tribal matters aud to set up a tri- 
bunal to deal with tribal raids between Nejd arid Iraq, — 1925. 

Translation. 

Whereas with a view to securing good relations between the two Governments 
of ’Iraq and Nejd, a Treaty known as the Mokaramerali Convention was agreed 
upon between those two Governments and signed on the 7th Ramadan 1340 (cor- 
responding to the 5th May 1922), rind 

Whereas the aforesaid Treaty was supplemented by two Protocols, known 
respectively as Protocol Number I and Protocol Number II of the Mobammerah 
Convention, which were signed at ’Uqair on the 12th Rabi ’ Thani 1341 (corres- 
ponding to the 2nd December 1922), and 

Whereas the aforesaid Treaty and Protocols have been duly ratified by the 
two Governments of ’Iraq and Nejd, and 

Whereas in Article 1 of the aforesaid Mokammerak Convention the Govern- 
ments of ’Iraq and of Nejd have guaranteed mutually that they will prevent ag- 
gression by their tribes on the tribes of the other arid will punish their tribes for 
any such aggression and should the circumstances not admit of such punishment 



PERSIAN GdfcF— Nejd— NO. V— 1026. ^i?) 

the two Governments will discuss the question of taking combined action accord- 
ing to the good relations prevailing between them, and ■ 

Whereas it is considered advisable by His Britannic Majesty’s Government 
and by the two Governments aforementioned, in the interests of friendship and 
good relations between the two countries of Iraq and Nejd to conic to an agree- 
ment regarding certain matters which are outstanding between those two conn- 
tries. 

We, the undersigned, His Highness ’Abdu’l-’Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r Ealimau-al- 
Tfaisal Al Sa’ud, Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies, and' Sir Gilbert Clayton, 
K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G., the duly accredited Commissioner and Plenipotentiary 
of His Britannic Majesty’s Government, who has been empowered to come to 
an agreement and sign on behalf of the ’Iraq Government, have agreed upon the 
following articles : — 

Atm cue 1. 

The States of ’Iraq and Nejd severally recognise that raiding by tribes -settled 
in their territories into the territory of the other State is an aggression which ne- 
cessitates the severe punishment of the perpetrators by the Government to which 
they art subject And that the chief of the tribe committing such aggression is to 
be held responsible. 

Article 2. 

(а) A special tribunal shall be set up, by agreement between the two Govern- 
ments of ’Iraq and Nejd, which shall meet from time to time to enquire into the 
particulars of any aggression committed across the frontier between the two States, 
to assess the damages and losses and to fix the responsibility. This tribunal shall 
be composed of an equal number of representatives of the Governments of ’Iraq 
and Nejd, and its presidency shall be entrusted to an additional person, other 
than the aforesaid representatives, to be selected by the two Governments in 
agreement. The decisions of this tribunal shall be fiual and executory. 

(б) When the tribunal has fixed the responsibility, assessed the damages and 
losses resulting from the raid, and issued its decision in that respect, the Govern- 
ment to whom those found guilty are subject shall execute the aforesaid decision 
in accordance with tribal customs, and shall punish the guilty party in accord- 
ance with Article 1 of the present Agreement. 


AnTtCLfe 3. 

Tribes subject to dim of the two GbverniUeiits inay not cross the frontier info 
the territory of the other Government except after obtaining a. permit from their 
own Government and after the concurrence of the other Government ; it being 
stipulated, however, in accordance with the principle of the freedom of grazing 
that neither Government shall have the right to' withhold Such permit or com 
currence if the migration of the tribe is due to grazing necessities. 



216 


PERSIAN GULF — Jfejd — NO. V— i925. 


Article 4. 

The two Governments of ’Iraq and Nejd undertake to stand in the way, hy 
all the means at their disposal other than expulsion and the use of force, of the 
emigration of any tribe or section of a tribe from One of the two countries into 
the other unless its emigration takes place with the knowledge and consent of 
its Government. The two Governments undertake to abstain from offering any 
present of whatsoever kind to refugees from the territories of the other Govern- 
ment, and to look with disfavour on any of their subjects who may seek to entice 
tribes belonging to the other Government or to encourage them to emigrate from 
their country into the other country. 


Article 5. 

The Governments of ’Iraq and Nejd may not correspond with the Chiefs and 
Sheikhs of tribes subject to the other State on official or political matters. 


Article 6. 

The forces of ’Iraq and Nejd may not cross the common frontier in the pur- 
suit of offenders except with the consent of both Governments. 


Article 7. 

Sheikhs of tribes who hold an official position or who have flags showing that 
they are the leaders of armed forces may not display their flags in the territory 
of the other State. 


Article 8. 

In ease one of the two Governments were to call upon tribes residing in the 
territory of the other State to furnish armed contingents, the said tribes will be 
free to respond to the call of their Government on condition that they betake 
themselves with their families and belongings in complete tranquillity. 


Article 9. 

In case a tribe were to emigrate from the territory of one of the two Govern- 
ments into the territory of the other Government and were subsequently to com- 
mit raids into the territory in which it formerly resided, it will be open to the 
Government into whose territory this tribe has immigrated to take from it ade- 
quate guarantees on the understanding that, if a similar aggression were to be 
repeated by the tribe, those guarantees would be liable to confiscation, without 
prejudice to the punishment to be inflicted by the Government as provided in 
Article 1, and without prejudice to whatever impositions may be decreed by the 
tribunal specified in Article 2 of the present Agreement. 



PMSlAft GutF— Nejd— Nt). V-1925. 23.7 

Article 10. 

The Governments of ’Iraq and Nejd undertake to initiate friendly discussions 
with a view to concluding a special agreement in respect of the extradition of 
criminals in accordance with the usage prevailing among friendly States, within 
a period not exceeding one year from the date of the ratification of the present 
Agreement by the Government of ’Iraq. 

Article 11. 

The Arabic version is the official text to be referred to in the interpretation 
of the Articles of the present Agreement. 

Article 12. 

The present Agreement shall be known as “ The Bahra Agreement 

Signed at Bahra Camp this fourteenth day of Itabi’ Thani 1344, corresponding 
to the first day of November 1925. 

Gilbert Clayton. 

’Abdu’l ’Aziz. 


Correspondence relating to the Bahra Agreement. 

MEMORANDUM. 

Presented by His Highness the Sultan of Nejd after the sixth -meeting to Sir Gilbert 
Clayton, K.B.B., etc., Ilis Britannic Majesty's Commissioner and Plenipo- 
tentiary. 

Translation. 

1st BabV Thani 1344 {19lh October 1925). 

I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that the Government of Nejd 
are still of opinion that it is necessary to examine the possibility of extraditing 
criminals, in the hope of ensuring peace on the frontier and of preventing all dis- 
turbers of the peace effectively. My insistence in this matter i 3 due to the par- 
ticular experience I have, and to my knowledge of desert conditions. My first 
object is to prevent any rivalry or friction from arising between the two Govern- 
ments, and in this I am actuated by three main motives : — 

(a) religion and honour, which compel us to act truthfully and in keeping 

with our pledges ; 

(b) our special tics of friendship with His Majesty’s Government, which 

make it incumbent upon us to take a far-sighted view ; 

(c) our desire to live in peace, quiet and amity with our neighbours the State 

of ’Iraq. 

2 -_ 1 am of opinion that the Agreement which you presented for discussion this 
morning, although it may achieve some of the purposes for which we strive, does 



1’ERSIAN GULE— Nej'd— NO. V^-IOSSS. 


2lf? 

yet leave the door open to a great number of troublesome incidents of a kind of 
which we have had cause to complain in the past. In particular, I have submitted 
to you the following incidents as being of the kind which habitually occur in life 
in the desert: — 

(a) what should the attitude of the Nejd Government be if an ’Iraqi tribe 
having committed a reprehensible crime involving killing. and plunder, 
were to take refuge in Nejd ; and what would the same Government’s 
attitude be if that refugee tribe were to commit the same crime, 
notwithstanding guarantees being taken from it ; 

(h) what should the attitude of each of the Governments of ’Iraq and 6f 
Nejd be if a Nejd tribe, having been punished by the Nejd Govern- 
ment for a raid into ’Iraq, were to take refuge into ’Iraq and then to 
raid Nejd from ’Iraq, as was done by those tribes who had taken re- 
fuge noth Nejd and then gone over to ’Iraq, after the well-known 
incidents connected with Yusuf Sa’dun ? 

I beg that you will examine these questions carefully. After considerable 
experience, I see no effective way of circumventing the trouble other than that 
Nejd and ’Iraq should both admit the principle of the surrender of criminals, and 
that criminals having perpetrated a crime in their country should be prevented 
from seeking refuge into the other country. Measures based on any other prin- 
ciple would not, in my opinion, shut the door on the dissensions of which we all 
complain ; and I ask that this statement of mine should be put on record bo that 
it may be referred to in the future, and so as to set my conscience at rest in case 
such incidents, of the kind which we deplore and would prevent with all our efforts, 
were to recur. 


Usual respects. 

’Ajvdu’l-’Aziz nix Annu’n-RAiiMAN ibn Sa’ud. 


Sir Gilbert Clayton, K.B.E . , etc., His Britannic Majesty’s Commissioner and Ple- 
nipotentiary, to His Highness ’Abdul-’ Aziz ibn ’ Abdv’r-Ttahinfn al-Faisal 
Al Sa’nd, Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies. 


Ba^ra Camp, 

20lh October 1925, 

Your Highness, 

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of Your Highness’ communication 
of 1st Rabi’ Thani (19th October 1925) and I note that Your Highness is of opi- 
nion that no agreement is likely to establish security on the frontier and put a 
stop to raiding which is not based oil the principle that either Government at 
tlie request of the other Government should return, if Accessary by force, any 
tribes or portions of tribes which may cross over into its territory. 



1'KKSIAN GULF— Ncjd— NO. Y— 1925, 210 

2. As I have repeatedly informed Your Highness in our conversations, the 
’Iraq Government is unable to subscribe to this principle,, which it deems contrary 
to Arab traditions and impracticable of execution. I have also informed lour 
Highness that His Majesty's Government, after careful consideration of the facts 
and of the views put forward by Your Highness and on your behalf in the past, 
have readied the same conclusion. That being so, I regrot that I am unable to 
adopt the principle which yon recommend. 

3. On the other hand, I would point out to Your Highness that the draft 
Agreement which I presented to you recently goes far towards meeting your own 
views in the matter, and that in drafting it I have endeavoured as far as possible 
to reconcile conflicting opinions. It is based on what, in the view of His Majesty’s 
Government, is just and fair to ’Iraq and Ncjd and to the tribes concerned ; and 
I feel sure that, provided it is loyally carried out, peace and stability on the bor- 
der ought to prevail, and that any disputes arising from the aggressions of tribes, 
even in such complicated instances as those mentioned by Your Highness, will 
he capable of settlement without real difficulty by the two Governments of ’Iraq 
and Ncjd acting in sincere co-operation. 

4. With regard to Your Highness’ misgivings as t-o the efficacy of an agree- 
ment such as I have proposed, I rely with full confidence on Your Highness’ re- 
peated assurances of good-will and sincere desire for peace and order on the fron- 
tier. 

I have, etc., 

Gilbert Clayton. 


Sir Gilbert Clayton, K.B.E., eta., II is Britannic, Majesty's Commissioner and Ple- 
nipotentiary, to Ilis Highness ’Abdu’l-Aziz ibn 'Abrht’r-Rahman al-Faisal Al 
tja’ud, Stilfan of Ncjd and of its Dependencies. 

Bahra, 31st October 1925. 

Your. Highness, 

I have the honour to recall that in one of our recent conversations I spoke to 
Your Highness about the necessity of settling the question of loot and losses re ■ 
suiting from past raids by tribes from ’Iraq and Ncjd, and wc agreed that it would 
be necessary to lay down general principles and formulate a procedure for the 
satisfactory settlement of this question. 

2. In accordance with our agreement, Taufiq Bey Suwaidi, the ’Iraq repre- 
sentative, has discussed the question with Sheikh Hafiz and Sheikh Yusuf, and 
they have come to a preliminary agreement on the subject. I have the honour, 
therefore, to request that Your Highness may, if you see fit, signify to me your 
concurrence in the following proposals : — 

(a) That the ’Uqnir Conference should be taken as the starting point for 
reckoning the losses claimed respectively by ’Iraq and Ncjd on ac- 
eouut of the raids which have taken place between that Conference 



220 PERSIAN GULP — Nejd — NO. V— 1925. 

and the date of ratification by the ’Iraq Government of the Bahra 
Agreement. 

(b) That the tribunal provided for in Article 2 of the Bahra Agreement should 

be charged with the task of enquiring into the claims of both sides 
and of assessing compensation due for the losses resulting from raids 
taking place during the above-mentioned period, without prejudice 
to the other duties which this tribunal will have to perform in the 
future. 

(c) That this tribunal should be assembled and should meet within a period 

not exceeding six months from the date of the ratification of the Bahra 
Agreement by the Government of ’Iraq in accordance with their con- 
stitutional laws. 

I have, etc., 

Gilbert Clayton. 


His Highness ’ Abdu'l- Aziz ibn ’ Abdu'r-Rahman al-Faisal Al Sand, Sultan of 
Nejd and its Dependencies, to Sir Gilbert Clayton, K.B.E., etc., His Britannic 
Majesty's Commissio7icr and Plenipotentiary. 


Translation. 

14lli Rabi ’ Thani 1344. 
( 1st November 1925.) 


Respects, 

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated the 31st Octo- 
ber 1925, relating to losses and loot. I fully endorse the agreement arrived at 
between Sheikh Hafiz? Wahba and Sheikh Yusuf Yasin and Taufiq Bey Suwaidi. 
Compliments. 

’Abdu’l-’ Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Sa’ud. 


Sir Gilbert Clayton , K.B.E., etc.. His Britannia Majesty's Commissioner and Pleni- 
potentiary, to His Highness 'Abdu'l-Aziz ibn ’ Abdu’r-Rahnan al-Faisal Al 
Sa’ud, Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies. 

Bahra Camp, 

1st November 1925. 

Your Highness, 

I have the honour to inform Your Highness that I am instructed by His Ma- 
jesty’s Government that the Agreement which has been concluded between Your 
Highness and myself in regard to certain frontier questions which were outstand- 
ing between the Governments of Nejd and of ’Iraq, and which was duly signed 
on. the 1st November 1925, cannot become operative until it has been formally 
ratified by the Government of ’Iraq. 



221 


PERSIAN GULF — Nejd — NOS. V & VI — 1925. 

( - ✓ - ■ ■ ' 

The Agreement will be transmitted without delay by His Majesty s Govern- 
ment to the Government of ’Iraq with a request for early ratification,' and the 
date of that ratification will be notified in due course by His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment to Your Highness as the date on which the aforesaid Agreement will come 
into operation. 

I shall be grateful if Your Highness will kindly acknowledge recoipt of this 
letter. 


I have, etc., 
Gilbert Clayton. 


His Highness Sultan ’Abdu’l-’Aziz ibn ’ Abdu’r-Rahman al-Faisal Al Sa’ud, Sultan 
of Nejd and its Dependencies, to Sit Gilbert Clayton , K.B.E., etc., IHs Britan- 
nic Majesty’s Commissioner and Plenipotentiary, 

Translation. 

15tli Rabi’ Thani 13d4. 

{2nd November 1925.) 

Your Excellency, 

Respects. 

I beg to acknowledge your letter dated 1st November 1925, relating to the 
date on which the Traq-Nejd Agreement is to come into force, and to say that 
this has been noted. Respects. 


’Abbu’l-’Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r-Raiiman ibn Sa’ud. 


No. VI. 

THE HADDA AGREEMENT. 

Agreement between the British Government and the Sultan of Nejd for 
fixing the frontier between Nejd and Trans-Jordan and for settling certain 
questions connected therewith, — 1925. 

The High British Government on its own part and His Highness ’Abdu’l • 
Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r-Rahman al-Faisal Al Sa’ud, Sultan of Nejd and its Dependen- 
cies on behalf of the Government of Nejd, on his part, in view of the friendly rela- 
tions which exist between them, being desirous of fixing the frontier between Nejd 
and Trans- Jordan and of settling certain questions connected therewith, The High 
British Government have named and appointed Sir Gilbert Clayton, K.B.E., C.B., 
C.M.G., as their Commissioner and Plenipotentiary, to conclude an Agreement 
for this purpose with Sultan ’Abdu’l-’Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r-Rahman al-F&isal Al Sa’ud 
on behalf of Nejd. 



222 PERSIAN GfJLF — Ncjd, — NO. VI— 1925. 

In virtue of which the said Sultan ’Abdu’I-’Aziz ihn ’Abdu’r-Rahman al-Faml 
A1 Sa’ud and the said Sir Gilbert Clayton, have agreed upon and concluded the 
following Articles ; — • 


Article 1. 

The frontier between Ncjd and Trans-Jordan starts in the north-east from 
the point of intersection of meridian 39° E and parallel 32°N, which marks the 
termination of the frontier between Ncjd and ’Iraq, and proceeds in a straight 
line to the point of intersection of meridian 37°E and parallel 31°30'N, and thence 
along meridian 37°E to the point of its intersection with parallel 31°25'N. From 
this point, it proceeds in a straight line to the point of intersection of meridian 
38°E and parallel 30°N, leaving all projecting edges of the Wadi Sirhan in Ncjd 
territory ; and thence proceeds along meridian 3S°E to the point of its intersection 
with parallel 2 ( J°35'N. 

The Map referred to in this Agreement is that known as the “ International ” 
Asia Map, 1 : 1,000,000, 

Article 2. 

The Government of Nejd undertake not to establish any fortified post at Kaf 
or utilise Kaf or the district in its neighbourhood as a military centre ; and should 
they at any time consider it necessary to take exceptional measures in the neigh- 
bourhood of the frontier with a view to the maintenance of order or for any other 
purpose, involving the concentration of armed forces, they engage to notify His 
Majesty’s Government without delay. 

The Government of Ncjd undertake to prevent, by all the means at their dis- 
posal, any incursions by their forces into the territory of Trans-Jordan. 


Article 3. 

In order to avoid misunderstanding over incidents which may arise in the 
neighbourhood of the frontier, and to promote mutual confidence and full co- 
operation between His Majesty’s Government and the Government of Nejd, the 
two parties agree to maintain constant communication between the Chief British 
Representative in Trans-Jordan or his delegate and the Governor of the Wadi 
Sirhan. 


Article 4. 

The Government of Nejd undertake to maintain all established rights that 
may be enjoyed in the Wadi Sirhan by tribes not under their jurisdiction, 
whether such rights appertain to grazing or to habitation, or to ownership, 
or the like ; it being understood that those tribes, so long as they reside within 
Nejd territory, will bo subject to such internal laws as do not infringe those 
rights. 



PERSIAN GULF — Nejd — NO. VI — 1925. 223 

The Government of Trans- Jordan undertake to extend identical treatment 
to Nejd subjects who may enjoy similar established rights in Trans-Jordan tern- 
tory. 

Article 5. 

The Governments of Nejd and Trans-Jordan severally recognise that raiding 
by tribes settled in their territories into the territory of the other State is an ag- 
gression which necessitates the severe punishment of the perpetrators by the Gov- 
ernment to which they are subject, and that the chief of the tribe committing 
such aggression is to be held responsible. 

Article 6 

(a) A special tribunal shall bo set up, by agreement between the two Govern- 
ments of Nejd and Trans-Jordan, which shall meet from time to time to enquire 
into the particulars of any aggression committed across the frontier between the 
two States, to assess the damages and losses and to fix the responsibility. This 
tribunal shall be composed of an equal number of representatives of the Govern- 
ments of Nejd and Trans-Jordan, and its presidency shall be entrusted to an addi- 
tional person, other than the aforesaid representatives, to be selected by the two 
Governments in agreement. The decision of this tribunal shall bo final and exe- 
cutory. 

(b) When the tribunal has fixed the responsibility, assessed the damages and 
losses resulting from the raid, and issued its decision in that respect, the Govern- 
ment to whom those found guilty are subject shall execute the aforesaid decision 
in accordance with tribal customs, and shall punish the guilty party in accordance 
with Article 5 of the present Agreement. 

Article 7. 

Tribes subject to one of the two. Governments may not cross the frontier into 
the territory of the other Government except after obtaining a permit from their 
own Government and after the concurrence of the other Government ; it being 
stipulated, however, in accordance with the principle of the freedom of grazing, 
that neither Government shall have the right to withhold such permit or con- 
currence if the migration of the tribe is due to grazing necessities. 


Article 8. 

The two Governments of Nejd and Trans-Jordan undertake to stand in the 
way, by all the means at their disposal other than expulsion and the use. of force, 
of the emigration of any tribe or section of a tribe from one of the two countries 
into the other unless its emigration takes place until the knowledge and consent 
of its Government. The two Governments undertake to abstain from offering 
any present of whatsoever kind to refugees from the territories of the other Gov- 
ernment, and to look with disfavour on any of their subjects who may seek to 



PERSIAN GULP— Nejd— NO. YI— 1925. 


224 

entice tribes belonging to tbe other Government or to encourage them to emigrate 
from their country into the other country. 

Article 9. 

The Governments of Ncjd and Trans-Jordan may not correspond with the 
Chiefs and Sheikhs of tribes subject to the other State on official or political 
matters. 

Article 10. 

The forces of Nejd and Trans-Jordan may not cross the common frontier in 
pursuit of offenders, except with the consent of both Governments. 

Article 11. 

Sheikhs of tribes who hold an official position or who have flags showing that 
they are the leaders of armed forces may not display their flags in the territory 
of the other State. 

Article 12. 

Free passage will be granted by the Governments of Nejd and Trans-Jordan 
to travellers and pilgrims, provided they conform to those regulations affecting 
travel and pilgrimage which may be in force in Nejd and Trans-Jordan. Each 
Government will inform the other of any regulation issued by it in this matter. 

Article 13. 

His Britannic Majesty’s Government undertake to secure freedom of transit 
at all times to merchants who are subjects of Nejd for the prosecution of their 
trade between Nejd and Syria in both directions : and to secure exemption from 
customs and other duty for all merchandise in transit which may cross the Man- 
dated Territory on its way from Nejd to Syria or from Syria to Nejd, on condi- 
tion that such merchants and their caravans shall submit to whatever Customs 
inspection may be necessary, and that they shall be in possession of a document 
from their Government certifying that they are bond fide merchants ; and pro- 
vided that trading caravans carrying merchandise will follow established routes, 
to be agreed upon hereafter, for' their entry into and this exit from the Mandated 
Territory ; it being understood that the above restrictions will not apply to trad- 
ing caravans whose trade is confined to camels and other animals, or to tribes 
migrating in accordance with the preceding Articles of the present Agreement. 

Iiis Britannic Majesty’s Government further undertake to secure such other 
facilities as may be possible to merchants who are subjects of Nejd and who may 
cross the area, under British Mandate. 

Article 14. 

This Agreement will remain in force for so long as His Britannic Majesty’s 
Government are entrusted with the Mandate of Trans-Jordan. 



PERSIAN GULP — Nejd — NO. VI— 1925; 225 


Artiom 15. 

The present Agreement has been drawn up in the two languages, English and 
Arabic, and each of the high contracting parties shall sign two English copies 
and two Arabic copies. Both texts shall have the same validity, but in case of 
divergence between the two in the interpretation of one or other of the Articles 
of the present Agreement, the English text shall prevail. 

Article 16. 

The present Agreement will be known as the Hadda Agreement. 

Signed at Balira Camp on the 2nd November 1925 (corresponding to the 15th 
Rabi’ Tliani 1344). 

Gilbert Clayton. 

’Abdu’l-’Aziz. 


Correspondence relating to the Hadda Agreement. 

His Highness ’ Abdu’l-Aeis ihn ’ Abdu’r-Rahnan al-Faisal Al Sa’ud, Sultan oj Nejd 
and its Dependencies, to Sir Gilbert Clayton, K.B.E., etc,, His Britannic Ma- 
jesty’s Commissioner and Plenipotentiary. 

Translation. 

Bahra, 

14th, Rabi ’ Tliani 1344. 

(1st November 1925.) 


Your Excellency, 

In the Agreement relating to Trans-Jordan and Nejd provision is made for 
an undertaking on our part not to fortify Kaf or to make it a military centre. In 
one of our conversations, I asked Your Excellency to elucidate the meaning of 
“ fortifications ”, and you explained that the construction of a wall round the 
villages concerned, according to the custom prevailing in the desert for the pre- 
vention of thefts and raids, as well as the construction of a military barracks for 
the housing of Public Security troops aud the placing of a gun or a few machine- 
guns according to the requirements of public security, would not be considered 
as being fortifications of the kind which we undertook to abstain from erecting 
but that such works would be considered as necessary for the preservation of order. 
The object of the present letter is to obtain dear confirmation of that from Your 
Excellency so that we should be perfectly explicit about our undertakings and 
leave no room for such misconstructions as might arise from the intrigues of mis- 
chief-makers. Respects. 

’Abdd’l-’Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r-Raiiman ibn Sa'ud. 

r 2 



226 . PERSIAN GULF — Nejd — NO, VI— 1925. 

' 

Sir Oilbert Clayton , K.B.E., cU\, His Britannic Majesty’s Commissioner and Pleni- 
potentiary, to His Highness ’Abdu’l-’ Aziz ibn ’ Abdu’r-Rahnan al-Faisal 
Al Sa’ud, Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies. 

Bahra Camp, 

2nd November 1925. 

Your Highness, 

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 14th Rabi’ Thani 
1344 (1st November 1925) relating to the interpretation of Article 2 of the Hadda 
Agreement. 

In reply to Your Highness’ enquiry, I would confirm the verbal statement I 
made in a recent conversation with Your Highness, namely, that it is difficult 
for anyone to define, fully and in detail, what is to be understood by the word 
“ fortification ” in such a manner as to cover all possible eventualities ; and that 
the best interpretation of that Article would be that which conforms to the spirit 
as to the letter of the Agreement, and rests on a sincere execution of its terms. 
For instance, if you desire to erect a wall, as is usual, or barracks for Public Secu- 
rity men other than military forces, or a small gun or a few machine-guns intended 
to repel brigands and aggressors, it will undoubtedly be open to you to do so, pro- 
vided such preparations do not exceed the bounds of what is required for the main- 
tenance of order, and do not constitute, in the judgment of the British military 
authorities, a menace to Trans-Jordan. 

I have, etc., 

Gilbert Clayton. 


His Highness Sultan ’Abdu’l- Aziz ibn ’Abdu’r-Rahnan al-Faisal Al Sa’ud, Sultan 
of Nejd and its Dependencies, to Sir Gilbert Clayton, K.B.E., etc., His Britannic 
Majesty’s Commissioner and Plenipotentiary. 

Translation. 

Baiira Camp, 

15th Rabi’ Thani 1344. 

(2nd November 1925.) 

Your Excellency, 

With reference to the discussions which have taken place concerning traders 
who are subjects of Trans-Jordan, I am not aware of'an established and customary 
road used for passage through the Wadi Sirhan by traders from Trans-Jordan. 
Should it appear, however, that subjects of Trans-Jordan have an established 
and acknowledged right, recognised by those who are expert in such matters, to 
ply their trade from Syria and Trans-Jordan to the southern portions of Trans- 
jordan by way of the Wadi Sirhan, then we hereby undertake to extend to them 
the same treatment as is extended to subjects of Nejd by the Government of Trans- 
Jordan in their transit to and from Syria. 

’Abdu’l-’Aziz ibn -’Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Sa’ud. 



1‘JSRSlAN GULF— tiejd— NO. VII— 1927. 22 1 

// - " 

. No. Y^. 

Treaty of Jeddah, — 1927. 

• < 

Treaty between tiie British Government and His Majesty the Nino of 
the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies, together with Notes 
exchanged. 

Signed at Jeddah, May 20th, 1927. 

(Ratifications exchanged at Jeddah, September 17lh, 192 / .) 

His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions 
beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, on the one part ; and 

His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies, on the 
other part ; 

Being desirous of confirming and strengthening the friendly relations which 
exist between them and of consolidating their respective interests, have resolved 
to conclude a treaty of friendship and good understanding, for which purpose 
His Britannic Majesty has appointed as his plenipotentiary Sir Gilbert Falking- 
lvam Clayton, and His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Depen- 
dencies has appointed His Boyal Highness the Amir Faisal ibn Abdul-Aziz, his 
son and Viceroy in the Hejaz, ns his plenipotentiary. 

His Highness the Amir Faisal ibn Abdul-Aziz and Sir Gilbert Fnlldngham 
Clayton, having examined their credentials and found them to be in good and 
due form, have accordingly agreed upon and concluded the following articles : — 

Article 1. 

His Britannic Majesty recognises the complete and absolute independence 
of the dominions of His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Depen- 
dencies. 


Article 2. 

There shall be peace and friendship between His Britannic Majesty and His 
Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies. Each of the 
high contracting parties undertakes to maintain good relations with the other 
and to endeavour by all the means at its disposal to prevent his territories being 
used as a base for unlawful activities directed against peace and tranquillity in 
the territories of the other party. 


Article 3. 

His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies under- 
takes that the performance of the pilgrimage will be facilitated to British subjects 
and British-protected persons of the Moslem faith to the same extent as to other 
•pilgrims, and announces that they will be safe as regards their property and their 
person during their stay in the Hejaz. 



228 PERSIAN GULF — Ncjd — NO. Vil— 1927. 

Article 4. 

His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies under- 
lakes that the property of the aforesaid pilgrims who may die within the territories 
of His Majesty and who have no lawful trustee in those territories shall be handed 
over to the British Agent in Jeddah or to such authority as he may npppint for 
the purpose, to be forwarded by him to the rightful heirs bf'the deceased pilgrims ; 
provided that the property shall not be handed over to the British representative 
until the formalities of the competent tribunals have been complied with and 
the dues prescribed under Hejazi or Ncjdi laws have been duly collected. 

Article 5. 

His Britannic Majesty recognises the national (Hejazi or Nejdi) status of all 
subjects of His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies 
who may at any time be within the territories of His Britannic Majesty or terri- 
tories under the protection of His Britannic Majesty. 

Similarly, His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependen- 
cies recognises the national (British) status of all subjects of His Britannic Majesty 
and of all persons enjoying the protection of His Britannic Majesty who may 
at any time be within the teriitories of His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and 
of Nejd and its Dependencies ; it being understood that the principles of inter- 
national law in force between independent Governments shall be respected. 

Article G. 

His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies under- 
takes to maintain friendly and peaceful relations with the territories of Kuwait 
and Bahrain, and with the Sheikhs of Qatar and the Oman Coast, who are in 
special treaty relations with His Britannic Majesty's Government. 

Article 1 . 

His Majesty the King of the Hejaz and of Nejd and its Dependencies under- 
takes to co-operate by all the means at his disposal with His Britannic Majesty 
in the suppression of the slave trade. 

Article 8. 

The present treaty shall be ratified by each of the high contracting patties 
and the ratifications exchanged as soon as possible. It shall come into force 
on the day of the exchange of ratifications and shall be binding during seven years 
from that date. In case neither of the high contracting parties shall have given 
notice to the other six months before the expiration of the said period of seven 
years of bin intention to terminate the treaty it shall remain in force and shall 
not be held to have terminated until the expiration of six months from the date 
on which either of the parties shall have given notice of the termination to the 
other party. 



EEUSf AN GULF — Nejd — NO. Vli— 1927. 229 

Article 9. 

Tlio treaty concluded between His Britannic Majesty and His Majesty the 
King o£ tlic Hejaz and ol' Nejd and its Dependencies (then Euler of Nejd and its 
then Dependencies) on the 2Gth December, 1915, shall cease to have effect as 
from the date on which the present treaty is ratified. 

Article 10. 

The present treaty has been drawn up in English and Arabic. Both texts 
shall be of equal validity ; but in case of divergence in the interpretation of any 
part of the treaty the English text shall prevail. 

Article 11. 

The present treaty shall bo known as the Treaty of Jeddah. 

Signed at Jeddah on Friday, May 20th, 1927 (corresponding to the 18th Zul 
Qa’da, 1315). 

Gilbert Falkingiiam Clayton. 

Faisal Abdul- Aziz Al Saud. 


( 1 ) 

Sir G. Clayton to His Majesty the King of the Ilejaz and of Nejd and its Dependen- 
cies. 

Your Majesty, 

I have the honour to remind your Majesty that, in the course of our negotia- 
tions, which have happily resulted in the conclusion of a treaty of friendship and 
good understanding between His Britannic Majesty and Your Majesty, the ques- 
tion of the frontier between the Hejaz and Trans-Jordan was discussed, and I 
explained to your Majesty the position, as defined in a draft protocol submitted 
by me to you, which His Majesty’s Government have taken up on this question 
and to which they must adhere. 

His Majesty’s Government regard the above-mentioned frontier as being de- 
fined as follows : — 

“ The frontier between the Hejaz and Trans-Jordali starts from the inter- 
section of meridian 38° E. and parallel 29° 35' N. which marks the termination 
of the frontier between Nejd and Trans-Jordan, and proceeds in a straight line 
to a point on the PIcjaz Railway 2 miles south of Mudawwara. From this point 
it proceeds in a straight line to a point on the Gulf of Aqaba 2 miles south of 
the town of Aqaba.” 

Respects. 

Gilbert Clayton, 

His Britannic Majesty’s Commissioner and 

Plenipotentiary. 

Jeddah, May 19th, 1927 ( lSlh Zul Qa’da , 1MJ). 



230 


PERSIAN GULF — Ncjd — NO. VII— 1927. 


(2) 

dbdul-Aziz ibn Abdul-Rahman al Faisal al Saiul lo His Britannic Majesty’s Com- 
missioner and Plenipotentiary. 

{Translation.) 

In reply to your letter dated tlic IStli Zul Qa’da, 1345, on the subject of the 
Hejaz-Trans- Jordan frontier, we note that His Majesty’s Government adhere to 
their position, but we find it impossible, in the present circumstances, to effect 
a final settlement of this question. Nevertheless, in view of our true desire to 
maintain cordial relations based on solid ties of friendship, we desire to express 
to your Excellency our willingness to maintain the status quo in the Ma’an-Aqaba 
district, and we promise not to interfere in its administration until favourable 
circumstances will permit a final settlement of this question. 

Respects. 

Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdul-Rahman Al-Saud. 

19th Zul Qa’da, 1345 (May 21st, 1927). 


( 3 ) 

Sir G. Clayton lo His Majesty the King of the Hcjaz and of Nejd and its Dependen- 
cies. 

Your Majesty, 

In continuation of our conversations relating to the question of the slave trade 
I have the honour to inform your Majesty that His Britannic Majesty’s Govern- 
ment feel it their duty to abstain at present from renouncing the right of manu- 
mitting slaves, which has long been practised by His Majesty’s consular officers, 
and which enables them to liberate any slave who presents himself of his own 
free choice with a request for liberation and repatriation to his country of origin. 

I wish to assure Your Majesty that His Britannic Majesty’s Government’s 
insistence on this right is not intended to mean any interference in the affairs of 
your Government or any infringement of your Majesty’s sovereignty ; but that 
it is due to His Britannic Majesty’s Government’s resolve to carry out a duty 
which they owe to humanity. I would add that His Britannic Majesty’s Govern- 
ment will be prepared to consider the abolition of the right of manumission as 
soon as it becomes clear to both parties that the co-operation stipulated in article 
8 of the Treaty of Jeddah has resulted in the enforcement of such practical mea- 
sures as to render the exercise of the right of manumission no longer necessary. 

I trust that your Majesty will appreciate the attitude of His Britannic Majesty’s 
Government in this matter and that you will see fit to acquiesce in the procedure 
which I have described above. 

Respects. 

Gilbert Clayton, 

His Britannic Majesty’s Commissioner and 

Plenipotentiary. 

Jeddah, May 19th, 1927 (13th Zul Qa’da, 1315). 



PERSIAN GULF— Ne/rf— NO. V it— 1927. 231 

{i) 

Abdul-Adz Urn Abdul-Bahman cl Faisal al Saud to His Britannic Majesty's Com- 
missioner and Plenipotentiary. 

( Translation .) 

In reply to Your Excellency's letter No. 2, dated the 18th Zul Qa da, 13-15 
(May 19th. 1927), relating to the manumission of slaves, I am confident that the 
British scent at Jeddah will always act in accordance with the spirit in which our 
agreement was arrived at, and that he. will not permit any confusion as this might 
have undesirable effects on the administrative and economic aspects of this ques- 
tion. 

Respects. 

Ar mu.- Am ms Audul-Rahmax Al Saud. 
19ll Zul OF da, 1345 {May 21st, 1927). 


(3) 

Sir G. Clayton to llis Majesty the King of the lleja: and of Ncjd and its Dependen- 
cies 

Your. Majesty, 

With reference to the proposal put forward by Your Majesty for the inclu- 
sion in the treaty of an article providing that His Britannic Majesty’s Govern- 
ment should take no measures to prevent the purchase and importation of what- 
ever arms, war material, ammunition, machines or implements which the Gov- 
ernment of the He jar. and Ncjd may require for their own use, I have the honour 
to inform Yonr Majesty that His Britannic Majesty’s Government are of the 
opinion that this is a question which need not be dealt with in the body of the 
main treaty. 

I am, however, empowered by His Britannic Majesty’s Government to inform 
Your Majesty that the embargo on the export of war materials to Arabia has been 
removed, and that, if Your Majesty should see fit to place orders for arms, am- 
munition and war material with British manufacturers, in accordance with the 
conditions set forth in the Arms Traffic Convention (1925), for the use of the Gov- 
ernment of the Hejaz and Nejd, His Britannic Majesty’s Government will not 
prevent the export thereof or place, any obstacle to their importation into Your 
Majesty’?, territories. 

I shall endeavour, in answer to Your Majesty’s desire, to present Your Majesty 
with a copy of the convention referred to above as soon as mav be. 

Respects. 

Gii.t?ep.t Claytox, 

//is Britannic Majesty’s Commissioner and 

Plenipotentiary. 


Jeddah , May Wlh, 1927 {ISllt Zul Qn’da, 1345). 



232 PERSIAN GULP — Ncjd — NO. VII— 1927. 

(G) 

Abdul- Aziz ibn Abdul- Rahman al Faisal al Sand lo Ills Britannic Majesty's Com- 
missioner and Plenipotentiary. 

(Translation.) 

In reply to your letter dated the ISth Zul Qa’da, 1345 (May 19th, 1927), re- 
lating to arms, I wish to thank you for your statement which makes it clear that 
the importation of arms into Arabia is not prohibited. 

Respects. 

Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdul-Raiiiian Al Saud. 

19th Zid Qa’da, 1315 (May 21st, 1927). 


(?) 

Sir G. Clayton lo Ills Majesty the King of tlic Hejaz and of Ncjd and its Dependen- 
cies. 

Your Majesty, 

With reference to article 4 of the Treaty of Jeddah, I have the honour to con- 
firm the statements I made to Your Majesty in the course of our conversations, 
in which I stated that the sole object of the insertion of that article in the treaty 
is, first, to establish the present procedure formally, and, secondly, to furnish His 
Britannic Majesty’s Government with such assurances as might enable them to 
bring that procedure to the notice of all Moslems in British territories. 

I wish, moreover, to assure Your Majesty that the presence of that article 
in the treaty does not affect and will not be interpreted as affecting the proce- 
dure relating to the belongings of deceased persons other than pilgrims, which 
remain subject to the rules of reciprocity which are the basis of the usual practice 
between independent countries. 

Respects. 

Gilbert Clayton, 

His Britannic Majesty’s Commissioner and 

Plenipotentiary. 

Jeddah, May 19th, 1927 (. tSth Zul Qa’da, 1345). 


( 8 ) 

Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdiil-llaJtman al Faisal al Sand lo His Britannic Majesty’s Com- 
missioner and Plenipotentiary. 

( Translation .) 

In reply to your letter dated the 18th Zul Qa’da, 1345 (May 19th, 1927), re- 
lating to the disposal of the belongings of our subjects in your territories and 



Persian gule— a t cjVI— no. vii — 1927 & Bahrain-— no. viil— is2o. 233 

' - 

your subjects in our territories, I wish to assure Your Excellency that the proce- 
dure will be, as you state, in accordance with international practice, by v hicli 
wc mean that the belongings will be entrusted to our tribunals, who will hand 
them over to the British agent after the legal formalities and the collection of 
the dues, and that, mulalis mutandis, the belongings of those of our subject who 
may die in British territories will be handed over to us by the British Agent at 
Jeddah. 

Respects. 

Audul-Aziz ibn Abdul-Raiiman Al Saud. 

■lOllt Zvl Qa'da , 1345 ( May 20th, 1927). 


No. VIII. 

Translation of the Preliminary Treaty with the Sheikhs of Bahrain, — 1S20. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate ! 

Know all men there hath come into the presence of General Sir AYilliam Grant 
Keir the Saeed Abdool Jalil, Vakeel on the part of the Sheikhs Suleiman bin Ahmed 
and Abdulla bin Ahmed, and there have passed between the General and the said 
Abdool Jalil, on the part of the above named, the following stipulations : — 

Article 1. 

That the Sheikhs shall not permit from henceforth, in Bahrein or its depen- 
dencies, the sale of any commodities which have been procured by means of plunder 
and piracy, nor allow their people to sell anything of any kind whatsoever to such 
persons as may be engaged in the practice of plunder and piracy ; and if any of 
their people shall act contrary hereto, it shall be equivalent to an act of piracy 
on the part of such individuals. 


Article 2. 

That they shall deliver up all the Indian prisoners who may be in their pos- 
session. 


Article 3. 

The Sheikhs Suleiman bin Ahmed and Abdulla bin Ahmed shall be admitted 
to the terms of the general Treaty with the friendly Arabs. End of the Articles. 

Issued at Shan/ah in triplicate on Saturduy, the twentieth of the month of liabc- 
ool-Thany, in the year of (he Ilcgira one thousand two hundred and thirty-five, corre- 
sponding to the fifth of February one thousand eight hundred and twenty. 

W. G. Keir, 
Major-General. 



234 


PERSIAN GULF — Bahrain — NOS. IX— 1856 & X— 1861. 


The above articles accepted by me in quality of Yakeel of the Sheikh named 
above. 


Saeed Abdool Jalil bin Saeed Yasai. Tabatabay. 


No. IX. 

Translation of a further Engagement entered into by Sheikh Mahomed bin 
Khaleefa, with the British Government, for the more effectual suppres- 
sion of the Slave Trade, — 1856. 

It having been notified to me by Captain Jones, Resident in the Persian Gulf, 
that an article was omitted to be inserted in the Conventions entered into by the 
Maritime Chiefs of the Arabian Coast and Oman with the British Government 
for the purpose of prohibiting the importation of, and traffic in, slaves, which Con- 
vention on my part bears date the 22nd Jumadee-ool-awal 1263 A.H.=8th May 
1847, accordingly, I, Sheikh Mahomed bin Khaleefa, Chief of Bahrein, do hereby 
engage and bind myself (purely out of friendship to the Sircar, and to assist it 
in effectually attaining the object it desires) to put into execution the said Article. 

The article is this : — 

Whensoever it shall become known and certain that from any quarter what- 
soever slaves have been brought to my territories, or to any places subject to 
my authority, I, of my own free will and accord, will seize the said slaves and 
deliver them over to the British vessels of war. Further, should it be ascertained 
that slaves have been carried in any of my vessels or in the vessels of people, my 
subjects, or dependents, and it should happen that the Government cruizers did 
not fall in with the said vessels then, no matter where the slaves have been landed, 
do I hereby bind myself to place an embargo upon the delinquent boat and her 
Nakhoda until such time as instructions have been received from the Resident 
at Bushire regarding them. 

Dated this 15th day of Ramzan, A. H. 1272 (or 10th day of May 1S56 A.D.) 

Sheikh Mahomed bin Khaleefa. 

A similar engagement was entered into by the Trucial Shaikhs of Rasool 
Kheirmar, Uramool Keirweyn, Debay, Ejman and Aboo Dhebbee. 


No. X. 

Terms of a friendly Convention entered into between Sheikh Mahomed bin 
Khuleefa, independent Ruler of Bahrain, on the part of himself and 
successors, and Captain Felix Jones, Her Majesty’s Indian Navy, 
Political Resident of Her Britannic Majesty in the Gulf of Persia, 
on the part of the British Government, — 1861. 

Preliminary. — Considering the tribe disorders which arise and are perpetu- 
ated from maritime aggressions in the Persian Gulf, I, Sheikh Mahomed bin 



PERSIAN GULP — Bahrain — NO. X — 1861. 235 

- ..■***' ~ 

Klmleefa, independent ruler of Bahrein, on my own part and on that of my heira 
and successors, in the presence of the Chiefs and elders who arc witnesses to this 
document, do subscribe and agree to a perpetual Treaty of peace and friendship 
with the British Government, having for its object the advancement of trade and 
the security of all classes of people navigating or residing upon the coasts of this 
sea : — 

Article I. 

I recognize as valid and in force all former Treaties and Conventions agreed 
to between the Chiefs of Bahrein and the British Government, either direct or 
through the mediation of its representatives in this Gulf. 


Article 2. . 

I agree to abstain from all maritime aggressions of ever)' description, from 
the prosecution of war, piracy, and slavery by sea, so long as I receive the support 
of the British Government in the maintenance of the security of my own posses- 
sions against similar aggressions directed against them by tbc Chiefs and tribes 
of this Gvdf, 


Article 3. 

In order that the above engagements may be fulfilled I agree to make known 
all aggressions and depredations which may be designed, or have place at sea, 
against myself, territories, or subject, as early as possible, to tlie British Resi- 
dent in the Persian Gulf, as the arbitrator in such cases, promising that no act of 
aggression or retaliation shall he committed at sea by Bahrcius or in tlie name 
of Bahrein, by myself or others under me, on other tribe, without bis consent or 
that of the Britisli Government, if it should bo necessary to procure it. And the 
British Resident engages that he will forthwith take the necessary steps for ob- 
taining reparation for every injury proved to have been inflicted, or in course of 
infliction by sea upon Bahrein or upon its dependencies in this Gulf. In like 
manner, I, Sheikh Mahomed bin Khuleefa, will afford full redress for all mari- 
time offences, which in justice can be charged against my subjects or myself, as 
the ruler of Bahrein. 


Article 4. 

British subjects of every denomination, it is understood, may reside in, and 
carry on their lawful trade in tlie territories of Bahrein, their goods being sub- 
ject only to an ad valorem duty of 5 per cent, in casli or in kind. This amount 
once paid shall not be demanded again on the same goods if exported from 
Bahrein to other places : and in respect to the treatment of British subjects and 
dependants they shall receive the treatment and consideration of the subjects and 
dependants of the most favoured people. All offences which they may commit, or 
which may be committed against thorn, shall be reserved for the decision of tlie 



236 


PERSIAN GULF — Bahrain — NOS . X— 1861 AND XI— 1868. 


British Resident, provided the British Agent located at Bahrein shall fail to adjust 
them satisfactorily. In like manner the British Resident will use his good offices 
for the welfare of the subjects of Bahrein in the ports of the maritime Arab tribes 
of this Gulf in alliance with the British Government. 

Article 5. 

These Articles of alliance shall have effect from the date of ratification or ap- 
proval by the British Government. 

Done at Bahrein this twentieth day of Zilhad, in the year of the Hegira, 1277, 
corresponding with the thirty-first day of May 1861. 

Felix Jones, 

. Political Resident in the Persian Gulf. 

Seal of Sheikh Mahomed, Ruler of Bahrein. 

Seal of Sheikh Ali bin Khuleefa, Brother of the above. 

Elders of Bahrein and witnesses to this Convention. 

Seal of Sheikh Hamid bin Mahomed, cousin of Sheikh Mahomed. 

Seal of Sheikh Ahmed bin Mubarek, cousin op Sheikh Mahomed. 

Seal of Sheikh Khuleefa bin Mahomed, cousin of Sheikh 
Mahomed. 

Approved by His Excellency the Governor-General in Council on the 9th 
October 1SG1, and ratified by the Government of Bombay on 25th February 1862. 


No. XI. 

Translation of the Agreement entered into by Ali Bin Khuleefa, Sheikh 

of Bahrain, — 1868. 

We, the undersigned, Ali bin Khalifeh and the inhabitants and subjects of 
Bahrein in general, do hereby declare that Mahomed bin Khalifeh having repeated- 
ly committed acts of piracy and other irregularities at sea, and having now, after 
his recent piratical act, fled from Bahrein, has forfeited all claim to his title as 
principal Shaikh and Chief of Bahrein, and at the present moment there being 
no other Shaikh, I, Ali bin Khalifeh, received the Resident’s letter addressed 
to Mahomed bin Khalifeh, and have understood the demands therein made, and 
I hereby agree and accept the conditions as follows : — 

1st . — To make over to-morrow morning 19th Jcmadi-ool-awul 1285 (7th Sep- 
tember 1868), to the high in rank, Captain Brown, Commanding Her Majesty’s 
ships present, all the war buglas and bateels belonging to Mahomed bin Khalifeh 
and myself. 

2nd . — To pay the Resident the sum of one lakh of dollars in the manner spec- 
ified below 

25,000 dollars cash, payable on the spot on the 7th September 1868. 



PERSIAN GULF— Jiahram — NOS. XI— 1868 AND XII — 1880. 237 

75,000 dollars by three animal instalments of 25,000 dollars, each instalment 
being payable on the 7th September of each successive year until the total sum 
is paid up. 

3rd. — To consider Mahomed bin Khalifoh as permanently excluded from all 
participation in the affairs of Bahrein and as having no claim to that territory, 
and in case of his returning to Bahrein I promise to seize and make him over to 
the Resident. But if I do not act up to the stipulations now agreed I may be 
considered a pirate, as Mahomed bin Khalifeh himself. 

4t h . — In view of preserving the peace at sea, and precluding the occurrence 
of further disturbance, and in order to keep the Resident informed of what hap- 
pens, I promise to appoint an agent on my part at Bushire. 

Written on the ISlh Jemadi-ool-aund 12S5-6th September ISOS. 


No. XII. 

Translation of Agreement signed by the. Chief of Bahrain, dated 22nd De- 
cember 1880. 

I, Isa bin Ali A1 Khalifeh, Chief of Bahrein, hereby bind myself and successors 
in the Government of Bahrein to the British Government to abstain from entering 
into negotiations or making treaties of any sort with any State or Government 
other than the British without the consent of the said British Government, and 
to refuse permission to any other Government than the British to establish dip- 
lomatic or consular agencies or coaling depots in our territory, unless with the 
consent of the British Government. 

This engagement docs not apply to or affect the customary friendly corre- 
spondence with the local authorities of neighbouring States on business of minor 
importance. 

The above Agreement is subject to the approval and acceptance of His Ex- 
cellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in Council. 

Ira bin Alt. 

Ahmad bin Alt. 

Signed and sealed at Bahrein on the twenty-second day of December one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty in my presence. 

E. C. Ross, JAeul.-Col., 
Political Resident., Persian Gulf. 

The above Agreement was accepted and ratified by Her Britannic Maiestv’s 
Government in .1881. J 3 

E. C. Ross, Colonel, 
Political Resident., Persian Gulf. 



238 PERSIAN GULF — Bahrain — NOS. XIII— 1892 AND XIV— 1898. 

No. XIII. ' ' •' -- - 

Exclusive Agreement of the Shaikh of Bahrain with the British Government 

dated the 13th March 1892. 

I, Esau bin Ali, Chief of Bahrein, in the presence of Lieutenant-Colonel A. C, 
Talbot, C.I.E., Political Resident, Persian Gulf, do hereby solemnly bind myself 
and agree, on behalf of myself, my heirs and successors, to the following 
conditions, viz. : — 

1st . — That I will on no account enter into any agreement or correspondence 
with any Power other than the British Government. 

2nd . — That without the assent of the British Government, I will not consent 
to the residence -within my territory of the agent of any other Government. 

3rd . — That I will on no account cede, sell, mortgage or otherwise give for occu- 
pation any part of mv territory save to the British Government. 

Dated Bahrein, 13lh March 1S92, cor res ponding with 14lh Shaaban 1309. 

Esau bin Ali, 
Chief of Bahrein. 

A. C. Talbot, Lieul.-Col., 

Resident, Persian Gulj. 

LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor General of India. 

Ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India at 
Simla on the twelfth day of May 1892. 


II. M. Durand, 

Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Dept. 


No. XIV. 

Agreement with the Shaikh of Bahrain for the Suppression of Trade in Arms. 

Translation of Agreement by the Sheikh of Bahrain, dated 8th Zil Hijjah 

1315 (30th April 1898). 

I agree to absolutely prohibit the importation of arms into Bahrein territory 
or exportation therefrom, and, to enforce this, I have issued a notification and 
proclamation to all concerned. 



PERSIAN GULF — Bahrain — NOS. XV — 1912 & XVI 1914 & 'fractal 239 
Shaikhs of Oman— NO. XVII— 1S06. ____ 

No. XV. 

Undertaking by the SnMKn of Bahrain in regard to the establishment of a 
Wireless Telegraph Installation at Bahrain,— 1912. 

Dated the 3rd Rajah 1330 (Wth June 1912). 

From— S haikh Isa t>in All Al Kiialwah, Euler of Bahrain, 

To — Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox, k.c.i.e., c.s.i., Political Resident, 
Persian Gulf. 

After compliments . — With reference to our conversation regarding the open- 
ing of a telegraph in Bahrein, as desired I repeat what I have informed yon verbally, 
that if it is the intention of Government to introduce the telegraph on the Trucial 
Coast, or at Kuwait also, I am quite ready to receive it here ; and on receiving 
an assurance to the above effect I will set apart a site in consultation with the Po- 
litical Agent at Bahrein, and am willing that avotIc should begin on it forthwith, 
as soon as avc have done so. 


No. XVI. 

Undertaking by the Shaikh of Bahrain, regarding oil, — 1914. 


Translation of a letter dated tbo 18th Jamadi II 1332 (14th May 1914) from 
Shaikh Isa bin ’Ali Al Khalifah, Chief of Bahrain, to Major A.P. Trevor, 
o.i.e., Political Agent, Bahrain. 

I have received your esteemed letter No. 531, dated the 18th Jamadi II 1332 
(14th May 1914), on the subject of the possibility of obtaining kerosene oil in 
Bahrein. Just as I informed vour honour in my letter, dated the 17th Jamadi-us- 
sani 1332, that when time comes for obtaining that I will certainly consult the 
Political Agency, I do hereby repeat 1 o you that if there is any prospect of obtain- 
ing kerosene oil in my territory of Bahrein, I will not embark on the exploitation 
of that myself and will not entertain overtures from any quarter, regarding that 
without consulting the Political Agent in Bahrain and without the approval of the 
High Government. This is what had to be said. May you be preserved and. 
salams. 


No. XVII. 

Coulnamah or Agreement between Sheikh Abdulla bin Croosh, on the part 
of Sheikii-ul Mus Sheikh Ameer Sultan bin Suggur bin Kashid, Joasmee, 
and Captain David Seton, on the part of the Honourable East India 
Company. In Bunder Abbas, this sixth day of February 1806. 

Article 1. 

There shall be peace between the Honourable East India Company and Sultan 
bin Suggur, Joasmee, and the whole of his dependants and subjects on the shores 

XI 


s 



240 PERSIAN GULF — Trvcial Shaikhs of Oman— NOS. NVII— 1806 & XV 111— 
-- __ 1820. 

of Arabia and Persia, and they stall respect the flag and property of tbe Honour- 
able East India Company, and their subjects wherever and in whatever it may 
be, and the same the Honourable East India Company towards the Joasmee. 

Article 2. 

Should the Joasmee infringe the above, they shall be liable in the sum of dollars 
50,000, and on this condition Captain David Seton agrees to receive from Amir 
Sultan bin Suggur the brig now laying at Muscat, and to drop the claims to the 
cargo, guns, etc., of the said vessel and the Shannon. 

Article 3. 

Whatever British property shall be found in the Sorie fleet shall be restored. 

Article 4. 

Should any British vessel touch on the coasts of the Joasmee for wood or 
water, or be forced on shore by stress of weather, or any other cause, the Joasmee 
shall assist and protect the said vessel and property, and permit it to be disposed 
of or carried away, as their owners shall see fit, without claim or demand. 

Article 5. 

Should Johood compel the Joasmee to infringe this peaoe, they shall give 
three months’ previous notice in all places. 

Article 6. 

When the above is confirmed and ratified by both parties the Joasmee shall 
freauent the English ports from Surat to Bengal as before. 

David Seton. 

Abdullah bin Croosh. 

Signed, sealed, and confirmed. 

Sultan bin Suggur. 

Approved and sanctioned by the Governor-General in Council on 29th April 
1806. 


No. XVIII. 

Translation of the Preliminary Treaty with Sultan bin Suggur, — 1820. 
In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate ! 

Know all men that Sultan bin Suggur has been in the presence of General 
Sir William Grant Keir, and there have passed between them the following sti- 
pulations : — 

Article 1. 

Sultan bin Suggur shall surrender to the General towers, guns, and vessels 
which are in Shargah, Imam, Umm-ool-keiweyn, and their dependencies. The 



PERSIAN GULP — Truciul Shaikhs of Oman — NO. XVUI 1820. 241 

General will leave tlie boats which are for the pearl fishery and fishing boats, and 
the remainder of the vessels shall be at the disposal of the General. 

Artiole 2. 

Sultan bin Suggur shall give up all the Indian prisoners, if any such arc in 
bis possession. 


Article 3. 

The General will not allow the troops to enter the towns to lay them waste. 

Article 4. 

After the execution of these engagements, Sultan bin Suggur shall be admit- 
ted to the same terms of pence as the remainder of the friendly (“ or pacifieatcd ”) 
Arabs. 

On these conditions there is a cessation of hostilities between the Geueral 
Sultan bin Suggur and his followers, with the exception that their boats arc not 
to go to sea. 

Done at Ras-ool-Khcimah on the twentieth of Rabee-ul-Awul, in the year 1235, 
corresponding lo the sixth of Jamiary one thousand eight hundred and twenty. 


W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 

Sultan bin Suggur. 


Copy of the Articles entered into with Sultan bin Suggur. Witness my baud 
and seal. 


W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 


Translation of the Preliminary Treaty with IIassun bin Rahmah, — 1S20. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate ! 

Know all men that IIassun bin Rahmah has been in the presence of General 
Sir "William Grant Keir, and there have passed between them the following sti- 
pulations : — 

Article 3 . 

The town of Ras-ool-Kheimah and Maharra, and the towers which are in the 
date groves near the town, shall remain in the hands of the British Government. 

Article 2. 

If any of the vessels of IIassun bin Rahmah are in Shargah or Umm-ool-koiwevn 
or Imam, or any other of the places to which the General shall go with the force, 

s 2 



242 PERSIAN GULF — T racial Sliailtli.r of Oman — NO. XVIII — 1820. 

they shall be surrendered to the General, and the General will leave those which 
are for the pearl fishery and fishing boats. 

Article 3. 

Hassnn bin Rahmah shall give up all the Indian prisoners, if any such are in' 
his possession. 


Article 4. 

After the execution of these engagements, Hassnn bin Rahmah shall be ad- 
mitted to the terms of the general Treaty with the friendly (literally the 
pacifieated) Arabs. End of the Articles. 

Issued at Ras-ool-Kheimah in the forenoon of Saturday , the twenty-second of 
ifie month of Rabee-ul-Awul in the year of the Hcgiro one thousand two hundred '■ and 
thirty-five, corresponding to the eighth of January LS‘20. 

W. Grant IIeir, 

Major-General. 

Hassun bin Rahmah. 


Copy of the Articles between the General and Hassun bin Rahmah. Witness 
my hand and seal. 


W. Grant -Keir, 


Major-General. 


Translation of the Preliminary Treaty with the Sheikh of Debay, — 1820. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate ! 

Know all men that Mahomed bin Haza bin Zaal, a minor, accompanied by 
Ahmed bin Futeiss has been in the presence of General Sir William Grant Keir, 
and there have passed between them the following stipulations : — 

Article 1. 

The people of Debay shall surrender to the General the vessels which are in 
Debay and its dependencies and the guns which arc in the town and in the towers. 
The General will leave the boats which are for the pearl fishery and fishing boats. 

Article 2. 

The people of Debay shall give up all the Indian prisoners if any such arc in 
their possession. 

Article 3. 

The General will not allow the troops to enter the town to lay it waste, and 
further, as a mark of consideration towards His Highness the Imam Saeed bin 
Sultan on the part of the General, he will not demolish the fort and towers. 



PERSIAN GULF — ’Crucial Shaikhs oj Oman-— ’SO. XVIII 1820. 243 


Article 4. 

After the execution of these engagements Mahomed bin Haza bin Zaal and 
hi 3 followers shall be admitted to the same terms of peace as the remainder of 
the friendly (literally the “ pacificated ”) Arabs. 

On these conditions there is a cessation of hostilities between the British and 
Mahomed bin Haza bin Zaal and his followers, with the exception that their boats 
are not to go to sea. 

Doiic at Ras-ool-Khcimah on Ihe 23rd of the month of Rabcc-ul-Awid, in the year 
1235, corresponding to the Oth of January 1820. 


W. Grant Keir, 

Major-Qcncral. 

Seal or Ahmed Futeibs. 

Witnessed by the signature of Sheikh Hamza bin Mahomed bin Zubu all 
Movzzine, Shaildi of Kishm, with his own hand. 

Copy of the Articles between the General and Mahomed bin Haza bin Zaal. 
Witness my hand and seal. 

W. Grant Kicir, 

Major-General. 


Translation of the Preliminary Treaty with Sheikii Shad bout of Aboo 

Dhebbke, — 1S20. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate ! 

Know all men that Sheikh Shahbout bin Dhynb al Talahij has been in the 
presence of General Sir William Grant Keir, and there have passed between them 
the following stipulations : — 


. Article 1. 

If in Aboo Dhebboe or any other of the places belonging to Sheikh Shahbout 
there are any of the vessels of the piratical powers which have been attached 
or may be hereafter attached by the General during the present war against the 
pirates, he shall deliver such vessels to the General. 


Article 2. 

Sheikh Shahbout shall be admitted to the terms of the General Treaty with 
the friendly Arabs. 



244 PERSIAN GULP — f racial Shaikhs oj Oman— NO. XVIII— 1820. 


Done at Ras-ool-Rheimah on the twenty-fifth of the Rabce-ul-Avml, in the year 
one thousand (wo hundred and thirty-five , corresponding to the eleventh of January 
1820. 


W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 

Setahboot. 

Copies of the Articles between the General and Sheilih Shahbout. 

Witness my hand and seal. 


W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 


Translation of the Preliminary Treaty with Hasson bin Ali, — 1820. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate ! 

Know all men that Hassun bin Ali has been in the presence of General Sir 
William Grant Keir, and there have passed between them the following stipu- 
lations : — 

Article 1. 

If any of the vessels of Hassun bin Ali are in Sliargah, or Umm-ool-keiweyn 
or Imam, or Aboo Dkcbbce or any other of the places to which the General shall 
go with the force, such vessels shall be surrendered to the General, and the General 
will leave those which are for the pearl fishery and fishing boats. 


Article 2. 

• Hassun bin Ali shall give up all the Indian prisoners if any such are in his pos- 
session. 

Artioie 3. 

After this Hassun bin Ali shall be admitted to the terms of the general Treaty 
with the friendly (literally the “ pacificated ”) Arabs. End of the Articles. 

Issued at Ras-ool-Khcimah in the forenoon of Saturday, the twenty-ninth of the 
month of Rahec-ul-Awul, in the year one thousand two hundred and thirty-five, corres- 
ponding to the 15th of January 1820. 

W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 

Hassun bin Ali. 

Copy of the Articles entered into between the General and Hassun bin Ali 
in the forenoon of Saturday, the twenty-ninth of Rabee-ul-Awul, in the year of 
Hegira one thousand two hundred and thirty-five, corresponding to the 15th of 
January 1820. 

Witness my hand and seal. 

W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 



PERSIAN GULF Trucial Shaikhs of Oman— -NO. XIX— 1820. 24S 


No. XIX. .... • . 

Translation of the General Treaty with the Arab Tribes of the Persian 

Gttle, — 1820. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate 1 

Praise be to God, who hath ordained peace to be a blessing to his creatures. 
There is established a lasting peace between the British Government and the Aral) 
tribes, who arc parties to this contract, on the following conditions : 

Article 1. 

There shall be a cessation of plunder and piracy by land and sea on the part of 
the Arabs, who are parties to this contraot, for ever.. 

Article 2 . 

If any individual of the people of the Arabs contracting shall attack any that 
pass by land or sea of any nation whatsoever, in the way of plunder and piracy 
and not of acknowledged war, he shall be accounted an enemy of all mankind and 
shall be held to have forfeited both life and goods. An acknowledged war is that 
which is proclaimed, avowed, and ordered by government against government ; and 
the killing of men and taking of goods without proclamation, avowal, and the 
order of a government, is plunder and piracy. 

Article 3. 

The friendly (literally the pacificated) Arabs shall carry by land and sea a 
red flag, with or without letters in it, at their ojition, and 
this shall be in a border of white, the breadth of the white 
in the border being equal to the breadth of the red, ns re- 
presented in the margin (the whole forming the flag known 
in the British Navy by the title of white pierced red), this 
shall be the flag of the friendly Arabs, and they shall use 
it and no other. 

Article 4 . 

The pacificated tribes shall all of them continue in their former relations, with 
the exception that they shall be at peace with the British Government, and shall 
not fight with each other, and the flag shall be a symbol of this only and of nothing 
further. * 



- Article 5. 

Ihe vessels of the friendly Arabs shall all of them have in their possession a 
paper (Register) signed with the signature of their Chief, in which shall be the 
name of the vessel, its length, its breadth, and how many Karahs it holds. And 



246 PERSIAN GULF — 'frit rial Shaikhs of Oman— NO. XIX— 1820. 

they shall also have in tlicir possession another writing (Port Clearance) signed 
with the signature of their Chief, in which shall he the name of tire owner, the 
name of the Nacodnh, the number of men, the number of arms, from whence 
billed, at what time, and to what port bound. And if a British or other vessel 
meet them, they shall produce the Register and the clearance. 

Article f>. 

The friendly Arabs, if they choose, shall send an envoy to the British Resi- 
dency in the Persian Gulf with the necessary accompaniments, and he shall remain 
there for the transaction of their business with the Residency ; and the British 
Government, if it chooses, shall send an envoy also to them in like manner ; and 
the envoy shall add his signature to the signature of the Chief in the paper (Regis- 
ter) of their vessels, which contains the length of the vessel, its breadth, and ton- 
nage ; the signatme of the envoy to be renewed every year. Also nil such envoy 
shall be at the expense of their own party. 


Article 7. 

If any tribe, or others, shall not desist from plunder and piracy, the friendly 
Arabs shall act against them according to their ability and circumstances, and 
an arrangement for this purpose shall take place between the friendly Arabs and 
the British at the time when such plunder and piracy shall occur. 

Article 8. 

The putting meu to death after they have given up their arms is an act of 
pwacv and not of acknowledged war ; and if any tribe shall put to death any persons, 
either Muhammadans or others, after they have given up their arms, such tribe 
shall be hold to have broken the peace ; and the friendly Arabs shall act against 
them in conjunction with the British, and, God willing, the war against them shall 
not cease until the surrender of those who performed the act and of those who 
ordered it. 


Article 9. 

The carrying off of slaves, men, women, or children from the coasts of Africa 
or elsewhere, and the transporting them in vessels, is plunder and piracy, and the 
friendly Arabs shall do nothing of this nature. 


Article 10. 

The vessels of the friendly Arabs, bearing their flag above described, shall 
enter into all the British ports and into the ports of the allies of the British so far 
as they shall be able to effect it ; and they shali buy and sell therein, and if any 
shail attack them the British Government shall take notice of it. 



PERS IAN GrULF — Trucial Shaikhs of Oman — NO. XIX— 1820. 


247 


Article 11. 

These conditions aforesaid shall be common to all tribes and persons, who 
shall hereafter adhere thereto in the same manner as to those who adhere to them 
at the time present. End of the Articles. 

Issued at Ras-ool-Kheimah, in triplicate, at midday, on Saturday, the twenty - 
second of the month of Rabcc-vl-Awid, in the year oj the Hegira one thousand two 
hundred and thirty-five, corresponding to the eighth of January one thousand eight 
hundred and- twenty, and signed by the contracting parties at- the places and times under 
written. 

Signed at Ras-ool-Kheimah at the time of issue by 

W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 

Hassun bin Raiimaii, 

Shcil'h of Halt and Faina, formerly of 

Ras-ool-K henna h . 

Rajib bin Ahmed, 

Sheikh of Jourat al Kamru. 

(An exact translation.) 

.1. P. Tiiomfson, Captain, 

17lh Light Dragoons , and Interpreter. 

Signed at Ras-ool-Kheimah on Tuesday, the twenty-fifth of the month of 
Rahee-ul-Awnl, in the year of the Hegira one thousand two hundred and thirty- 
five, corresponding to the eleventh of January 1S20. 


Siiakbout, 

Sheikh of Aboo Dhebbcc. 

Signed at Ras-ool-Kheimah at midday, on Saturday, the twenty-ninth of the 
month of Rabec-ul-A\vnl, in the year of the Hegira one thousand two hundred 
and thirty-five, corresponding to the fifteenth of January 1S20. 


IIussun bin Am, 

Sheikh of Zyah. 

Jho seal is Captain Thompson’s, as Sheikh Hassun bin Ali had not a seal at 
the time oi signature. 



248 PERSIAN GULP — Trucial Shaikhs of Oman— NO. BIX— 1820. 

Copy of the general Treaty with the friendly (literally the “ pacificated ”) 
Arabs, with the signatures attached to it, up to the fifteenth day of January 1820 
inclusive. Given under my hand and seal. 


W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 

J. P. Thompson, Captain, 

17th Light Dragoons, and Interpreter. 

Ratified by the Governor-General in Council on 2nd April 1820. 

Signed for Mahomed bin Haza bin Zaal, Sheikh of Debay, a minor, at Shargah 
on Friday, the twelfth of the month of Rubee-oos-Sanee, in the year of the Hegira 
one thousand two hundred and thirty-five, corresponding to the twenty-eighth 
of January 1820. 

Saeed bin Syf, 

Uncle of Sheikh Mahomed. 

Signed at Shargah at mid-day, on Friday, the nineteenth of the month of 
Rubee-oos-Sanee, in the year of the Hegira one thousand two hundred and thirty- 
five, corresponding to the fourth of February 1820. 

Sultan bin Suggur, 

Ghicf of Shargah. 


Signed at Shargarh by the Vakeel on the part of the Sheikhs Suleman bin 
Ahmed and Abdulla bin Ahmed, in his quality of Vakeel to the Sheikhs aforesaid, 
on Saturday, the twentieth of the month of Rubee-oos-Sanee in the year of the 
I-Iegira one thousand two hundred and thirty-five, corresponding to the 5th of 
February 1820. 


Syud Abdool Jabel bin Syud Yas, 

Vakeel of Sheikh Suleman bin Ahmed and 
Sheikh Abdoola bin Ahmed of the family 

of Khalifa, Sheikhs of Bahrein. 

Signed and accepted by Suleman bin Ahmed, of the house of Khalifa, at Bahrein 
on the ninth of Jemadee-ool-Awul, in the year of the Hegira one thousand two 
hundred and thirty-five, corresponding to the twenty-third of February 1820. 

Signed and accepted by Abdoola bin Ahmed of the house of Khalifa, at Bahrein, 
on the ninth of Jemadee-ool-Awul, in the year of the Hegira one thousand two 
hundred and thirty-five, corresponding to the twenty-third of February 1820. 



PERSIAN GtJLF — Csncfal Shaikhs of Oman— NOS. NX— 1838 & XNI 1839. 249 

Signed at Faleia, at noon on Wednesday, tlie twenty-ninth of tlie month of 
Jemadee-ool Awid, in the year of the Hegira one thousand two hundred and 
thirty-five, corresponding to the fifteenth of March 1820. 

Rashed bin Hamid, 

Chief of Ejman. 


Signed at Faleia, at noon on Wednesday, the twenty-ninth of the month of 
Jemadee-ool-Awul in the year of the Hegira one thousand two hundred and thirty- 
five, corresponding to the fifteenth of March 1820. 

Abdoola bin Rashid, 

Chief of Umm-ool- Keiweyn. 

W. Grant Keir, 

Major-General. 


No. XX. 

Article of Agreement entered into by SriEiKn Sultan bin Suggur, dated 
Shargah, the 22nd Moliurrum A. H. 1254, or 17th April A.D. 1838. 

In the event of vessels connected with my ports, or belonging to my subjects 
coming under the suspicion of being employed in the carrying off (literally stealing) 
and embarkation of slaves, men, women, or children, I, Sultan bin Suggur, Sheikh 
of the Joasmee tribe, do hereby agree to their being detained and searched, whenever 
and wherever they may be fallen in with on the seas, by the cruizers of the British 
Government; and further that upon its being ascertained that the crews have 
carried off (literally “ stolen ”) and embarked slaves their vessels shall be liable to 
seizure and confiscation by the aforesaid cruizers. 

Sealed by Sultan bin Suggur. 

Similar Agreement signed by Sheikh Rashed bin Hamid, of Ejman ; Sheikh 
Mulctoom bin Butye, of Debay ; Sheikh Khuleefa bin Shakbout, of Aboo Dhcbbce. 


No. XXI. 

Translation of an Agreement entered into by Siieikii Sultan bin Suggur, 
Chief of Ras-ool-Kiieimah, dated off Ras-ool-Kheimah, 3rd July 1839. 

I, Sultan bin Suggur, Sheikh of the Joasmee Tribe, do hereby declare that I 
bind and pledge myself to the British Government in the following engagements ; 

Article 1. 

That the Government cruizers, whenever they may meet any vessel belonging 
to myself or my subjects beyond direct line drawn from Cape Dalgado, passing two 



050 PERSIAN GULF — Tnicial Shuihhs of Oman — NOS. -1839 & XXII— 1813. 

degrees seaward of the Island of Socotra, and ending at Cape Guadel, and shall 
suspect that such vessel is engaged in the slave trade, the said cruizers are per- 
mitted to detain and search it. 


Article 2. 

Should it on examination be proved that any vessel belonging to myself or 
my subjects is carrying slaves, whether men, women or children, for sale beyond 
the aforesaid line then the government cruizers shall seize and confiscate such 
vessel and her cargo. But if the aforesaid vessel shall pass beyond the aforesaid 
line owing to stress of weather, or other case of necessity not under control, then 
she shall not be seized. 


Article 3. 

As the selling of males and females, whether grown up or young, who are 
“ Hoor ” or free, is contrary to the Mahomedan religion, and whereas the Soomale 
tribe is included in the “ Hoor ” or free, I, Sultan bin Suggur do hereby agree that 
the sale of males and females, whether young or old, of the Soomalee tribe, shall be 
considered as piracy, and that after four months from this date all those of my 
people convicted of being concerned in such an act shall be punished the same as 
pirates. 

Seal of Sijltan bin Suggur. 

Note. — A similar agreement to the above was entered into by Sheikh 
Kliuleefa bin Sliakbout on the 1st July 1839, and by Sheikh Muktoom of Deby, 
and Sheikh Abdoola bin Hashed of Umin-ool-Keiwcyn, on the 2nd of the same 
month. 


No. XXII. 


Terms of a Maritime truce for ten years agreed upon by the Chiefs of the 
Arabian Coast, under the mediation of the Resident in the Persian Gulf, 
dated 1st June 1843. 


We, whose seals arc hereunto affixed, viz, Sultan bin Suggur, Chief of the Joasmee 
tribe, Kliuleefa bin Sliakbout, Chief of the Beniyas, Muktoom bin Butye, Chief of 
the Boo Falasa, Abdoolah bin Raslied, Chief of Ummool-Keiweyn, Abdool Azcez 
bin Rashcd, Chief of Ejman, being fully impressed with a sense of the evil conse- 
quences arising from our subjects aud dependants being prevented carrying on the 
pearl fishery without interruption on the banks, owing to the various feuds exis- 
amongst ourselves, and, moreover, duly appreciating the general advantage 
derived from the establishment of a truce, do hereby agree to bind ourselves 
to observe the following conditions : — 



Article 1. 

That from the 1st June A. D. 1843 (the corresponding Mahomedan date 2nd 
Jennnadee-ool-Awul Hegira 1259), there shall be a cessation of hostilities at sea 



251 


s _ 

PERSIAN !VN GV'Xdfrmial Shaikhs of Oman — NO. XXI 1) — 1847. 


between Q'hpMpective subjects and dependants, and that; from the above date 
until the termination of the month of May A.. D. 1853, an inviolable tmcc shall 
be established, during which period our several claims upon each other shall rest 
in abeyance. 


Article 2. 

That in the event of any of our subjects or dependants committing any acts 
of aggression at sea upon those of any of the parties to this agreement, we will 
immediately afford full redress upon the same being brought to our notice. 


Article 3. 

That in the event, of any acts of aggression being committed at sea upon any 
of our subjects or dependants, we will not proceed immediately 1o retaliate, but 
will inform the British Resident or the Commodore at Bassidore. who will forth- 
with take the necessary steps for obtaining reparation for the injury inflicted, 
provided that its occurrence can be satisfactorily proved. 

Article 4. 

That on the termination of the month of May 1853, by God’s blessing we will 
endeavour to arrange either an extension of this truce, or a firm and lasting peace 
but in the event of our being unable to come to a satisfactory adjustment regarding 
our respective claims, we hereby bind ourselves to give notice, on or about the 
above date to the British Resident, of our intention to renew hostilities after the 
expiration of the term now fixed upon for this truce, viz., the end of the month of 
(May) 1853. 

Signed as in the preamble. 


No. XXIII. 

Translation of Engagement entered into by Sheikh Sultan bin Sugguii, Chief 
of Ras-ool-Kiieimah and Shargaii, for the Abolition of the African Slave 
Trade in his Ports, — 1847. 

It, having been intimated to me by Major Hennell, the Resident in the Persian 
Gulf, that certain conventions have lately been entered into by His Rig] moss the 
Imam of Muscat aucl other powers with the British Government for the purpose of 
preventing the exportation of slaves from the African coast and elsewhere, and it 
having, moreover, been explained to me that, in order to the full attainment of 
the objects contemplated by the aforesaid conventions, the concurrence and co- 
operation of the Chiefs of the several ports, situated on the Arabian coast of the 
Persian Gulf are required, accordingly I, Sheikh Sultan bin Suggur, Chief of the 
J o as nice tribe, with a view to strengthen the bonds of friendship existing between 
me and the British Government, do hereby engage to prohibit, the exportation of 
slaves from the coasts of Africa and elsewhere on board of my vessels and those 



252 PERSIAN GULP — Triicud Shaikhs oi Oman — N\_. '"v. , Q ,f— 1853. 

“J-OOi. 

belonging to my subjects or dependants ; such prohibition to take cfc from the 
1st day of Mohurrum A. H. 1264 (or 1.0th December A. D. 1847). ° , 

And I do further consent that whenever the cruizersof the British Government 
fall in with any of my vessels, or those belonging to my subjects or dependants, 
suspected of being engaged in slave trade, they may detain and search them, and 
in case of their finding that any of the vessels aforesaid have violated this engage- 
ment, by the exportation of slaves from the coasts of Africa, or elsewhere, upon 
any pretext whatever, they (the government cruizers) shall seize and confiscate the 
same. 

Dated this 14tli day of Jemmadee-ool-Awul A. H. 1263 , or 30th day of April 
A. D. 1847. 

Sheikh Sultan bin Suggur. 


Debay. — Sheikh Muktoom’s Engagement is dated 14tli Jemmadee-ool-Awul 
1263, or 30th April 1847. 

Ejman. — Sheikh Abdool Azeez’s Engagement is dated 15th Jemmadee-ool- 
Awul 1263, or 1st May 1847. 

Umm-ool-Keiioeyn. — Sheikh Abdoolah bin Rashed’ s Engagement is dated 15th 
Jemmadee-ool-Awul 1263 or 1st May 1847. 

Aboo Dhebbee. — Sheikh Saeed bin Tahnoon’s Engagement is dated 17th Jem- 
madee-ool-Awul 1263, or 3rd May 1847. 

Bahrein. — Sheikh Mahomed bin Khuleefa’s Engagement is dated 22nd Jam- 
madee-ool-Awul 1263, or 8th May 1847. 


No. XXIV. 

Treaty of Peace in perpetuity agreed upon by the Chiefs of the Arabian 
Coast in behalf of themselves, their heirs and successors under the 
mediation of the Resident in the Persian Gulf, — 1853. 

We, whose seals are hereunto affixed, Sheikh Sultan bin Suggur, Chief of Rass- 
ool-Kheimah, Sheikh Saeed bin Tahnoon, Chief of Aboo Dhebbee, Sheikh Saeed 
bin Butye, Chief of Debay, Sheikh Hamid bin Rashed, Chief of Ejman, Sheikh 
Abdoola bin Rashed, Chief of Umm-ool-Keiweyn, having experienced for a series 
of years the benefits and advantages resulting from a maritime truce contracted 
amongst ourselves under the mediation of the Resident in the Persian Gulf and 
renewed from time to time up to the present period, and being fully impressed, 
therefore, with a sense of the evil consequence formerly arising, from the prosecu- 
tion of our feuds at sea, whereby our subjects and dependants were prevented 
from carrying on the pearl fishery in security, and were exposed to interruption 
and molestation when passing on their lawful occasions, accordingly, we, as afore- 
said have determined, for ourselves, our heirs and successors, to conclude together 



PERSIAN GOWgi£i Crucial Shaikhs of Oman — NO. XXIV— 1853. • 253 

i 

a lasting and inviolable peace from this time forth in perpetuity and do hereby 
agree to }'Ahd ourselves down to observe the following conditions : — 


• Article 1. 

That from this date, viz., 25th Rujjub 1269, 4th May 1853, and hereafter, 
there shall be a complete cessation of hostilities at sea between our respective sub- 
jects and dependants, and a perfect maritime truce shall endure between our- 
selves and between our successors, respectively, for evermore. 

Article 2. 

That in the event (which, God forbid) of any of our subjects or dependants 
committing an act of aggression at sea upon the lives or property of those of any 
of the parties to this agreement, we will immediately punish the assailants and 
proceed to afford full redress upon the same being brought to our notice. 

Article 3. 

That in the event of an act of aggression being committed at sea by any of 
those who are subscribers with us to this engagement upon any of our subjects 
or dependants, we will not proceed immediately to retaliate, but will inform the 
British Resident or the Commodore at Bassidore, who will forthwith take the 
necessary steps for obtaining reparation for the injury inflicted, provided that 
its occurrence can be satisfactorily proved. 

We further agree that the maintenance of the peace now concluded amongst 
us shall be watched over by the British Government, who will take steps to ensure 
at all times the due observance of the above Articles, and God of this is the best 
witness and guarantee. 

Adoolla bin Rasbed, 

Chief of TJmmool Kchveyn. 

Hamed bin Rashed, 

Chief of Ejman. 

Saeed bin Butye, 

Chief of Dehay. 

Saeed bin Taiinoon, 

Chief of the Beniyas. 

Sultan bin Suggar, 

Chief of the Joasmees. 

Approved by the Governor-General in Council on 24th August 1853. 



254 PERSIAN GULF — Trurial Shaikhs oj Oman — NOS. XXV — 1804 & NX VI — 

1808. 

No. XXY. 

Additional Article for the protection of the Telegraph Line and Stations 
agreed to before Lieutenant-Colonel Lewis Felly, Acting Political 
Resident, Persian Gulf, and appended to the Treaty of Peace of the 
4th May 1853,-1864. 

Whereas, under date 25th Rujjub 1266 (4th May 1853), we, Chief of the Joas- 
mecs, Chief of the Beniyas, Chief of Ummool Keiweyn, Chief of Ejnian, Chief of 
Debay, did agree to a perpetual Treaty of Peace at Sea, and whereby our vessels 
have been respected and our commerce increased ', arid whereas the British Govern- 
ment, in the further interests of commerce and of the general peace, are preparing 
telegraphic lines and stations at various points in or near the Persian Gulf, we do 
hereby engage for ourselves, our heirs and successors, to respect and abstain from 
all and every interference with the said telegraphic operations that may be carried 
on by the said British Government in or near our territory. 

And in the event (which God forbid) of any of our subjects or dependents com- 
mitting an act of aggression or trespass on the said telegraphic lines and stations 
or other telegraphic material, we will immediately punish the offender and pro- 
ceed to afford full redress upon the same being brought to our notice. 

The telegraphic line being intended for the common good, our subjects and 
dependants shall be permitted to send messages by the telegraph at such rates of 
payment as may be paid by British subjects. 


No. XXYI. 

Agreement of the Anoo Dhebbee Ciiief engaging not to commit any breach 

of the Maritime Peace, — 1868. 

I, Zayid bin Khalifeii, do hereby, in the presence of Colonel Polly, Resident, 
Persian Gulf, bind myself and agree to the conditions stated below : — 

1st . — That hereafter 1 should not commit any disturbances whatsoever in 
breach of the peace at sea, but if any happen on my part I should suffer the conse- 
quence. 

2nd . — That I should pay to the Resident the sum of twenty-five thousand 
dollars by instalments specified below : — 

9.000 Dollars to be paid at onco in cash on this tho 28th Jumadi-ool-aivul 1285 — 10th 

September 1808. 

8.000 Dollars to bo paid in the month of Mohurrum 1285, and 

8,000 Ditto ditto ditto Rujjub 1286. 

3rd ..— That I should not prevent the people who have been removed from Guttar 
t,o return to their homes if they should so wish. 

4th . — That I should make over to Abdoor Rahman, British Agent, the Machowa 
boat given me by Ali bin Khalifeh on her return from Busreh. 



PERSIAN GU LF— Shaikhs of Omaiu-NQS. XXVI & XXVU—1868. 255 

Written on thr £ wiVjStJi Jcmadi-ool-amtl 12S5=16th September 1S68. 
any t> Signed and sealed by 

' Zayid kin Khalifeh. 


Agreed to in our presence by Zavid bin Khalifeh, Oliiel of Aboo Dhabbco on 
the 16tli September 1SG8. 

Lewis Pelly, Lieut.-Col., 

II. B. M.’s PoUl. Resdt . . Persian Gulf. 


R. A. Brown, Gapt., 
Comdg. FI. M.’s Ship “ Vigilant 


No. XXVII. 

Agreement of the Chief of El-kutr ( Gullur ) engaging not to commit any 
breach of the Maritime Peace, — 1868. 

I, Mahomed bin Sanee, of Guttur, do hereby solemnly bind myself in the pre- 
sence of the Lord, to carry into effect the undermentioned terms agreed upon 
between me and Lieutenant-Colonel Pelly, Her Britannic Majesty’s Political 
Resident, Persian Gulf : — 

1st . — I promise to return to Dawka and reside peaceably in that port. 

2nd . — I promise that on no pretence whatsoever will I at any time put to sea 
with hostile intention, and in the event of disputes or misunderstanding arising, 
will invariably refer to the Resident. 

3rd . — I promise on no account to aid Mahomed bin Khalifeh, or in any way 
connect myself with him. 

4th . — If Mahomed bin Khalifeh fall into my hands, I promise to hand him over 
to the Resident. 

5th . — I promise to maintain towards Shaikh Ali bin Khalifeh, Chief of Bahrein, 
all the relations which heretofore subsisted between me and the Shaikh of Bahrein, 
and in the event of a difference of opinion arising as to any question, whether money 
payment or other matter, the same is to be referred to the Resident. 

Dated on the 24th of Jemadi-ool-aivul 1285, corresponding with the 12th of Sep- 
tember 1868. 

Scaled in our presence by Mahomed bin Sanee of Guttur, on this the 12th 
day of September 1868. 

Lewis Pelly, Licul .- Col ., 

11. B. M.’s Poltl. Resdt.., Persian Gulf. 

R. A. Brown, Gapt., 

Gomdg. il, Mds Ship “ Vigilant ”. 


XI 


T 



256 -PERSIAN GULF — Trucial Shaikhs of Oman — NOS. XXVIII & XXIX— 1873 

AND XXX— 1892. 

No. XXVIII. 

Translated purport of a letter from Salim bin Sultan Chief of Swargah, 

to Her Britannic Majesty’s Acting Political Resident in the Persian 

Gulf, dated 25th Zilhuj 1289=26th February 1873. 

I was very happy to receive your letter of 15th Jemadi-ul-Sani with two copies 
of treaties entered into by my father, Sultan bin Suggur. 

I beg to inform you that as regards fresh importations of male and female 
slaves, I have prohibited all my subjects and the vessels in my territories from 
trading in slaves. 

All slaves that come into my territories I seize according to the terms of the 
treaty, and make over to the Government Agent. 

The Government Agent has, no doubt, informed you that I seized the slaves 
that were brought to my territories in a British vessel, and made them over to 
the Agent. 

You may rest assured that I shall carry into effect whatever the Government 
may desire, and am always happy to receive your commands. 


No. XXIX. 

Translated purport of a letter from Sheikh Zayed bin Khaleefa, Chief of 
Aboo Dhebbee, to Aoting Resident, Persian Gulf, dated 5th Mohurrum 
1290=5th March 1873. 

Be it known to you that I received a letter from Colonel Pelly, Resident in 
the Persian Gulf, in regard to the treaty about importation of slaves. 

This treaty exists intact, and I am always careful to see that it is not infringed. 


No. XXX. 

Exclusive Agreement of the Chief of Abu Dhabi with the British Govern- 
ment, dated the 6th March 1892. 

I, Zaeed bin Khalifah, Chief of Abu Dhabi, in the presence of Lieutenant- 
Colonel A. C. Talbot, O.I.E., Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, do hereby 
solemnly bind myself and agree, on behalf of myself, my heirs and successors to 
the following conditions, viz .: — 

1st . — That I will on no account enter into any agreement or correspondence 
with any Power other than the British Government. 

2nd . — That without the assent of the British Government I will not consent 
to the residence within my territory of the agent of any other Government. 


PERSIAN GULP — Trucial Shaikhs of Oman— NOS. XXX— 1892 & XXXI— 1902. 257 

3rd. — That I will on no account cede, soli, mortgage or otherwise give for 
occupation any part of my territory, save to the British Government. 

Dated Abu Dhabi , Gth March 1892, corresponding to 5th Shaaban 1309 Ilijri- 

Signature of Zaeed bin. Khalifa, Chief of Abu Dhabi. 

A. C. Talbot, Licut.-Ool., 

Resident in the Persian Gulf. 

LANSDOWNE, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

Ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India at 
Simla on the twelfth day of May 1892. 


H. M. Durand, 

Secretary to the Govt, of India, 

Foreign Dept . 

(The agreements signed by the other Trucial Shaikhs, viz., the Chiefs of Dabai, 
Ajmau, Shargah, Ras-ul-Khima, and Umm-ul-Gawain, the first three dated the 
7th and the last two the 8th March 1892, are identical in form.) 


No. XXXI. 

Agreement for the Prohibition of Traffic in Arms, 1902 

We the undersigned Trucial Chiefs, ngroe to absolutely prohibit the import*. 
t.on of arms for sale mto our respective territories or the exportation therefrom 
aud to euforce this we have issued a notification to all concerned. 


Maktoom-bin-Hashar (Debai). 
Sagar-bin-Khaled (Sargah). 


Rashid-bin-Ahmed (Um-ol-Kowain) 
Abdul Aziz-bin-Homaid (Ajman), 
Zaeed-bin-Khalifah (Abu Dhabi). 


Signed and sealed in my presence by the above-mentioned Tnieinl Pi • , 
hoard the B.I.M.S. - Lawrence " on the 24th, 25th and 2«h “ 


c. A. Kemball, j Licut.-Ool., 

OJJil- Political Resident, Persian Gulf 

T 2 



253 PERSIAN GULF — Tr-ucml Shaikhs of Oman— NOS. XXXII— 1912 & XXXTtt 

—1916. 

No. XXXII. 

Undertaking by the Chief of Shargah, for the establishment of a lighthouse 

on the Island of Tamb, — 1912. 


Dated 1st Zilkadah 1330 ( =13th October 1912). 

From— Shaikh Sagar Bin Khaled, Chief of Shargah., 

To— Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., Political Re- 
sident in the Persian Gulf. 

After compliments and enquiries after your health — 

I beg to state that our condition is good and the news is tranquil. Your 
esteemed letter dated the 16th Shawal (28th September) was received on the 1st 
Zilkadah (=13tk October 1912) and what you had stated was duly understood. 

As regards our Island of Tamb and (the fact that) you have requested me for 
permission for the establishment of a lighthouse thereon for the guidance of 
steamers. All right ; but we hope from you that there will be no interference 
with the Island beyond that. This is a condition from us and we trust that, God 
willing, we shall receive a letter from you to this effect. In regard to our 
representative there we shall, God willing, not neglect about him as stated 
by you. And I will esteem it an honour to carry on what you require of us. 


No. XXXIII. 

Treaty between the British Government and the SnAiKn of Qatar, — 1916. 

Treaty between the British Government and Shaikh ’Abdullah bin Jasim bin 
Tkani, Shaikh of Qatar, dated the 3rd November 1916. ' 

Whereas my grandfather, the late Shaikh Mohammed bin Tkani, signed an 
agreement on the 12th September 1868 engaging not to commit any breach- of the 
Maritime Peace, and whereas these obligations to the British Government have 
developed on me his successor in Qatar. 

I. 

I, Shaikh ’Abdullah bin Jasim bin Tkani, undertake that I will, as do the 
friendly Arab Shaikhs of Abu Dhabi, Dibai, Shargah, Ajman, Ras-ul-Kkaima 
and Umm-al-Qawain, co-operate with the High British Government in the sup- 
pression of the slave trade and piracy and generally in the maintenance of the 
Maritime Peace. 

To this end, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox, Political Resident in the Persian 
Gulf, has favoured me with the Treaties and Engagements, entered into between 
the Shaikhs abovementioned and the High British Government, and I hereby 
declare that I will abide by the spirit and obligations of the aforesaid Treaties 
and Engagements. 


PERSIAN GULP — Crucial Shaikhs of Oman — NO. XXXIII— 1916. 259 

II. 

On the other hand, the British Government undertakes that I and my subjects 
and my and their vessels shall receive all the immunities, privileges and advantages 
that are conferred on the friendly Shaikhs, their subjects and their vessels. In 
token whereof, Sir Percy Cox has affixed his signature with the date thereof to, 
each and every one of the aforesaid Treaties and Engagements in the copy granted 
to me and I have also affixed my signature and seal with the date thereof to each 
and every one of the aforesaid Treaties and Engagements, in two other printed 
copies of the same Treaties and Engagements, that it may not be hidden. 

III. 

And in particular, I, Shaikh Abdullah, have further published a proclama- 
tion forbidding the import and sale of arms into my territories and port of Qatar ; 
and in consideration of the undertaking into which I now enter, the British Gov- 
ernment on its part agrees to grant me facilities to purchase and import, from the 
Muscat Arms Warehouse or such other place as the British Government may 
approve, for my personal use, and for the arming of my dependents, such arms 
and ammunition as I may reasonably need and apply for in such fashion as may 
be arranged hereafter through the Political Agent, Bahrein. I undertake abso- 
lutely that arms and ammunition thus supplied to me shall under no circumstances 
be re-exported from my territories or sold to the public, but shall be reserved 
solely for supplying the needs of my tribesmen and dependents whom I have to 
arm for the maintenance of order in my territories and the protection of my Fron- 
tiers. In my opinion the amount of my yearly * requirements will be up to five 
hundred weapons. 


IV. 

I, Shaikh ’Abdullah, further undertake that I will not have relations nor corres- 
pond with, nor receive the agent of, any other Power without the consent of the 
High British Government ; neither will I, without such consent, cede to any 
other Power or its subjects, land either on lease, sale, transfer, gift, or in any 
other way whatsoever. 

V. 

T also declare that, without tlie consent of the High British Government, I 
will not grant pearl-fishery concessions, or any other monopolies, concessions, or 
cable landing rights, to anyone whomsoever. 

VI. 

Hie Customs dues on the goods of British merchants imported to Qatar shall 
not exceed those levied from my own subjects on their goods and shall in no case 
exceed five per cent, ad valorem. British goods shall be liable to the payment of 

for “yearly ~by slip of tlio'po' 10 ^ ^ Englis ^ vorsion the word “ early ” 1ms been written 



260 PERSIAN GULF — Tntcial Shaikhs of Oman — NO. XXXI II— -1916. 

no other dues or taxes of any other kind whatsoever, beyond that already speci- 


I, Shaikh ’Abdullah, further, in particular, undertake to allow British subjects 
to reside In Qatar for trade and to protect their lives and property. 

VIII. 

I also undertake to receive, should the British Government deem it advisable, 
an Agent from the British Government, who shall remain at A1 Bidaa for the 
transaction of such business as the British Government may have with me and 
to watch over the interests of British traders residing at my ports or visiting 
them upon their lawful occasions. 

IX. 

Further, I undertake to allow the establishment of a British Post Office and 
a Telegraph installation anywhere in my territory whenever the British Govern- 
ment should hereafter desire them. I also undertake to protect them when est- 
ablished. 

X. 

On their part, the High British Government, in consideration of these Treaties 
and Engagements that I have entered into with them, undertake to protect me 
and my subjects and territory from all aggression by sea and to do their utmost 
to exact reparation for all injuries that I, or my subjects, may suffer when pro- 
ceeding to sea upon our lawful occasions. 

XI. 

They also undertake to grant me good offices, should I or my subjects be 
assailed by land within the territories of Qatar. It is, however, thoroughly under- 
stood that this obligation rests upon the British Government only in the event 
of such aggression whether by land or sea, being unprovoked by any act or aggres- 
sion on the part of myself or my subjects against others. 

In token whereof I, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox, Political Resident 
in the Persian Gulf, and I, Shaikh ’Abdullah bin Jasim bin Thani, have respec- 
tively signed and affixed our seal to this original document and four copies, thereof. 

Dated 6th Moharram 1335, corresponding to 3rd November 1916. 

’Abdullah bin Jasim, 

Chief of Qatar. 

P. Z. Cox, Major General, 
Political Resident in the Persian Gulf 

CHELMSFORD, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 



PERSIAN GULP — Trucial Shaikhs of Oman — NOS. NXXIV & XXXV — 1922. 261 


Tills treaty was ratified by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 
Connell at Delhi on the 23rd day of March A.D. one thousand nine hundred and 
eighteen. 

A. H. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 
Foreign and Political Department, 


No. XXXIV. 

Undertaking by the Shaikh of Shargah, regarding oil, — 1922. 

Letter from Sheikh Iihaled ben Ahmed, Chief of Shargah, to the Ilon’bh Lieutenant- 
Colonel A. P. Trevor, C.S.I., C.I.E., Political Resident, Persian Gulf, Bushire, 
dated 18th Jamadi-os-Sani, 1340 {—17th February 1922). 

After Compliments — 

My object in writing this letter of friendship is to convey my compliments to 
you and to enquire after your health. 

Secondly, let it not be hidden from you that I write this letter with my free 
will and give undertaking to Your Honour that if it is hoped that an oil mine will 
be found in my territory I will not give a concession for it to foreigners except 
to the person appointed by the High British Government. 

This is what was necessary to be stated. 

Note. — A similar undertaking was given by the Chief of Bas-al-Khaima, on 
the 22nd February 1922. 


No. XXXV. 

Undertaking by the Shaikh of Dibai, regarding oil, — 1922. 

Letter from Sheikh Saecd ben Makloom, Chief of Debar, to Lieutenant-Colonel 
A. P. Trevor, C.S.I., G.I.E., Political Resident, Persian Gulf, dated dth 
Ramazan 1340 (=2nd May 1922). 

After Compliments — 

Let it not he hidden from yon that we agree, if oil is expected to bo found in 
our territory, not to grant any concession in this connection to any one except 
to the person appointed by the High British Government. 

Note.— -Undertakings similar in substance to the above were given by the 
following Shaikhs on the dates mentioned : — 

Shaikh of Abu Dhabi 3rd May 1922. 

Shaikh of Ajman . . .4th May 1922. 

Shaikh of Umm-al-Qaiwain - . . . 8th May 1922. 



262 PERSIAN GULF— Kuwait — NOS. XXXVI— 1899 AND XXXVII— 1900. 


No. XXXVI. 

Agreement with the Sheikh of Koweit, — 1899. 

Translation of Arabic Bond. 

Praise be to God alone (lit. in the name of God Almighty) (“ Bissim Illah Ta’alah 
Shanuho ”) — 

The object of writing this lawful and honourable bond is that it is hereby cov- 
enanted and agreed between Lieutenant-Colonel Malcolm John Meade, I.S.C., 
Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Resident, on behalf of the British Government 
on the one part, and Sheikh Mubarak-bin-Sheildi Subah, Sheikh of Koweit, on 
the other part, that the said Sheikh Mubarak-bin-Sheikh Subah of his own free 
will and desire does hereby pledge and bind himself, his heir3 and successors not 
to receive the Agent or Representative of any Power or Government at Koweit, 
or at any other place within the limits of his territory, without the previous sanc- 
tion of the British Government ; and he further binds himself, his heirs and suc- 
cessors not to cede, sell, lease, mortgage, or give for occupation or for any other 
purpose any portion of his territory to the Government or subjects of any other 
Power without the previous consent of Her Majesty’s Government for these pur- 
poses. This engagement also to extend to any portion of the territory of the said 
Sheikh Mubarak, which may now be in the possession of the subjects of any other 
Government. 

In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable bond, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Malcolm John Meade, I.S.C., Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Resident 
in the Persian Gulf, and Sheikh Mubarak-bin-Sheikh Subah, the former on behalf 
of the British Government and the latter on behalf of himself, his heirs and suc- 
cessors do each, in the presence of witnesses, affix their signatures on this, the 
tenth day of Ramazan 1316, corresponding with the twenty-third day of January 
1899. 


M. J. Meade, Mubarak-al-Subah , 

Political Resident in the 
Persian Gulf. 


Witnesses : 


E. Wickham Hore, Gapl. s l . M . S . 


J. Cai.cjott Gaskin. 


Muhammad Rahim bin Abdul 
Nebi Sapper. 


No. XXXVII. 

Agreement by the Chief of Koweit, for the suppression of the Arms Trade 

in his territories, — 1900. 

Agreement by Sheikh Mubarek-bin-Sabah, Chief of Koweit. 



PERSIAN GULF — Kuwait — NOS. XXXVII— 1000, XXXVIII— 1904 2 63 

& XXXIX— 1911. 

I agree to absolutely prohibit the importatioiv of arms into Koweit or exporta- 
tion therefrom, and to enforce this I have issued a notification and proclama- 
tion to all concerned. 

Dated this 24th day of Moharnnn 1318. 

(24th day of May 1900.) 


Seal of Sheikh Mubarek-bin-Sabait. 


No. XXXVIII. 

Postal Agreement with the Sheikh of Koweit, — 1901. 

Translated purport of an undertaking given by Sheikh Mubarek of Koiveit. 

As the British Government has agreed in accordance with my desire and for 
the benefit of traders to establish a post office at Koweit, I on my part agree not 
to allow the establishment here of a post office by any other Government. I 
accordingly write this undertaking on behalf of myself and my successors. 

Seal of SnEiim Mubarek-el-Sabah . 

Koweit ; 

The Uth Zil Haj 1321. 

(The 28th February 1904.) 


No. XXXIX. 

Undertaking by Shaikh Mdbarak-as-Sabah, Ruler of Kuwait, in regard to 
the grant of Pearling Concessions, — 1911. 

Translation of a letter , dated the 2nd Shaaban 1329, from Shaikh MubaraJc-as-Sabah, 
Rider of Kuwait , to Captain TP. II. I. Shakcspcar, Political Agent, Kuwait. 

After Compliments — 

We have received with the hand of friendship your letter, dated the 2nd 
Shaaban 1329=29th July 1911, and in it you stated of a stranger who five years 
ago asked from us a concession to take sponges and at the time we rejected his 
request and that in this time came to you intimation from His Honour the Resi- 
dent at Bushire mentioning that in these days possibly will come people seeking 
their own profit and from this profit will arrive loss to us and to our people and 
advising us not to agree to them before asking for his (Resident’s) opinion. .1 
am exceedingly grateful to the beloved of all (Resident) and as is known to Your 
Honour I do not seek profit without your consultation in every circumstance and 
I will do nought except it agree with your view and the view of the Precious Gov- 
ernment. In the expectation from Your Honour that you will re-assure him 
(Resident) and present my thanks to him and may you be preserved. 

Note. — Similar undertakings were given by the Shaikh of Bahrain and the 
Truclal Shaikhs of Oman. 



264 PERSIAN GULP — Kuwait — NOS. — XL — 1912 AND XLI— 1913. 

No. XL. 

Undertaking by the Ruler of Kuwait in regard, to the establishment of a 
Wireless Telegraph Installation at Kuwait —1912. 

Translation of a IcUer from His Excellency Shaikh Sir Mubarak-us-Sv.hah, K.O.I.E., 
Ruler of Kuwait, to Liculcnanl-Coloncl Sir Percy Gox, K.G.I.E., O.S.I., Poli- 
tical Resident in the Persian Gulf, dated the 11th Shaaban 1330 =26 lh July 
1912. 

I have had the pleasure to receive Your Honour’s communication dated the 
27th Rajab 1330 (13th July 1912) in winch you have referred to the desire of the 
High and Imperial Government to have the telegraph in our town of Kuwait 
and (stated) that on Your Honour’s return to Bushire, you found, as you expected, 
final instructions from the High and Imperial Government to inform us of their 
desire and to ask for our co-operation in this object and that the existence of the 
telegraph will be a source of ease to the High Government and our people. 

I have personally informed Your Honour when I had the pleasure of your 
august interview, of my co-operation and concord in this and other matters, which 
are conducive to reform and which you consider to be agreeable to (our) welfare, 
in accordance with such orders as may be issued thereon by the High and Imperial 
Government and according to your august wishes. 

The details will be explained to us by our friend Captain Shakespear, as 
ordered by you, when the work progresses and we will also explain to him the 
manner which will tend to our ease. And we pray to God to crown all your efforts 
with success and to grant happy results, and enable us to obtain your satisfac- 
tion by word and deed. 

We trust that your land regards will endure and that you will accept my 
assurance of high esteem and continue to be preserved. 


No. XLI. 

Agreement by the Ruler of Kuwait, regarding oil, — 1913. 

Translation of a letter from Shaikh Sir Mabaray-as-Suba h, Ruler of Kuwait, to the 
Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, dated the 26th Zu-al-Iiada 1331 (27th 
October 1913). 

After Compliments — 

With the hand of friendship we received your esteemed letter dated the 26th 
Zu-al-Kada 1331 and in it you stated that with reference to the conversation 
which passed between us yesterday if we saw no objection therein it would be 
desirable for Your Honour to inform the British Government that we were agree- 
able to the arrival of His Excellency the Admiral. We are agreeable to every- 


PERSIAN GULF — Kuwait — N OS. XL1— 1913 AND XLH— 1914. 265 

tiling which you regard advantageous and if the Admiral honours our (side) coun- 
try we will associate with him one of out sons to be in his service, to show the 
place of bitumen in Burgan and elsewhere and if in their view there seems hope 
of obtaining oil therefrom we shall never give a concession in this matter to any 
one except a person appointed from the British Government. . 

This is what was necessary and I pray for the continuance of your high regard 
and may you be preserved. 

Dated 26th Zu-al-Kada 1331. 


No. XLII. 

Extract from a Letter from the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf to 
His Excellency Sir Mubarak as-Subati, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., Shaikh of 
Kuwait, containing certain assurances given to him by the British Gov- 
ernment, — 1914. 

In continuation of previous letter intimating the out-break of war between 
the British Government and Turkey, I am ordered by the British Government to 
convey to Your Excellency gratitude for your loyalty and your oiler of assistance, 
and to request you to attack Umm Qasr, Safwan and Bubiyan and to occupy 
them. You should endeavour, afterwards, in co-operation with Shaikh Sir Kknznl 
Khan, Amir Abdul Aziz bin Saud and other reliable Shaikhs to liberate Basrah 
from Turkish possession. Should this prove to be beyond your ability, you should 
make arrangements, if possible, to prevent Turkish reinforcements from reaching 
Basrah or even Qurnali, until the arrival of the British troops whom we shall send, 
please God, as soon as possible. I also hope that two of our men-of-wnr will reach 
Basrah before the arrival of your troops there. And though it should be your 
highest aim, in this connection, to liberate Basrah and its people from Turkish 
rule, still we request that you should use your utmost endeavour in preventing 
troops and others from plundering the merchandise belonging to British merchants 
in Basrah and its dependencies, to protect the European residents of Basrah and 
to safeguard them from loss and oppression. In return for your valuable assistance 
in this important matter, I am ordered by the British Government to promise to 
Your Excellency that if we succeed therein— and wc shall succeed therein, please 
God,~we will not return Basrah to the Turkish Government and we will not 
surrender it back to them at all. Eurthcrmore I make to you, on behalf of the 
British Government, certain promises concerning Your Excellency personally 
viz .: — 

(1) that your gardens which are now in your possession, viz., the date 

gardens situate between Eao and Qurnah shall remain in your posses- 
sion and in possession of your descendants without being subject to 
the payment of revenue or taxes. 

(2) that if you attack Safwan, Umm Qasr and Bubiyan and occupy them 

the British Government will protect you from any consequences 
arising from that action. 



266 PERSIAN GULP — Kuwait — NOS. XLII— 1914 AND XLIII— 1923. 


(3) that the British Government does recognise and admit that the Shaikh- 
dom of Kuwait is an independent Government under British pro* 
tection. 

I4lh DMIhijjah 1332 ( 3rd November 1914). 


No. XLIII. 

Memorandum from His Excellency the High Commissioner for Iraq to the 
Political Agent, Kuwait, No. 5405, dated the- 19th April 1923. 

Please see your memorandum No. 52-S., dated the 4th April 1923, giving cover 
to a letter from the Shaikh of Kuwait, dated 17th Shaaban 1341 (4th April 1923) 
in which he is understood to claim the frontier of Kuwait with Iraq to he as 
follows : — 

From the intersection of the Wadi El Audja with the Batin and thence North- 
wards along the Batin to a point just south of the Latitude of Safwan ; thence 
Eastwards passing south of Safwan wells, Jebel Sanm and Um Qasr, leaving them 
to ’Iraq and so on to the junction of the Khor Zobeir with the Khor ’Abdullah. 

Shaikh Ahmed at the same time claims as appertaining to Kuwait the Islands 
of Warbah, Bubiyan, Maskan (or Mashjan), Eailakah, Auha, Kubha Qaru and 
Um-el-Maradim. 

The Shaikh can be informed that his claim to the frontier and islands above 
indicated is recognised in so far as His Majesty’s Government are concerned. 

As you are aware it is, in so far as it goes, identical with the frontier indicated 
by the Green line of the Anglo-Turkish Agreement* of July 29th, 1913, but there 
seems no necessity to make special allusion to that document in your communica- 
tion to the Shaikh. 


* Articles 5, 6 and 7 of the Anglo-Turkish Agreement — unratified — of 

29 th July 1923. 

. Article 5. 

L’autonomie du cheikh de Koueit est exercee par lui dans les territoires dont 
la limite forme un demi-cercle avec la villa de Koueit au centre, le Khor-Zoubair 
a l’extremite septentrionale et Kraine a l’extremite meridionale. Cette ligne est 
indiquee en rouge sur la cartef annexee a la presente convention. Les lies de 
Ouarba, Boubiane, Macliiane, Eailaka, Anha, Koubbar, Karou, Makta et Oumm- 
el-Maradine, avec les Slots ct les eaux adjacents, sont compris dons cette zone. 

Article 6. 

Les tribus qui se trouvent dans les limites. indiquees a Particle suivant sont 
reconnues comme dependant du cheikh de Koueit, qui percevra leurs dimes 


f Not reproduced. 


PERSIAN GULF— Kuwait— NO. NL1II— 1923. 


267 

comrne par le passe etexercera a leur egard les attributions adniinistratives qui 
lui reviennent cn sa qualite de kaimakam ottoman. Le Gouverncmcnt Imperial 
ottoman n’cxercera dans cette zone aucun acte d’administration 
independamment du ckeikk de Koueit et s’abstiendra d’y ctablir des garnisons 
ou d’y exerccr unc action militairc quclconquc sans s’etre prealablement entendu 
avec 1c Gouvcrnement do Sa Majeste britannique. 

Article 7. 

Les limites du territoire dont il est parle a Particle precedent sont fixees comma 
suit : — 

La ligne de demarcation part do la cote a Pcmboucliurc du Kbor-Zoubair vers 
le nord-oucst et passe immediatemeut an sud d’Oumm-Knsr, de Safouan et de 
Djebel-Sanam, de fa 9 on a laisser ccs endroits et lours puits an vilayet de Lasra ; 
arriveo au Batine, clle le suit vers le sud-oucst jusqu’ii Ilafr-el-Batine qu’elle 
laisso du cote de Koueit ; de ce point laditc ligne va au sud-est en laissant a ICoueit 
les puits d’Es-Safa et d’El-Garaa, d’El-Haba, Ouabra et Antaa pour aboutir it 
la mer pres de Djebel-Mounifa. Cette ligne est marqude en vert sur la carte* 
annexee a la presente convention. 


* Not reproduced. 



PART III. 


Treaties and Engagements 


relating to 

Oman (Muscat). 


I F the middle of the seventeenth century the Muscat Arabs, having- 
driven the Portuguese, -who had occupied the Oman coast since 1507 , 
from Muscat, established their ascendency in the Persian Gulf and, by 
the end of the century, had gained possession of Mombasa and other ports 
on the African coast. In the reign of Nadir Shah the Persians invaded 
Oman and gained supremacy over the country for some time, but -were 
eventually expelled by Ahmad bin Said, the Arab Governor of Sohar, a 
town on the Batinah coast about 150 miles north-west of Muscat, who 
contemptuously rejected Nadir Shah’s claims to tribute. For this service 
Ahmad was elected Imam in 1741 and founded the present dynasty of 
the A1 Bu Saidis. He died in 1775 and was succeeded by his second son 
Said who, however, proved an incapable ruler, and ten years later the 
power was usurped by the fifth son, Sultan. It was in 1798, during 
the rule of this Imam, that the first Treaty (No. I) with Muscat was 
negotiated by the Company’s Agent at Bushire, with a view to exclude 
from Muscat the prejudicial influence of the French, with whom Saiyid 
Sultan was brought in contact through his trade with Mauritius.- When 
Sir John Malcolm visited Muscat on his first mission to Persia in 1800, lie 
formed another Engagement (No. II) with Saiyid Sultan, stipulating for 
the strict observance of the previous treaty and foT the residence of an 
English gentleman in an official capacity at Muscat. 

Saiyid Sultan bin Ahmad was killed in 1804 in a contest at sea with 
his enemies, the Atbis and Qawasim. The rights of his two young sons''" 
were disputed by their uncles, especially by Saiyid Qais of Sohar, x Atfio 
aimed at usurping the government of Oman. To oppose their /Ancle’ s 
pretensions the two youths put themselves in the hands of their cousin 
Saiyid Badar bin Saif, who called in the Wahhabis, and with their help 
defeated Saiyid Qais and recovered Bandar Abbas and Hormuz, which 
had been seized by the Shaikh of Qishm. The weakness resulting from 
this disputed succession gave the Wahhabis a footing in Muscat which 

( 269 ) 



270 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


they retained until tlie occupation of Hasa by tlie Turks. In 1800 they 
made their first appearance in Oman. They reduced all the sea-coast 
of tlie Persian Gulf from Basrah to Dibai, released the Shaikhs of 
Zaliira and Sohar from allegiance to Muscat, and forced Saiyid Sultan 
to beg for a three years’ truce, which they broke soon after. They 
would probably have conquered all Oman if they had not been stopped 
by the assassination of their Amir. 

Saiyid Said, the second son of Saiyid Sultan, succeeded Badar bin 
Saif in 1807 but the religious title of Imam was not conceded by the 
Arabs to him. He ruled for fifty years, during which time he cultivated 
a close intercourse with the British Government. In ISOS, smarting 
under the insults of the Wahhabis whose agents were forcibly converting 
his subjects in his very capital, he roused the Arab tribes in Oman to a 
combination against them. If Muscat had fallen under the Wahhabis, 
Saiyid Said would have been drawn into the general system of piracy 
which they encouraged, and would have been converted from a friend into 
a dangerous enemy. The British Government, therefore, resolved to 
support him. An armament was accordingly sent towards the close of 
1809, which destroyed the piratical boats at Itas-al-Khaimah, Lingeh. 
and Laft,, and bombarded and took Shinas. Ho arrangements, how- 
ever, were made to secure permanently the advantage then obtained. 
Piracy was soon renewed, and it became necessary to send another 
expedition against the pirates in 1819, in which also Saiyid Said co- 
operated. With these exceptions, till the year 1822, when a Treaty 
(Ho. Ill) was concluded for the suppression of slavery, there is nothing 
requiring special notice in the intercourse between the British Govern- 
ment and Saiyid Said, who was chiefly occupied in wars with his rivals, 
the Qawasim, and in fruitless attempts to possess himself of the island 
of Bahrain. 

The treaty of 1822 aimed at the suppression of the foreign slave trade 
with Christian nations only, and not of the trade with Muhammadan 
countries and within the Muscat dominions, except in cases of kidnap- 
ping-; and the permission, given under the treaty to British cruisers, to 
seize slave ships east of the line defined in the treaty, applied to His 
Majesty’s ships only and not to vessels of the Indian Havy. In 1S39, 
however, a Treaty of Commerce (Ho. IY) was concluded with Saiyid Said 
by Her Majesty’s Plenipotentiary at Muscat, by the 15th article of which 
he co nfi rmed the treaty of 1822 for the suppression of the slave trade 
'-with Christian countries, and conceded power of search and seizure to 
vessels of the East India Company as well as those of the Royal Havy. 
In December of the same year he agreed with the Resident in the Persian 
Gulf to add three additional Articles (Ho. Y) to the treaty of 1822, 
authorising the right of search, and extending the boundary laid down in 
the treaty of 1882 from Diu Head to Passani, the eastern boundary of the 
Muscat possession on the Makran coast, so as to include the coastB of 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


271 


Kathiawar, Cutcli and Karachi, and upwards of four degrees westward, 
in the limits within which his subjects were forbidden to engage in the 
slave trade. In the fourth article of the Arabic version of the treaty of 
1822 no mention was made of the obligation of the Sultan of Muscat or 
his authorities to assist in the apprehension of British subjects engaged 
in the slave trade, although this obligation was distinctly specified in the 
English version. Me was therefore urged to have the omission rectified 
by an addition to the Arabic text. He was, however, averse from altera- 
tion being made in the treaty; but in a separate letter, dated the 18th 
August 1845, he bound himself, his heirs and authorities to afford 
assistance, when required by persons authorised to demand it, in appre- 
hending British subjects engaged in the slave trade. 

In 1845 Saiyid Said entered into a Treaty* (No. VI) prohibiting, from 
the 1st January 1847, the export of slaves from his African dominions, 
and their importation from any part of Africa into his dominions in Asia; 
and agreeing to use his influence with the Shaikhs of Arabia, the Red' 
Sea, and the Persian Gulf to put a stop to the slave trade. The treaty, 
however, did not prohibit the transport of slaves from one port in liis 
African possessions to another. In consenting to this treaty he requested 
that three additional articles! might he added, prohibiting the search of 
his vessels in the limits within which the transport of slaves was allowed 
under the treaty, and of his vessels coming from the Arabian and Red 
Seas to Africa; and stipulating that, if slaves were stolen from the 
Zanzibar territories, he should not ho held responsible. These articles 
do not appear to have been formally agreed to; but Saiyid Said was 
informed, in the name of Her Majesty’s Government, that British ships 
of war wonld search only such vessels under the Muscat flag as might 
reasonably be suspected of being engaged in the slave trade; that, there- 
fore, the description of vessels mentioned in the articles would not be 
searched unless there should he good ground for suspecting them to be so 
engaged ; and that, in any case, if: they should he searched and found 
not to be so engaged, that fact would he ascertained in a very short space 


* An Act of Parliament, 11 aiul 12 Vint., Cap. CXXVIIT, was passed to vivo 
effect to tins treaty. See Appendix No. III. 

t Additional Articles to the Agreement concluded on the 2nd October 1845, 
corresponding to the 29th Ramzan 1201 Hijra, proposed by His Highness the 
Imam of Muscat. 


Aivnoi,v 1. 


That no vessels belonging to His Highness Saiyid Said bin Sultan, the Imam 
o Muscat or belonging to lus subjects, bo searched by English mon-of-war between 
tho boundary of Lnniu to the north and Kilwa to the south, mentioned in the 
1261 concwcc 0,1 ^ 10 2nd October 1 845, corresponding with the 29th Ramzan 


Aimer, v. 2. 

a , rr, ay per]mps ho reported to them (tho British Government) that an indivi- 
dual has stolen slaves from the. territories of Saiyid Said, the Sultan of Muscat 

Mn^niJi 'll H' T ’ ]l ,1 l ass t]ns ,)C proved, His Highness Saivid. tho Sultan of 
Muscat, shall not ho called to account for it. 

XT 



272 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


of time, and they would not he prevented for more than a quarter or half 
an hour from continuing their voyage. 

In consequence of some discussion regarding the right of Saiyid Said 
to duty on goods transhipped in his ports, he issued Rules (No. YII) in 
1846 for the levy of the full duty of 5 per cent. on goods transhipped, 
but exempting from duty ships putting into his harbours from stress of 
weather, and all stores of the British Government landed at his ports. 

In 1854 Saiyid Said ceded (No. YIII) to the British Crown the Nuria 
Muria islands on tlie south coast of Arabia. The islands were valuable 
only for the guano deposits which were found on them and which are now 
exhausted. In 1874 a piratical outrage was committed by the Jaaferali 
section of the Bani Bu Ali tribe on two trading vessels at Hallaniyah in 
these islands, for which they were fined 600 dollars, and a promise of 
future good behaviour was exacted from them. 

During the later years of his rule the affairs of Saiyid Said in his 
Asiatic dominions fell into much confusion, owing partly to his prolonged 
residence at Zanzibar, which in 1840 he made the permanent seat of his 
government, and partly to the incapacity of the agents whom he left at 
Muscat, and latterly of his son Saiyid Thuwaini. On more than one 
occasion his power was saved only by the intervention of the British Gov- 
ernment. His contests with the Wahhabis in 1832 and again in 1845 and 
1.852 are described in Part II of this volume. In 1833 Saiyid Said 
concluded a treaty with the United States of America,* and in 1844 with 
France. + In 1880 a Consul for the former and in 1881 a Consular Agent 
for the latter were appointed. 

The American Consulate urns closed in 1915 and the French Consulate 
in 1920. 

Saiyid Said died in 1856. In 1844 he had intimated his desire to 
appoint his sous, Saiyid Majid and Saiyid Thuwaini, as his successors 
in his African and Asiatic dominions respectively, and had appointed 
them his deputies. Saiyid Thuwaini accordingly succeeded to the gov- 
ernment of Muscat on his father’s death, and Saiyid Majid to that of 
Zanzibar. In virtue of his succession to Oman, Saiyid Thuwaini 
claimed also feudal supremacy over Zanzibar, aud prepared to 
establish his claim by force of arms. The dispute was submitted to the 
arbitration of Lord Canning, who in 1861 decided (No. IN) that Zanzibar 
should be independent of Muscat, but should pay an annual subsidy 
of 40,000 crowns. 

Autici/e 3. 

It is known that the vessels belonging to His Highness the Sultan of Muscat 
and those oelonging to his subjects coming from the Arabian and Red Seas do 
not bring slaves from those parts to the territories of the Snltan of Muscat which 
are in Africa, accordingly English men-of-war shall not search nor trouble them. 

* See Appendix No. I. 
t See Appendix No. II. 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


273 

In 1862 an Engagement (No. X) was concluded between Great Britain 
and' France, by which both powers engaged reciprocally to respect the 
independence of the Sultans of Muscat and Zanzibar. 

In 1S64 Saiyid Thuwaini agreed (No. XI) to the construction of one 
or more lines of telegraph through the territory of Muscat: and in 1865 
a Convention (No. XII) was made with him for the extension of the 
telegraph through his dominions in Arabia and Makran. 

In February 1866 Saiyid Thuwaini was assassinated at Sohar, where 
he had gone to organise an expedition against the Wahhabis. Grave 
suspicions of having been concerned in this crime attached to his son 
and successor Saiyid Salim : and so much alarm was created at Muscat 
that trade was paralysed and the town was deserted by British subjects 
residing there. Envoys were shortly afterwards sent by Saiyid Salim to 
Bombay; but they were informed that, while the British Government had 
no wish to interfere in tlie domestic affairs of Oman, they were compelled, 
in the circumstances of the ease, to suspend friendly relations with the 
Sultan of Muscat. At the same time, the treaty obligations of the 
British Government with the State of Muscat, which had for their 
special object the protection of British subjects residing in Muscat terri- 
tory, were in no way abrogated, and their fulfilment would he required 
from every Sultan of Muscat. 

Subsequently, however, as the people of Muscat had apparently ac- 
cepted Saiyid Salim as their legitimate Sultan, it was intimated to the 
merchants trading with Muscat that they might resume commercial deal- 
ings with that port: and finally in September 1866, Saiyid Salim was 
recognised by the British Government as Sultan of the State. The 
appointment, of a British Officer ns Political Agent was revived in the 
following year. 

In the meantime Saiyid Turki, brother of Saiyid Thuwaini, who had 
been residing at Busliire on an allowance granted to him by the British 
Government pending a settlement of Oman affairs, made an unsuccessful 
attack on Muscat. For this breach of the maritime peace his allowance 
was stopped : and lie was subsequently warned that similar proceedings, 
which he was believed to he meditating in concert with the Shaikh of 
Dibai, would expose him and his adherents to he treated as enemies of 
the British Government. 

In Tune 1867 Saiyid Turki attacked Sohar by land, but was driven 
off with loss; subsequently, however, he captured Matrah, the principal 
fort commanding the pass leading to Muscat: and, as Saiyid Salim was 
unable to expel him, an arrangement, was effected through the mediation 
of the British Resident, by which Saiyid Turki was to receive a monthly 
allowance of 600 dollars from Saiyid Salim, on the condition that he 
should reside in India. 



274 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


Saiyid Salim’s rule, however, was not destined to last long. In addi- 
tion to the suspicion of parricide, from which he could never entirely free 
himself, his preference for the Ghaflri tribe, who professed "Wahliabi 
tenets, excited the discontent of their rivals the Hinawis, by whom the 
ruling family of Muscat had been principally supported. Early in 18G8 
an expedition was undertaken by Saiyid Salim against his uncle, the 
Shaikh of Masnnali, with whom he had a trifling dispute regarding 
money. Although a reconciliation was effected before hostilities actually 
began, Saiyid Salim’s conduct on this occasion alienated many whose 
support would have been valuable, while his resources were materially 
diminished by the expenses of the expedition. 

When, therefore, Aswan bin Qais, Chief of Rustnq and hrother-in-larv 
of Saiyid Salim, rose in rebellion, the latter had neither friends nor money 
with which to resist him. In October 1808 Aswan bin Qais obtained 
possession of the town of Muscat and, on the flight of Saiyid Salim, whom 
the British Government declined to assist by force of arms, was pro- 
claimed Sultan. Eor some time Saiyid Salim endeavoured to rally his 
friends on the Arab coast and contemplated an attack by sea on the Oman 
ports. ITe was warned, however, against any act which might tend to 
a breach of the maritime peace : and Government resolved to prohibit, by 
force of arms if necessary, all naval operations by any party at Muscat or 
elsewhere. The hope which Saiyid Salim entertained of assistance from 
the Wahhabis was frustrated by the assassination at Shargah of Sadairi, 
Governor of the Wahhabi outpost of Baraimi, and by his own exertions 
he could excite no enthusiasm for Bis cause among the Shaikhs of the 
Arab coast. 

During the rule of Aswan bin Qais the chief power was wielded by 
Said bin Klialfan A1 Khalili, the head of the priestly faction among the 
Hinawis ; his cruelties and exactions, and the severity with which he 
enforced compliance with the precepts of the Koran, rendered Aswan bin 
Qais’ rule unpopular at Muscat, though his authority was successfully 
asserted over the refractory tribes in the interior. Early in 1869 the 
Wahhabi Amir Abdulla bin Eaisal made a demand for tribute on Aswan 
bin Qais. To this no attention was paid: and, on the invitation of the 
Naim tribe of Bedouins, who had suffered from the oppression of Sadairi, 
Azzan bin Qais attacked Baraimi in June 1869 and captured it. Pre- 
parations for its recapture were at once set on foot by the Wahhabi 
Amir, in whose possession it had remained for many years previously: 
and in the first month of 1870 he was reported to he advancing on 
Baraimi with a considerable force. Difficulties connected with the want 
of water en route, the anticipated hostility of the Shaikh of Abu 
Dhabi, who was known to be in alliance with Aswan bin Qais, and the 
intrigues of his brother Saud bin Eaisal, combined to deter the Wahhabi 
Amir from carrying his intentions into effect : and before the close of 
the year he was a fugitive, pursued by Bis successful brother Saud, 



OMAN (MUSCAT). 


275 

In tbe meantime tbe events which liad taken place in Oman induced 
Government to withdraw its prohibition against Saiyid Turki’s inter- 
ference in the affairs of Oman : and in March 1869 he was informed that 
he might, if he should so wish, proceed to Muscat, but that no help or 
protection could be afforded him by the British Government in any 
attempts he might make to establish his power in Oman, and that no 
operations by sea would be permitted. Saiyid Turki remained at Bombay 
till March 1870, when he proceeded to Bandar Akbas and thence to the 
Arab coast. He was at first unsuccessful and was obliged to return to 
Bandar Abbas. In the following September, however, assisted with 
funds from Zanzibar, he again landed on the Arab coast with a few 
followers and soon collected a considerable force, a portion of which he 
placed under the command of Saif bin Sulaiman. In January 1871 Saif 
bin Sulaiman attacked Azznn bin Qais at Matrah. Both the leaders fell 
in the engagement; hut an armistice was arranged through the interven- 
tion of the British Resident, and eventually negotiations between Saiyid 
Turki and Said bin Khalfan ended in a declaration of peace between 
the contending parties. Said bin Khalfan died a few days afterwards. 

Saiyid Turki’s principal opponent was now Ibrahim bin Qais, brother 
of Azzjan bin Qais, who held the fort of Soliar. In July 1871 Saiyid 
Turki laid siege to Sohar and had effected a practicable breach, when an 
arrangement was concluded by which Ibrahim bin Qais retained posses- 
sion of Sohar and the portion of coast from Sallan to Khaburah, a tract 
of some 30 miles in extent; and all other parts of the coast, including 
Suwaiq and Masnaah, were made over to Saiyid Turki. Soon after- 
wards Ibrahim bin Qais plundered a native craft belonging to British 
traders and imprisoned three of the owners. As Saiyid Turki was un- 
able to procure redress, the Resident in the Persian Gulf was directed 
to demand restitution of the plundered property and compensation for 
the imprisonment of British subjects, and in ca-sc of refusal to bombard 
Soliar. These claims, amounting to 2,255 dollars, were accordingly 
paid by Ibrahim bin Qais. 

Saiyid Turki was recognised by the British Government as Sultan of 
Muscat in June 1871; hut during that and the succeeding year his power 
was endangered by the intrigues of his brother Saiyid Abdul Aziz, and 
his nephew Saiyid Salim, in addition to the persistent hostility of 
Ibrahim bin Qais. A coalition was proposed in April 1872 between 
Ibrahim bin Qais and Saiyid Salim, but failed owing to the defeat of the 
former near Liwa and the desertion of the latter by his followers. Rind- 
ing themselves unable to subvert Saiyid Turki’s authority, his brother 
and nephew quitted Muscat territory towards the close of 1872 and pro- 
ceeded to Bombay. In the spring of 1873 they left Bombay and began 
to intrigue against Saiyid Turki’s authority in Makran. Offers had 
been made to them by Saiyid Turin of an allowance of 300 dollars a month 
on condition of their residing in India and abstaining from interference 



276 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


in Muscat affairs. These offers they declined, and in Jnly of that year 
saiyid Abdul Aziz moved on Gwadar. The attack failed, but a consi- 
derable amount of property belonging to British subjects was plundered. 
Saiyid Abdul Aziz was afterwards captured in an attempt to cross over 
to (Jinan, and detained in surveillance at Karachi. On his undertaking 
not to interfere in Muscat affair’s or leave Karachi without permission he 
was set at liberty, and the allowance of 300 dollars a month was paid to 
him through the British Government. Gwadar was again attacked in 
December 18T3, on this occasion by Saiyid Salim; the attempt, however, 
failed, and Saiyid Salim escaped into Persian territory. He was then 
informed that, if he surrendered unconditionally, he would be granted 
the same allowances as Saiyid Abdul Aziz; otherwise the offer wordd 
not be renewed, and lie would be arrested wherever he might be found. 
He subsequently made another attempt on Oman, was arrested by H. M. S. 
Da'jihne, and sent as a State prisoner to the fort of H 3 'derabad in Sind, 
where he died in December 1876. 

In dune 1873 Saiyid Turki undertook active operations against 
Ibrahim bin Qais and invested Sohar. Negotiations were entered into 
which resulted in the surrender of Sohar and other places on the coast 
to Saiyid Turki; Ibrahim bin Qais receiving a sum of 5,000 dollars and 
a monthly allowance of 100 dollars on condition of not moving eastward 
of the fort of Hibi. In spite of this reverse, Ibrahim bin Qais continued 
to intrigue against Saiyid Turki, and in March 1874 collected a force 
composed principally of the Yal Saad section of the Hiuawis, with which 
he attacked Masnaah and took possession of the fort after having 
plundered a considerable amount of property belonging to British sub- 
jects. As Ibrahim bin Qais refused to evacuate the fort at the demand 
of the Political Agent, it was bombarded, and an indemnity of 10,000 
dollars as compensation to British subjects was exacted from the Yal 
Saad. In the meantime Saiyid Turki had hardly returned from his suc- 
cessful expedition against Sohar when he was compelled to make terms 
with Salih bin Ali A1 TIarithi, Azzan bin Qais’ former minister, who 
made a successful attack on Matrah and was only induced to withdraw 
by the payment of a large sum of money. 

The annual subsidy which, under the terms of Lord Canning’s arbi- 
tration, the Sultan of Zanzibar was bound to pay to the Sultan of Mus- 
cat, was duly paid up to the date of Saiyid Thuwaini’s death in I860, 
but Saiyid Majid, who was then Sultan of Zanzibar," objected to continue 
the subsidy to Saiyid Thuwaini’s successor, Saiyid Salim, partly on the 
pretext that the engagement was personal to Saiyid Thuwaini, and 
partly on the ground of Saiyid Salim’s alleged parricide. These argu- 
ments rvere not admitted by the British Government, who had 
recognised Saiyid Salim as Sultan of Muscat; but an arrangement was 
effected by which the subside* was to be paid through the medium of 
the Political Agent in Oman. 



OMAN (MUSCAT). 


277 


On tlie expulsion of Saiyid Salim by Aw.au bin Qnis, Saiyid Majid 
again declined to pay tlie subsidy, on the ground tliat a ineinbei of 
another branch of the family had succeeded to power. This plea ceased 
to have force when Saiyid Turlri had succeeded in establishing his 
authority, and he appealed to the British Government to procure the due 
observance of the terms of the arbitration. As the great obstacle to the 
consolidation of Saiyid Turki’s power and the establishment of a peace- 
ful administration in Oman was his want of funds, it was determined 
to guarantee to him the payment of the subsidy, with arrear from the 
date of his succession to power; and an assurance was conveyed to him 
in 1873 that, so long as he continued faithfully to observe his treaty 
engagements and manifest his friendship towards the British Govern- 
ment, the subsidy of 40,000 crowns would be paid to him annually 
during his rule. In accordance with this guarantee, tlie payment was 
regularly made and, after the death of Saiyid Tuvki in 1888, the sub- 
sidy was continued to his successors always on the understanding and 
with the provisos under which it was paid to Saiyid Turki. 

The greater portion of the money thus received by Saiyid Turlci was 
spent in subsidising the various tribes in the interior; but the successful 
raid of Salih bin Ali showed how little reliance could he placed on their 
allegiance, and illustrated the real weakness of Saiyid Turki’s authority 
in Oman. As a means of maintaining his position Saiyid Tuvki sought a 
reconciliation with his brother Saiyid Abdul Aziz. Terms were finally 
arranged between the brothers, and Saiyid Abdul Aziz was permitted to 
proceed to Muscat and was associated with Saiyid Turki in the govern- 
ment of the country. The difficulties, however, with which Saiyid Turki 
had to contend did not disappear with the arrival of lus brother: and 
Saiyid Turlci, after an ineffectual attempt to conduct affairs unaided, 
entrusted the government to Saiyid Abdul Aziz and retired temporarily to 
Gwadar. 

Signs of opposition to the administration of Saiyid Abdul Aziz soon 
became apparent: and, within a few months of his retirement, Saiyid 
Turlci found himself in a position to return to Muscat. In December 
18(5, in the absence of Saiyid Abdul Aziz, be once more took possession 
of the town and forts : and by February 187G he had completed the re- 
establishment of his authority, Ibrahim bin Qnis alone remaining inde- 
pendent at tlie stronghold of Bustaq. 

In 1879 Saiyid Turki, at the invitation of the Shaikhs, sent an expe- 
dition to Dhufar from which the notorious Moplah usurper, Saiyid 
Fa dill, had lately been expelled by the inhabitants. The district was 
occupied by Saiyid Turki’s troops : and, although two unsuccessful 
attempts were made by the inhabitants in 1881 and 1888 to overthrow 
the Sultan’s rule, it still forms part of his dominions. 



278 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


In January 1880 the Sultan gave his assent to the adoption of the 
rules and regulations for preventing collisions at sea, etc., as published 
at page 81, Part 1, of the Gazelle oj India of the 31st January 18S0, 
so far as Muscat vessels are concerned. 

In 18SG the British Government declared publicly their determination 
to afford Saiyid Turin active support in case of attacks on Muscat, which 
had the salutary effect of maintaining- peace during the remainder of his 
life. 

Saiyid Turki died in 1888 leaving three sons, Muhammad, Faisal 
and Fahad. The second, Saiyid Faisal, who had already taken a share 
in the administration of the State during Iiis father’s lifetime, and had 
shown an aptitude for government, assumed power and proclaimed himself 
Sultan of Oman, immediately on his father’s death. In September 
1888 Saiyid Faisal undertook active operations against Saiyid Ibrahim 
bin Qais with a view to reduce Ttustaq, but the attempt ended in total 
failure. Saiyid Abdul Aziz made several attempts to overthrow Saiyid 
Faisal, but the latter successfully maintained his position and established 
himself in power. In 1S90 Saiyid Faisal was recognised as Sultan by 
the British Government, and in the same year Saiyid Abdul Aziz with- 
drew to Bombay. In 1891 the Sultan of Zanzibar offered him an 
alloAvance of Its. 600 a month, on the express conditions that he did not 
attempt to go to Zanzibar, or to apply to the Sultan for more money. 
He was advised by the Government of India to accept this offer, and was 
warned against disturbing the peace of either Zanzibar or Oman. 

Bandar Abbas was formerly held by the Sultans of Muscat on lease 
from Persia, but the lease was resumed in. 1808 and has not since been 
renewed. 

Besides their possessions on the Arabian coast, the Sultans of Muscat 
have held uninterrupted possession of the port of Gwadar since the close 
of the eighteenth century when, according to native tradition, it was 
conferred by Nasir Khan, Khan of Kalat, on Saiyid Sultan who had fled 
from Muscat after an unsuccessful attempt to subvert the authority of 
his brother Saiyid Said. When Azznn bin Qais succeeded to power in 
Muscat in 1868, he sent Saiyid Saif as his Governor to Gwadar, hut his 
fanatical opinions disgusted the inhabitants and he had to give way to 
Nasir bin Thuwaini. After Saiyid Turki’s success at Muscat in 1871, 
his brother Saiyid Abdul Aziz established himself at Gwadar, and 
subsequently seized the port of Chahbar, which had also been for many 
years in the possession of the Sultans of Muscat, but had been 
occupied by Din Muhammad, Shaikh of Dashtyari, about 1871. The 
Persians, however, who had long asserted a claim to sovereignty over 
Chahbar, attacked and took it in February 1872 and expelled Abdul 
Aziz, Avliile Saiyid Turki availed himself of this opportunity to make 
himself master of Gwadar, and has ever since retained possession of it. 
No intervention was made by the British Government in the proceedings 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


279 


of the Persian authorities; but in the attack on Chalibar properly 
belonging to British subjects was plundered, for which compensation 
was afterwards paid by Persia. 

In November 1807 an Order in Council was issued making suitable 
provision for the exercise of Consular jurisdiction in Muscat. 

In May 1871 Saiyid Turlci issued a Proclamation prohibiting the 
import of slaves into Muscat by sea, and in April 1878 Sir Battle 1'ieie, 
who had been deputed as Her Majesty’s Special Envoy to elfect arrange- 
ments for tbe more effectual suppression of the slave trade, concluded a 
formal Treaty (No. NIII) with him, by which he engaged for himself, his 
heirs and successors, to prohibit absolutely the import or export of slaves 
within his territories, to abolish all public slave markets, and to confer 
freedom on all slaves entering bis territories. It was moreover consi- 
dered desirable that subjects of Indian States residing in Muscat should, 
like British subjects under the Treaty of 1889 (No. IV) and the Order in 
Council of 1867, be amenable to tbe jurisdiction of tbe Political Agent 
and Consul. An Agreement (No. XIV) to this effect was signed by 
Saiyid Turld. 


In 1875 Saiyid Turlci consented (No. XV) to observe tbe customs 
rules issued by Sultan Said in 1846 (see No. VII), and to forego the duty 
in cases where the cargo might he transhipped to another vessel. 

In IS77 a commercial declaration was exchanged between Muscat, and 
Holland.* 


In 1S91 a Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation 
(No. XVI), superseding the Treaty of 1839 (No. IV), was concluded 
betweeu the British Government and the Sultan of Muscat. 


There was not in the new treaty any material departure from the 
spirit of the old, which it was expressly declared to supersede; but it con- 
tained a new provision by which the Sultan was debarred from prohibit- 
ing the import or export of any particular article, and the levy of export, 
taxes was made conditional upon the consent of the British Government. 
The treaty was to remain in force for 12 years absolutely, and was to be 
subject to revision at any time thereafter on the expiration of twelve 
months’ notice given by either party. 

In March 1891 the Sultan issued a Proclamation prohibiting- the im- 
port into Gwadar and its dependencies of arms and ammunition. 

About the same time the Sultan signed a Declaration (No. XVII) 
binding himself and his successors not to cede any portion of his dominions 
to any power other than the British Government. 

In 1895 certain Shaikhs of the Kinawi tribes rose in rebellion against 
the Sultan of Muscat, and seized the palace and the greater portion of the 
town. After throe weeks’ desultory fighting, the Sultan came to terms 


* See Appendix No. IV. 



280 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


with the rebels, wlvo evacuated the town. The damage done to British 
Indian property was assessed at $177,000, and an indemnity of this 
amount was demanded. • It was finally liquidated in 1900. 

In 1895 the Sultan notified the leading Shaikhs of Oman of the 
decision of the British Government that, in view of the important British 
interests in the towns of Muscat and Matrali, they would not permit an 
attack on these towns by the Shaikhs whatever differences the latter 
might have with the Sultan. This warning was reiterated in slightly 
different form in 1913. 

In December 1895 a rebellion broke out at Dhufar, where the rebels 
obtained possession of the town and province. Finding himself unable 
to regain possession, the Sultan asked the British Government to help 
him to recover his position. The Political Resident, with the Lawrence 
and Bussaclc, proceeded to Dhufar, whither 400 troops under Saiyid 
Muhamad bin Turki were also despatched. The rebels came to terms 
and handed over possession without bloodshed. 

In 1898 the Sultan agreed to co-operate with the British and Persian 
Governments in the suppression of the illegal importation of arms into 
British India and Persia, and issued a Proclamation authorising British 
and Persian men-of-war to search in Muscat waters vessels flying the 
British, Persian or Muscat flags, and to confiscate arms proved to be 
destined for British Indian and Persian ports. 

In 1897 the Sultan granted a lease to the French Government of the 
harbour of Bandar Jissah, about seven miles south of Muscat, as a coaling 
station. On the receipt of a protest from the British Government against 
this action as constituting a breach of the Sultan’s treaty engagements, 
he decided to cancel the lease. The matter was satisfactorily settled by 
the grant to' the French Government of a moiety of the area of the 
British coal depot in the Makallah cove of Muscat harbour. In 1921 the 
French Government renounced their rights in it to the Sultan, who 
granted the use of the site to the British Government. 

In 1899 the attention of the Sultan was drawn to the extent to which 
the practice of granting French flags, and therewith a claim to French 
protection, to Omani subjects had increased. The use of French 
flags by the people of Sur had gradually become so prevalent as to 
constitute a serious encroachment on the integrity and independence of 
Oman. Accordingly in February 1S99 the Sultan wrote to the French 
flag holders in Sur enjoining them to give up their flags : and at the 
same time informed the French Vice-Consul at Muscat that he did not 
recognize the right of the French to exercise jurisdiction over Omani 
subjects in Oman. During a visit which the Sultan paid to Sur in the 
following year the Suri French flag holders spontaneously presented him 



OMAN (MUSCAT). 


281 


with, a written agreement* in which they renounced the benefits 
of French protection, and undertook to return the French flags and certi- 
ficates in their possession to the authorities from whom they had received 
them. The Sultan formally taccepted this undertaking and issued a 


* Translation of document voluntarily passed by the Januabah and Bani Abu 
All, French Hag holders at Bur, in which they express their wish and intention to 
relinquish French protection from date, dated 12th June 1JUU 

Lot it he known to all who see these words that we, natives of Bur, who have 
been domiciled in the place from the days of our fathers and forefathers, c <msidei 
nnrsnlves the subjects of II is Highness Sultan l'eysal-bin-lurki-bin-Saeed, wo < 


ourselves the subjects of His Highness Sultan Peysal-l: 

his vassals and under his protection, and wo wish to *•**•*. —•>. - 

and obedience which it is tlio duty of subjects (to render to their sovereign); 


accordingly those of us who have taken French (lags will return thorn to that 
Government at the beginning of tlio coming year (that is, when season re-opens 
after monsoon), and, moreover, if their ■Consul (at Muscat) will accept thein trom 
us, wo are ready to ictum them at once in order to save ourselves the incon- 
venionce and loss of time (which would result if wo took thorn to Zanzibar, etc.)* 
Wo do this without any pressure being put upon us and without compulsion, 
simply from (a sense of) that respect which is duo to our said sovcicign. Let 
this be manifest and salaam. 


Dated Sur this 11th day Safav 1318, i.c., 12th June 1900. 

(Here follows attestation by the local ICazi or spiritual and legal head of the 
community.) 

I bear witness that the above has been declared true and valid by tbe indi- 
viduals who have signed below. 


So help me God. 

Saiyid Mauomed-bin-Saegd Ahmed Ed-Dhad, 

Moulavi (. Kazi ) of Sur, 

Here follow signatures of all the French llag-holders. 

Lastly follows the signature of 

Amu AnDuiiHA-niN-SAUM-um-MMioium-EvHAMOoiiEn, 
Chief of all the ciders of the tribes ai Sur and known as the “ Amir ", 


t Translation of formal acceptation of their undertaking passed by the Sultan 
to his subjects at Sur in response to their written document, dated tlio 12th Juno 
1900- 

Bo it known to you that wc have received the declaration which you presented 
to us on 11th Safav 1318, intimating that you, the Muldiannch, the Aramir, the 
Gheyahn, and Fuwarish sections of the Jenoboh and Beni Abu AH who against 
my wishes and without my authority had obtained {lags and articles from 
Consuls of the French Government pretending that you had thereby obtained 
Uiencii protection, and you inform mo that of your own wish and accord you now 
realise that you are my subjects and mine only, and that now, in the presence 
t)l ail the elders of your trines in full conclave, you desire and are readv to 
return your flags and French papers, and ask of 'mo from this day forward to 
consider the said papers and flags null and void. Accordingly 1 hereby receive 
your protestations, and believe that you have made them in good faith and accent 
them according to your wish, and it is understood that, if these articles remain 

y< ?T r Possession until the sailing season re-opens, you in the meanwhile drop 
.1 claim to any French protection by virtue of thorn. And, furthermore having 
understood your wishes and agreed .to fall in with them, .7. now intimate in return 

to have been in time past a misunderstanding among you as to mv wishes in 
tins connection there must be nothing of the sort in the future, you must tW 
foie, clearly understand that from to-day 1 neither recognise nor permit tint 

,™L S « b,e 1 °« mm ?’ no ;» att ‘T "’ho ho may be, should take so-calledTotectiou 
papeis and flags from too French Government or any Government P whatever 



282 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


Proclaim* lion} refusing to recognise in Ins territory foreign Hags and 
papers given to his subjects without permission. This proclamation was 
to have effect from after the date of its communication to the French 
Consul, and did not therefore debar those already in possession of the 
French flag from continuing to make use of it. The question reached an 
acute singe in 1903, when a French flag holder belonging to Sur, who 
had arrived at Muscat and who was subject to quarantine, broke quaran- 
tine himself and absconded, after abducting two followers from the 
quarantine station. 

The matter was then taken up in London by the French Ambassador, 
and, as a result of negotiations between the British and French Govern- 
ments, was referred to the IFague Tribunal whose decision, published on 
the Sth August 1905, was as follows: — 

1. That before the § 2nd January 1892, France was entitled to 
authorise vessels belonging to subjects of His Highness the Sultan of 
Muscat to fly the French flag, only bound by her own legislation and 
administrative rules ; 

2. That owners of dhows, who before 1892, had been authorised by 
France to fly the French flag, retained this authorisation as long as 
France renewed it to the grantee; and 

3. That after the 2nd January 1892, Franco was not entitled to 
authorise vessels belonging to subjects of His Highness the Sultan of 
Muscat to fly the French flag, except on condition that their owners, or 
filters-out, had established, or should establish, that they had been con- 
sidered and treated by France as her “ proteges ” before the year 1SG3 ; II 


without my special written permission and in accordance with the treaties exist- 
ing between me and Foreign Powers. Let it not he hidden from you and salaam. 


1.1th Safer 1318, | 

i.e., lSlh June 1000. 1 


Saiyio Fky sal-uin-Tujiki . 


t Translation of notification issued by the Saltan, dated the 14th Safar 1318, 
i.e., 15th June 1900 — 

Wo have observed that subjects of ours have ignorantly taken flags and articles 
from a foreign Government wheroumlor they pretend to claim their protection. 
This has taken placo in the past, but there must be none of it in the future, 
and you must understand that such procedure is contrary to the duties and ob- 
ligations of subjects to their sovereign. You are hereby informed that wo do not 
recognise in our territories (i.e., in tho hands of our subjects) such flags and pro- 
tection papers, and will not pardon any one who takes them otherwise than 
with our written permission and sanction in accordance with the terms of the 
treaties between us and Foreign Powers. Let this be clear to all and salaams. 
Written 14th Safar 131&. 

Sax Yin Feysai^uin-Tuiiki. 


§ The d ate in question is that of the ratification of the Brussels Act of 1890, 
the court holding that Franco was, in relation to Great Britain, bound to grant 
her flag only under tho conditions prescribed under article 32 of that Act. 

|| Tho year 1863 is taken as tho date which, in virtue of legislation by tho 
Ottoman Porto, and of tho Fra neo-Moroccan Treaty of that year, the creation 
of now protdgds was regulated and limitod. 



OMAN (MUSCAT). 


283 


and, with regard to the effect, transference or transmission of flags so 

granted, it was decided, _ _ 

(1) that dhows of Muscat authorised as aforesaid to fly the French 
flag were entitled in the territorial waters of Muscat to the inviolability 
provided by the French Muscat treaty of November IT, 1884; 

(2) that the authorisation to fly the French flag could not be trans- 
mitted or transferred to any other person, or to any other dhow, even if 
belonging to the same owner; and 

(3) that subjects of the Sultan of Muscat, who were owners ''or masters 

of dhows authorised to fly the French flag, or who were members of the 
crews of such vessels, or who belonged to their families, did non. enjoy 
in consequence of that fact, any right of exterritoriality which could 
exempt them from the sovereignty, especially from the jurisdiction of 
His Highness the Sultan of Muscat. \ 

The award of the Hague Tribunal was considered as generally satis- 
factory, and the French Government instructed their Consul at Muscat- ( 
to prepare a list of French proteges for communication to the British 
Consul and to discuss with him the manner of announcing the award. 

In 1900 a question arose as to the exact interpretation of article 6 (1) 
of tire Treaty of 1891. Under the provisions of this article exemption 
from payment of duty could he claimed on goods destined for tranship- 
ment, or re-exportation, provided that a declaration to this effect was 
made on the arrival of the ship and that the goods were handed over 
to be kept under customs seal. The Sultan of Muscat contended that 
goods consigned to Muscat in the manifest of the vessel, with discretion 
as to disposal on arrival, were not exempted from customs duty if re- 
exported or transhipped. It was, however, eventually agreed that there 
should be no rule requiring that goods to he transhipped or re-exported 
should he so declared in the manifest, and that the real intent of the 
Treaty would be secured if the agents observed the procedure prescribed 
in article 6 (1) of the Treaty. 

In November 1901 Muscat was put in cable connection with the outer 
world via -Task, 

In 1902 the British Government obtained from the Sultan an Engage- 
ment (No. XTIII) that he would not grant a concession for working the 
coal-fields in the hinterland of Sur to any foreign government or compnnv 
until an opportunity had been given to the British Government of under- 
taking the work in conjunction with the Sultan himself. 

In 1903 the Sultan issued a notification prohibiting the export of 
arms and ammunition into the British and Italian protectorates in Africa. 

In 1905 a London Company “ the Sponge Exploration Syndicate 
Limited ” obtained from the Sultan of Muscat, for a period of fifteen 
years, a concession to fish for sponges in the territorial waters of Oman. 

In 1910 a notification was issued by the Sultan prohibiting the export 
of arms and ammunition to Kuwait and Bahrain, ' 



284 


OMAN (MUSCAT). 


The great difficulty encountered in restricting the trade at Muscat was 
the interest which certain French dealers had acquired in it, and French 
treaties with Oman. In 1912 the Sultan, in consideration of an increase 
of one lakh of rupees in his annual subsidy .(cf. pages 276 and 277 above) 
from the British Government, issued a "Proclamation establishing an 
arms warehouse' and setting forth rules and regulations to govern the 
import and export of these goods. These regulations were intended to 
prevent the issue of arms to all destinations where their import was 
prohibited, and thereby to kill this illegitimate traffic. 

In 1913 Saiyid Faisal died and was succeeded by liis eldest son the 
present Sultan Saiyid Taimur. 

In 1913, a. few months before the death of Saiyid Faisal, the tribes of 
the interiof of Oman, who had been dissatisfied for some years with the 
weakness of the Sultan’s rule, broke out into open rebellion. Indian 
troops were landed for the defence of Matrah and Muscat. In 1915 the 
tribes attacked the British outpost line and met with a crushing defeat: 
the Sultan’s Government, however, was too .weak to regain control of the 
interior. In 1920 the imposition of a penal tax on exports from the 
interior induced the Omanis to come to terms with the Sultan’s Govern- 
ment through the mediation of the Political Agent. In 1921 the Indian 
troops were withdrawn, their place being taken by a local corps. 

In 1921 the Sultan signified his adhesion (No. XIX) to the Interna- 
tional Arms Traffic Convention. 

In 1923 the Sultan gave an undertaking (No. XX) that he would not 
exploit petroleum in his territory without consulting the Political Agent 
and the Government of India. 

In 1925 the Sultan concluded an agreement with the D’Arcy Ex- 
ploitation Company, giving them a two-years’ concession to explore for 
natural gas, petroleum, asphalt and ozokerite in his territories. The 
exploration license granted under the agreement, was extended for a 
further period of one year, after the expiration of which the agreement 
lapsed. 

The question of the revision of the Treaty of 1S91 (No. XVI) came 
under consideration in 1903, and His Majesty’s Government approved a 
revised draft in 1905. The question lias, however, since remained in 
abeyance. The Treaty was prolonged for five years in 1914, and since 
1919 it has been prolonged every year up to the present time (No. XXI). 
The Commonwealth of Australia withdrew from participation in the 
Treaty in 1923. 

In 1928 the Amirs of the Bani Bu Ali of Jaalan at Sur who had for 
some years previously adopted a rebellious attitude, established a cus- 
toms post at Aiqa and there hoisted their own flag. They then 
attempted to obtain mastery over the town but were attacked by certain 



OMAN (MUSCAT)— Sohar. 


285 


sections of the Jannabah, a local tribe of Snr. Dissensions amongst 
tlie Jannabah however enabled the Bani Jlu Ali to take sides with 
some of their sections against others and to interfere in the internal 
administration of Snr. The Political Resident visited Snr in August 
1930 and interviewed the Shaikhs of both the tribes with the result that 
the Jannabah promised to. settle their differences and the Bani Bu Ali 
hauled down their flag and hoisted that of the Sultan. 

In 1929 the Sultan of Muscat agreed to the erection of *> permanent 
wireless post of the British Government at Muscat. 

In March 1930 the Shaikh of Ruus-al-JiWl prevented survey parties 
from H, M. S. Ormonde from landing r*'t Khasab, refused to obey the 
orders of the Sultan of Muscat on the. Subject, cut off supplies from the 
Wali of Khasab and generally adapted an openly rebellious attitude. 
The Sultan sought the aid of tlp>' British Government in subduing the 
Shaikh, and an ultimatum wasyiksued to the Shaikh calling upon him to 
surrender. As he refused fo>'do so punitive action was taken against 
him by If. M. S. Lupin and Cyclamen in company with the Sultan’s 
gunboat Al Said. After due warning the Shaikh’s fort, at Khasab was 
bombarded and the Sultan declared the port closed to dhow traffic. The 
Shaikh surrendered on t J(o 5th May when he was made a State prisoner, 
a new Shaikh bein^ appointed in his place. 

/ SoirAit. 

The present ruling family of Muscat are, as has been already noted, 
descended from Ahmad bin Said, the Governor of Sohar, a town on the 
Baiinah coast about 100 miles north-west of Muscat, who in 1T41 expelled 
the Persians and- became the first ruler of Muscat. Saivid Qais of Sohar, 
who had attempted to supplant his nephew Raiyid Said in the government 
of Muscat, was killed in 1808, and his family wore deprived of their 
patrimony. In 1830, however, his grandson Saivid Hamud bin Axz an, 
the cousin of Saiyid.Said, taking advantage of the absence of the latter 
at Zanzibar, regained possession of Sohar and compelled Saiyid Said to 
restore to him also other districts on payment of tribute. His popularity 
in Oman was great and, but for the intervention of the British Govern- 
ment, he would have succeeded in dismembering the Muscat possessions. 
In 1839 a reconciliation was effected between Saiyid Said and Spiyid 
Hamud through the mediation of the Resident in the Persian Gulf, and 
an Engagement (Ho. XXTI) was mediated between them by which they 
engaged to abstain from aggressions on each other, and to admit free 
intercourse and trade between their respective possessions. Saiyid Said 
also bound himself to support the Sohar chief when attacked by 
enemies. 

By this agreement the Chief of Sohar became independent. As the 
general engagements for the suppression of the slave trade in the Persian 
Gulf were concluded while the relations of Sohar and Muscat were still 
undefined, no formal agreement had been concluded with Saiyid Hamud. 



280 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — Sohar. 


But in 1848 lie was invited to enter into the general arrangements : and 
a Treaty* (No. XX FIT), similar to those concluded with the other mari- 
time States for the suppression of the slave trade, was concluded in 
1840 with his son Saiyid Said, who was then in possession of the govern- 
ment. Saiyid Saif, who had usurped his father’s authority, was soon 
afterwards put to death by him. 


The treaty concluded in 1830 between Muscat, and Sohnr contained no 
article by wfif.Jj the British Government undertook to guarantee its con- 
ditions; hut the very An-mal manner in which it was negotiated was con- 
sidered to make it more th;..-> usually binding on both parties. Notwith- 
standing tin's, Saiyid Tlmwaim, who governed Muscat during his father’s 
absence at Zanzibar, treacherously seized Saiyid TEamud at a friendly 
conference and laid siege to Sohaq by land and sea. Nailing in his 
attempts to take the fort, he returned to Muscat, carrying his prisonei 
with him. Saiyid TTarnud died from li! ie rigour of his confinement in 
1800. Saiyid Qais, his brother, took up .arms to avenge his death, and 
with the help of the Qawasim look Shinas a* n d several other forts. Saiyid 
Said, however, returning from Zanzibar, gained over the Qawasim to his 
side and defeated Saiyid Qais, from whom'* he took Sohar, leaving to 
him Rustaq and JTibi and assigning him a monthly stipend of 200 crowns. 

On the death of Saiyid Said, his son Saiyid Txjrki , who had been 
placed in the government of Sohar, made several unsuccessful attempts 
to make himself independent of his elder brother Sniyip Thmvaini, and to 
create a rebellion in Oman. Accordingly, in 1802 Saiyid Thmvaini seized 
him and placed him in confinement. He was subsoqtujni\y ic’eased'on 
the intervention of the British Government, and a monthly allowance was 
made to him hy Saiyid Thmvaini conditionally on his remaining loyal. 
In 1805, in consequence of Saiyid Thmvaini’s expressed distrust of his 
brother, he was informed that Saiyid Turki would be permitted to reside 
in India during good behaviour on any allowance he might sanction: 
and that, unless Saiyid Turki accepted tin’s offer, the British Government 
would not interfere between him and his suzerain. 


When Saiyid Thuwaini was murdered in the following year, Saiyid 
Turin’s life was in danger at Sohar, and he was taken up hy the British 
Resident. The subsequent history of Sohar has been given in the narra- 
tive of Muscat affairs. Being now a part of Muscat dominions, it is 
governed by a Wali nominated by the Sultan. 


* An Act of Parliament, 1G anti 17 Vir:t., 
treaty into effort. See Appendix No. V. 


Cap. XVT, was passed to carry this 



287 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NO. 1—1798. 

No. I. 

Translation of tlie Cowlnamah, or Written Engagement from the Imam of 

Muscat, — 1798. 

Deed of Agreement from the State of the Omanian Asylum, under the appro- 
bation of the Imam, the Director, Syud Sultan, whose grandeur be eternal! 
to the High and Potent English Company, whose greatness be perpetua- 
ted ! as comprehended in the following Articles : — 

Article 1. 

Prom the intervention of the Nawab Etmandi Edowla Mirza Mchcdy Ally 
Khan Bahadoor Hurhmut Jung never shall there be any deviation from this Cowl- 
namah. 


Article 2. 

Prom the recital of the said Nawab my heart has become disposed to an in- 
crease of the friendship with that State, and from this day forth the friend of 
that Sircar is the friend of this, and the friend of the Sircar is to be the friend of 
that ; and, in like manner, the enemy of that Sircar is the enemy of this, and the 
enemy of this is to be the enemy of that. 

Article 3. 

Whereas frequent applications have been made, and are still making, by the 
French and Dutch people for a Factory, i.c., to seat themselves in either at Maskat 
or Gooinbroom, or at the other ports of this Sircar, it is therefore written that, 
whilst warfare shall continue between the English Company and them, never 
shall, from respect to the Company’s friendship, be given to them throughout 
all my territories a place to fix or scat themselves in, nor shall they get even ground 
to stand upon utithiu this State. 


Article 4. 

As there is a person of the French nation, who has been for these several years 
in my service, and who hath now gone in command of one of my 'vessels to the 
Mauritius, I shall, immediately on his return, dismiss him from my service and 
expel him. 

Article 5. 

In the event of any French vessel coming to water at Muscat, she shall not 
be allowed to enter the cove into which the English vessels are admitted, hut 
remain without ; and in case of hostilities ensuing here between the French and 
English ships, the force of this State by land and by sea, and my people, shall 
take part in hostility with the English, but on the high seas I am not to interfere 
XI 


X 



288 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NOS. 1—1798 AND 11—1800. 


Article 6. 

On tlie occurrence of any shipwreck of a vessel or vessels appertaining to the 
English, there shall certainly be aid and comfort afforded on the part of this Gov- 
ernment, nor shall the property be seized on. 

Article 7. 

In the port of Abassy (Goombroom) whenever the English shall be disposed 
to establish a Factory, I have no objection to their fortifying the same and mount- 
ing guns thereon, as many as they list, and to forty or fifty English gentlemen 
residing there, with seven or eight hundred English Sepoys, and for the rest, the 
rate of duties on goods on buying and selling will be on the same footing as at 
Bussora and Abushehr. 

Dated 1st of Jemmadee-ul-Aivul 1213 Hegira, or 12th of October 1798. 


No. II. 

Agreement entered into by the Imam of the State of Oman with Captain John 

Malcolm Bahadoor, Envoy from the Bight Honourable the Governor- 

General, dated the 21st of Shaban 1213 Hegira, or 18th January 1800. 

Article 1. 

The Cowlnamah entered into by the Imam of Oman with Mehedy Ally Khan 
Bahadoor remains fixed and in full force. 

Article 2. 

As improper reports of a tendency to interrupt the existing harmony and 
create misunderstanding between the States have gone abroad, and have been 
communicated to the Right Honourable the Governor-General, the Earl of Mom- 
ington, K. P., with a view to prevent such evils in future, we, actuated by senti- 
ments of reciprocal friendship, agree that an English gentleman of respectability, 
on the part of the Honourable Company, shall always reside at the port of Muscat, 
and be an Agent through whom all intercourse between the States shall be con- 
ducted, in order that the actions of each government may be fairly and justly 
stated, and that no opportunity may be offered to designing men, who are ever 
eager to promote dissensions, and that the friendship of the two States may remain 
unshook till the end of time, and till the sun and moon have finished their revolv- 
ing career. , 

Sealed in my presence. 

John Malcolm, 

Envoy. 

Approved by the Governor-General in Council on 26th April 1800. 



289 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. Ill— 1822. 

No. III. 

Treaty concluded with the Imam of Muscat for the Suppression of c>la. 

very, — 1822. 

Translation. 


In the name of the Most High God ! 

Particulars of the requisitions which were made 
by Captain Moresby, Commander of tho 
Ship Meant, who arrived at tho port of Muscat 
on tho 9th of tho sacred (month of) Zilhujjaii 
1237 (27th August 1822) from the Island of 
Mauritius, on tho part of the Govomor Sir 
Robert Parquhnr, Bahadur. 

Article 1. 

That you (the Imam) instruct all 
the Officers in your dominions to pre- 
vent the subjects from selling slaves to 
Christians of all nations. 

Article 2. 

That you do issue orders to all your 
Officers, who are on your part through- 
out your dominions, as well in Zanzibar 
as in other places, to the effect that 
if they discover persons on hoard any 
Arab vessel buying slaves for the pur- 
pose of taking them to Christian coun- 
tries, they (the Officers) should seize 
such vessel with all that she may con- 
tain, and should send to you the Nakhoda 
(i.e., the Commander) and the crew, in 
order that you may punish them. 

Article 3. 

That it shall be obligatory on the 
crew of every vessel that shall clan- 
destinely oonvey slaves to Christian 
countries to give, on their return to 
an Arab port, information to the Gov- 
ernor of that port, in order that he may 
punish the Commander, and that if 
they fail to give the information, all 
shall suffer punishment. 


In the name of the Most High God! 

Answers to tho requisitions which wero made 
by Captain Moresby on the part of tho 
Governor Sir Robert Farqulmr, Bahadur, 
may his glory bo eternal ! which (requisi- 
tions) aro mentioned on tho back of this 
paper. 

Article 1. 

That we did write last season to 
all our Officers to prohibit the sale 
of slaves to* all the Christian nations, 
and we will send further instruc- 
tions to them on the subject. 

Article 2. 

That we will send orders to all 
our Officers who are employed 
throughout our dominions to the 
effect that if they find any Arab 
vessel buying slaves for the purpose 
of taking them to Christian coun- 
tries, they must seize the vessel 
and inflict punishment on persons 
connected with her, even if they be 
bound for the Island of Madagascar. 

Article. 3. 

That wc will instruct our Officers 
and notify throughout our domi- 
nions that the crew of a vessel con- 
veying slaves for sale to Christian 
countries are required, on their re- 
turn to an Arab port, to give infor- 
mation to the Governor of the port in 
order that he may punish the Com- 
mander, but that if they conceal (the- 
fact), all shall suffer punishment. 

x 2 



200 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. Ill— 1822. 


Article 4. 

That Your Highness give us a •written 
order, on your part to the Governor 
of Zanzibar and your other Governors 
in that quarter, to the effect that they 
do allow a person to be stationed on our 
part in any place in those countries 
which we shall see fit, and that they 
do allow us a place for residence in 
order that wc may obtain intelligence 
of any vessel that may convey slaves 
to Christian countries. 


Article 5. 

That you give us a written permis- 
sion that if we find any vessel laden 
with slaves for sale, carrying them to 
Christian countries, after four months 
from the date of such written permis- 
sion, we may seize her. 


Article 6. 

That you do write to all your Gov- 
ernors that on the sailing of every vessel 
they shall write out a pass for her, 
stating clearly what port she is leaving 
and what she is bound to, in order that 
if our ships should meet a vessel having 
no pass, but having on board slaves 
for sale and proceeding in the direction 
of the Christian countries, they (the 
British ships) may seize her ; such a 
vessel, if found within the line of the 
Island of Madagascar and the neigh- 
bourhood of Zanzibar and Lamoo, to 
be carried into Muscat for punishment 
by you ; but if found sailing beyond 
the Island of Madagascar and in the 
sea of Mauritius, to be seized by them- 


Article 4. 

That a written order which you 
wish to have, permitting the sta- 
tioning of a person on your part 
in Zanzibar and the neighbouring 
parts for the purpose of obtaining 
intelligence of the sale of slaves to 
Christian nations, has been granted, 
and will reach through the hands 
of the respected Captain Moresby. 
May his dignity endure for ever ! 


Article 5. 

That written permission which you 
wish to have, permitting you, after 
four months, to seize vessels con- 
veying slaves for sale to Christian 
countries, will reach through the 
hands of the said Captain. 


Article 6. 

That wc will write to our Gover- 
nors regarding the granting of a 
pass to every vessel proceeding on 
a voyage, specifying therein the port 
she sails from, and the port she is 
bound to, and you may seize every 
vessel you may fall in with beyond 
the Island of Madagascar and in the 
sea of Mauritius after four months 
from the date of the written per- 
mission alluded to in the fifth requi- 
sition ; and if any vessel be found on 
this side, the matter should come to 
us, provided she do not possess a 
pass from the Governor of the port 
of departure. 



OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. Ill— 1822. 291 

selves (British vessels), and this (to take Here end the answers to the six 
place) after four months' from the date requisitions, and they have been 
of the written permission. written by the most humble. Abdul 

Kahir bin Syud Mahomed Ali Majid 
by order of his master, who com- 
mands his obedience, Syud Saeed bin 
Syud Sultan bin Imam Ahmed bin 
Saeed A1 Boo Saeedee. 

Written on the 17th of the sacred 
(month of) Zilhujjah 1237, one thou- 
sand two hundred and thirty-seven 
of the Hegira (4th September 1822). 

Tliis is signed by the humble 
Saeed bin Sultan with his own hand. 

Seal of Saeed bin Sultan bin 

AnsiED. 

Translation. 


In the name of the Most High God ! 

Particulars of an additional requisition inado by 
Captain Moresby for the suppression (of the 
sale of) slaves carried on board vessols to 
Christian countries. 

It is necessary to define the line 
beyond which wo may seize Arab vessels 
carrying slaves to Christian countries 
after four months from the date of the 
written permission mentioned in the 
fifth requisition. Let it be understood 
that all vessels on board of which there 
may be slaves for sale, and which may 
be found by our ships beyond a straight 
line drawn from the Cape Delkada and 
passing six zains (i.e., sixty miles) from 
Socotra on to Diou, shall bo seized by 
our ships, but that vessels found be- 
yond the said line driven by stress of 
weather or by any other unavoidable 
circumstance shall not be seized. 


In the name of the Most High God ! 

Answer to the additional requisition made 
by Captain Moresby for the suppression 
(of the sale of) slaves carried to Christian 
countries. 

I permit the Captains of ships 
belonging to the English Govern- 
ment to seize all Arab vessels carry- 
ing slaves to Christian countries which 
may be found beyond a straight line 
drawn from the Cape Delkada and 
passing sixty miles from Socotra on 
to Diou* after the date of the written 
permission mentioned in the fifth 
requisition, but not to seize vessels 
found beyond the line which may 
have been driven by stress of weather 
or any other unavoidable circum- 
stance. 

Written by Abdul Kahir bin Syud 
Mahomed bin Syud Majid by order 
of his master, who commands his 
obedience, Saeed bin Syud Sultan 
Imam Alimed bin Saeed A1 Boo 
Saeedee. 

Written on the 22nd Zilhujjah 1237, 
9th September 1822. 


* Hero is omitted four months. 


292 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. IV— 1839. 


Translation of the annexed letter, dated 18th August 1845, from His Highness 
the Imam of Muscat, to Captain Hamerton, relative to the fourth Article 
of the Treaty concluded on the 10th September 1822 by Captain Moresby 
with His Highness the Imam of Muscat. 

After Compliments . — Your excellent letter has reached, and your friend under- 
stood its contents ; you mention that you have received a letter from the mighty 
Government, containing orders to you to bring to our notice that, in the 4th 
Article of the Treaty we concluded with Captain Moresby in the year 1822, it is 
mentioned in the English version that it is incumbent on us, and our heirs and 
Governors, to assist in apprehending English subjects engaged in the slave trade, 0 
but that such is not mentioned in the Arabic version of the treaty, and my friend 
(you) considering it not necessary to alter the Treaty, nevertheless we consider 
it incumbent on us, our heirs and Governors, that we should assist to apprehend 
English subjects who may be engaged in the slave trade. Therefore whoever 
may be accredited from the Government and require assistance from us, shall 
receive it ^accordingly. Whatever you may require let us know, and peace bo 
on you. 

Dated dtli Shaban 1241, 18th August 1845. 


No. IV. 

Treaty op Commerce between Her Majesty the Queen of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland and His Highness Sultan Seid Saeed 
bin Sultan, Imam of Muscat, — 1839. 

Preamble. — Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and His Highness the Sultan of Muscat and its dependencies, being 
desirous to confirm and strengthen the good understanding which now subsists 
between them, and to promote by means of a convention the commercial inter- 
course between their respective subjects ; and His Highness the Sultan of Muscat 
being, moreover, desirous to record in a more formal manner the engagements 
entered into by His Highness on the 10th of September 1822, for the perpetual 
abolition of the slave trade between the dominions of His Highness and all Chris- 
tian nations, they have accordingly appointed as the Plenipotentiaries, that is 
bo say, Robert Cogan, Esq., a Captain in the Naval Service of the East India Com- 
pany, on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, &c., &c., and Hasin bin Ebrehim, and Ali bin Naser on behalf 
of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, &c., &c., who having communicated their 
full powers found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and concluded 
the following articles : — 

Article 1. 

The subjects of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat shall be at liberty to enter, 
reside'in, trade with and pass with their merchandize through all parts of Her 



OMAN (MUSCAT) — NO. IV— 1839. 


293 


Britannic Majesty’s dominions in Europe and in Asia, and shall enjoy m those 
dominions alt the privileges and advantages, with respect to commerce or other- 
wise, which are or may be accorded therein to the subjects or citizens of the most 
favored nations ; and the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty shall, in like man- 
ner, have full liberty to enter, reside in, trade with and pass noth their merchan- 
dize through all parts of the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, 
and shall in those dominions enjoy all the privileges and advantages, with respect 
to commerce or otherwise, which aTe or may he accorded therein to the subjects 
or citizens of the most favored nation. 

Article 2. 

British subjects shall be at liberty to purchase, sell, or hire land or houses in 
the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat. 

The houses, ware-houses, or other premises of British subjects, or of persons 
actually in the sendee of British subjects in the dominions of His Highness the 
Sultan of Muscat, shall not be forcibly entered, nor on any pretext searched with- 
out the consent of the occupier, unless with the cognizance of the Consul or British 
Resident Agent. But such Consul or Resident Agent, on just cause being adduced 
by the authorities of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, shall send a competent 
person, who, in concert with the Officers of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, 
shall conduct the search, and shall prevent the use of unnecessary violence or of 
improper resistance. 


Article 3. 

The two high contracting parties acknowledge reciprocally to each other the 
right of appointing Consuls to reside in each other’s dominions wherever the in- 
terests of commerce may require the presence of such officers, and such Consuls 
shall at all times be placed in the country in which they reside on the footing of 
the Consuls of the most favored nations. Each of the high contracting parties 
further agrees to permit his own subjects to be appointed to consular offices by 
the other contracting party, provided always that the persons so appointed shall 
not begin to act without the previous approbation of the sovereign whose subjects 
they may be. 

The public functionaries of cither government residing in the dominions of 
the other shall enjoy the same privileges, immunities and exemptions which are 
enjoyed within the same dominions by similar public functionaries of other 
countries. 

Article 4. 

Subjects of the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, actually 
in the service of British subjects in those dominions, shall enjoy the same pro- 
tection which is granted to British subjects themselves, but if such subjects of the 
dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat shall be convicted of any crime 



294 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. 1V—1839. 


or infraction of the law requiring punishment, they shall bo discharged by the 
British subject in whose service they may be, and shall be delivered over to tho 
authorities of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat. 

Article 5. 

The authorities of Ilia Highness the Sultan of Muscat shall riot interfere in 
disputes between British subjects or between British subjects and the subjects 
or citizens of other Christian nations. When differences arise between a subject 
of the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat and a British subject, 
if the former is the complainant, the cause shall be heard by the British Consul 
or Resident Agent, who shall administer justice thereupon. But if the British 
subject is the complainant against any of the subjects of His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat, or the subjects of any other Mahomedan power, then the cause shall 
be decided by the highest authority of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, or by 
persons nominated by him, but in such case the cause shall not be proceeded in 
except in the presence of the British Consul or Resident Agent, or of some person 
deputed by one or other of them, who shall attend at the Court House, or where 
such matter shall be tried. In causes between a British subject and a native 
of the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, whether tried before the 
British Consul or Resident Agent, or before the above-mentioned authority of 
His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, the evidence of a man proved to have given 
false testimony on a former occasion shall not be received. 

Article G. 

The property of a British subject who may die in the dominions of His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat, or of a subject of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat 
who may die in the British dominions, shall be delivered over to their heirs, or 
executors, or administrators of the deceased, or to the respective Consul or Resi- 
dent Agent of tho contracting parties, in default of such heirs, or executors, or 
administrators. 


Article 7. 

If a British subject shall become bankrupt in the dominions of His Highness 
the Sultan of Muscat, tho British Consul or Resident Agent shall take possession 
of all the property of such bankrupt, and shall give it up to his creditors to be 
divided among them. This having been done, the bankrupt shall be entitled 
to full discharge of his creditors, and ho shall not at any time afterwards be re- 
quired to make up his deficiency, nor shall any property he may afterwards ac- 
quire be considered liable for that purpose. But the British Consul or Resident 
Agent shall use his endeavours to obtain, for the benefit of tho creditors, any 
property of the bankrupt in another country, and to ascertain that everything 
possessed by the bankrupt at the time when lie became insolvent has been given 
up without reserve. 



OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. IV— 1839. 


295 


Article 8. . 

If a subject of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat should resist or evade pay- 
ment of his just debts to a British subject, the authorities of His Highness shall 
afford to the British subject every aid and facility in recovering the amount due, 
and in like manner the British Consul or Kesident Agent shall afford every aid 
and facility to subjects of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat in recovering debts 
justly duo to them from a British subject. 

Article 9. 

No duty exceeding 5 per cent, shall be levied at the place of entry in the do- 
minions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat on any goods, the growth, produce, 
or manufacture of the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty imported by British 
vessels, and this duty shall be deemed to be a full payment of all import and ex- 
port and tonnage duties, of license to trade, of pilotage and anchorage, and of 
any other charge by government whatever upon the vessels or upon the goods 
so imported or exported. Nor shall any charge be made on that part of the cargo 
which may remain on board unsold ; and no additional or higher duty shall be 
levied upon these goods when afterwards transported from one place to another 
in the dominions of His Highness ; but the above-mentioned duty having once 
been paid, the goods may be sold by wholesale or retail without any further duty. 
No charge whatever shall be made on British vessels which may enter the ports 
of His Highness for the purpose of refitting or for refreshments, or to enquire 
about the state of the market. 


Article 10. 

No articles whatever shall be prohibited from being imported into or exported 
from the territories of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, but the trade between 
the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty and those of His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat shall be perfect!}' free, subject to the above-mentioned d uty upon goods 
imported, and to no other ; and Ilis Highness the Sultan of Muscat hereby engages 
not to permit the establishment of any monopoly or exclusive privilege of sale 
within his dominions except in the articles of ivory and gum copal on that part 
of the East Coast of Africa from the port of Tailgate situated in about five and 
a half degrees of south latitude to the port of Quila lying in about seven degrees 
south of the Equator, both ports inclusive ; but in all other ports and places in 
Ilis Highness’s dominions there shall ho no monopoly whatever, but tlie subjects 
of Her Britannic Majesty shall be at liberty to buy and sell with perfect freedom 
from whomsoever and to whomsoever they choose, subject to no other duty by 
government than that before mentioned. 

Article 11. 

If any. disputes should arise in the dominions of His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat as to the value of goods which shall bo imported by British Merchants, 



296 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. IY— 1839. 


and on which the duty of 5 per cent, is to he levied, the Custom Master, or other 
authorized Officer acting on the part of government of His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat, shall he entitled to demand one-twentieth part of the goods, in lieu 
of the payment of 5 per cent., and the Merchant shall he bound to surrender the 
twentieth part so demanded whenever, from the nature of the articles, it may 
be practicable to do so ; but the Merchant having done so, shall be subject to 
no further demand on account of customs on the other nineteen-twentieths of 
those goods in any part of the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat 
to which he may transport them. But if the Custom Master should object to 
levy the duty in the manner aforesaid by taking one-twentieth part of the goods, 
or if the goods should not admit of being so divided, then the point in dispute 
shall be referred to two competent persons, one chosen by the Custom Master 
and the other by the importer, and a valuation of the goods shall be made, and if 
the referees shall differ in opinion, they shall appoint an arbitrator, whose 
decision shall be final, and the duty shall be levied according to the value thus 
established. 


Article 12. 

It shall not be lawful for any British Merchant to expose his goods for sale 
for the space of three days after the arrival of such goods, unless before the ex- 
piration of such three days, the importer and Custom Master shall have agreed 
as to the value of such goods. If the Custom Master shall not within three days 
have accepted one of the two modes proposed for ascertaining the value of the 
goods, the authorities of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, on application being 
made to them to that effect, shall compel the Custom Master to choose one 
of the two modes by which the amount of the customs to be levied is to be 
determined. 


Article 13. 

If it shall happen that either the Queen of England or His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat should be at war with another country, the subjects of Her Britannic 
Majesty and the subjects of His Highness the .Sultan of Muscat shall neverthe- 
less be allowed to pass such country through the dominions of cither power with 
merchandize of every description except warlike stores, but they shall not be 
.. allowed to enter any port or place actually blockaded or besieged. 

Article 14. 

Should a vessel under the British flag enter a port in the dominions of His 
Highness the Sultan of Muscat in distress, the local authorities at such port shall 
afford all necessary aid to enable the vessel to refit and to prosecute her voyage ; 
and if any such vessel should be wrecked on the coast of the dominions of His 
Highness the Sultan of Muscat, the authorities of His Highness shall give all the 
assistance in their power to recover and to deliver over to the owners all the 



OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. IV— 1839. 


297 


property that can he saved from such vessel. The same assistance and protection 
shall be afforded to vessels of the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, 
and property saved therefrom under similar circumstances in the ports and on 
the coast of the British dominions. 


ArticIjE 15. 

His Highness the Sultan of Muscat hereby renews and confirms the engage- 
ments entered into by His Highness with Great Britain on the 10th of September 
1822 for the entire suppression of slave trade between his dominions and all Chris- 
tian countries ; and Ilis Highness further engages that the ships and vessels of 
war belonging to the East India Company shall be allowed to give full force and 
effect to the stipulations of the said Treaty, agreeably with the conditions pre- 
scribed therein, and in the same manner as the ships and vessels of Her Britannic 
Majesty. 


Amicus 16. 

It is further acknowledged and declared by the high contracting parties that 
nothing in this Convention is intended in any way to interfere with or rescind 
any of the rights or privileges now enjoyed by the subjects of His Highness the 
Sultan of Muscat in respect to commerce and navigation within the limits of the 
East India Company’s Charter. 


.Article 17. 

The present Convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications thereof shall 
be exchanged at Muscat or Zanzibar as soon as possible, and in any case, within 
the space of fifteen months from the date thereof. 

Done on the Island and at the Town of Zanzibar this thirty-first day of May in 
the year of Christ eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, corresponding with the seven- 
teenth of the month Rubbcc-ul-Aioul of the Ul Hegira twelve hundred and fifty- five. 


Form of Declaration made on the part of the British Government previous 
to exchange of the ratifications. 

The undersigned Samuel Hcunell, Esq., a Captain in the Military Service of 
the East India Company, anu'Rcrvjlent in the Persian Gulf, appointed on behalf 
of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
to exchange Her Majesty’s ratification of the Treaty of Commerce concluded 
at Zanzibar, on the 31st May 1839, by Robert Cogan, Esq., a Captain in the Naval 
Service of the East India Company on the part of Her said Majesty, and by Hassnn 
bin Ebrchira, and Maliabat Ali bin Nasir, on the part of His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat, against the ratification of the same Treaty by His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat, is commanded by the Queen, in order to avoid any possible misunder- 
standing as to the meaning of the words contained in the ninth Article of the said 



298 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. IV— 1839. 


Treaty, “ any other charge by government whatever,” to declare to Syud Maho- 
med Ibin Syud Shurruf, appointed by His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, to 
exchange His Highness’s ratification, that the aforesaid words are by Her Majesty 
taken and understood to mean “ any other charge whatever made by the gov- 
ernment or by any local authority of the government.” 

Muscat , this twenty-second day of July 1840. 


S. Hennell. 


Form of Declaration made on the part of the Muscat Government previous 
to exchange of the ratifications. 

The undersigned Syud Mahomed Ibin Syud Shurruf, appointed by His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat to exchange His Highness’s ratification of the Treaty 
of Commerce concluded at Zanzibar, on the 31st May 1839, by Robert Cogan, 
Esq., a Captain of the Naval Service of the East India Company on the part of 
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and by Hassan Bin Ebreliim, and Mahabat Ali bin Nnsir on the part of His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat, against the ratification of the same Treaty by Her 
Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, having 
received from Samuel Hennell, Esq., a Captain in the Military Service of the East 
India Company, and Resident in the Persian Gulf, appointed to act in this matter 
on behalf of Her said Majesty, a declaration stating that in order to avoid any 
possible misunderstanding as to the meaning of the words “ any other charge 
by government whatever,” contained in the ninth Article of the said Treaty, 
the aforesaid words are by Her Majesty taken and understood to mean “ any 
other charge whatever made by the government, or by any local authority of the 
government,” the undersigned Syud Mahomed Ibin Syud Shurruf, being duly 
authorized by His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, hereby accepts and adopts the 
said declaration in the name and on the behalf of His Highness the Sultan of 
Muscat. 

Muscat,, this twenty-second day of July 1840. 

SvCd" I&atiomed Ibin Syud Shurruf. 

\ 


Form of Certificate signed on the 'exchange of the ratifications. 

The undersigned having met together for the purpose of exchanging the rati- 
fications of a Treaty of Commerce between Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, 
concluded and signed at Zanzibar on the 31st day of May 1839, and the respec- 
tive ratifications of the said instrument having been carefully perused, the said 
exchange took place this day in the usual form. 



OMAN (MUSCAT) — NOS. IV AND V— 1S39. 


299 


Iji witness wltercof they have signed the present Certificate of exchange and 
have affixed thereto their respective Seals. 

Done at Muscat, (he 22nd day of July ISdO. 

S. Eennell. 

Syud Maiiomep Inis Syud Shurkue. 


Translation of the ratification: of Ills Highness the Imam of Muscat to the 

Treaty of Commerce. 

We having duly considered the Treaty above drawn out have approved, ac- 
cepted, and confirmed the several Articles and Clauses therein set forth, and by 
this document do hereby approve, accept, and confirm the same for ourselves, 
our heirs, and successors. Accordingly wc do by our word promise and engage 
sincerely and faithfully to perform all and everything set forth and contained 
in the aforesaid Treaty, and further that to the utmost of our power we will allow 
no one to violate and infringe this engagement in any way whatsoever. In wit- 
ness whereof wc have directed our seal to be affixed to this document, which wc 
have signed with our own hand in this our port of Muscat, this 22nd day of Jem- 
madce-ul-Awul A. II. 1256, according to 22nd July 1810 of the Christian era. 

Syud Baked, 


No. V. 

Translation of additional Articles regarding the suppression of the foreign 
slave trade entered into by His Highness Saeed’ Syud bin Sultan, tbe 
Imam of Muscat, — 1839. 

I agree that the following Articles he added to the above Treaty concluded 
by Captain Moresby on the aforesaid date : — 

Articles 1. 

That the Government cruizcrs, whenever they may meet any vessel belong- 
ing to my subjects beyond a direct line drawn from Cape Delgado passing two 
degrees seaward of the Island of Socotra and ending at Pusscin, and shall suspect 
that such vessel is engaged in the slave trade, the said cruizcrs arc permitted to 
detain and search it. 


Article 2. 

Should it on examination be found that any vessel belonging to my subjects 
is carrying slaves, whether men, women, or children, for sale beyond the afore- 
said line, then the government cruizers shall seize and confiscate such vessel and 



300 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NOS. V— 1839 AND VI— 1845. 

her cargo. But if the said vessel shall pass beyond the aforesaid line owing to 
stress of weather, or other case of necessity not under control, then she shall not 
be seized. 


Article 3. 

As the selling of males and females, whether grown up or young, who are 
“ Hoor ” or free, is contrary to the Mahomedan religion, and whereas the Sooma- 
lees are included in the Hoor or free, I do hereby agree that the sale of males and 
females, whether young or old, of the Soomalee tribe, shall bo considered as piracy, 
and that four months from this date, all those of my people convicted of being 
concerned in such an act shall be punished as pirates. 

Dated lOlh Showal 1255 A. II., corresponding to the 17th December A.D. 1S39. 

Seal of Syud Bin Sultan. 


No. VI. 

Agreement between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland and His Highness Syud Saeed bin Sultan, “ the 
Sultan of Muscat,” for the termination of the Export of Slaves from the 
African Dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, — 1845. 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
being earnestly desirous that the export of slaves from the African dominions 
of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat should cease, and His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat, in deference to the wishes of Her Majesty and of the British nation, 
and in furtherance of the dictates of humanity which have heretofore induced 
him to enter into engagement with Great Britain to restrict the export of slaves 
from his dominions, being willing to put an end to that trade, and Her Majesty 
the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat having resolved to record with due form and solemnity 
this further restriction of the export of slaves, and Her Majesty having given 
due authority to Captain Hamerton, Her Kepresentative at the Court of the Sul- 
tan of Muscat, to conclude an agreement with His Highness, accordingly His 
Highness Saeed Syud bin Sultan, for himself, his heirs and successors, and Cap- 
tain Hamerton, on behalf of the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, her heirs and successors, have agreed upon and concluded the follow- 
ing Articles : — 


Article 1. 

His Highness the Sultan of Muscat here engages to prohibit, under the severest 
penalties, the export of slaves from his African dominions, and to issue orders 
to his Officers to prevent and suppress such trade. 



301 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NOS. VI— 1845 AND VII— 1846. 

Artiom 2. 

His Highness fclie Sultan of Muscat further engages to prohibit, under the 
severest penalties, the importation of slaves from any part of Africa into Ins 
possessions in Asia, and to use his utmost influence with all the Chiefs of Arabia, 
the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf, in like manner, to prevent the introduction 
of slaves from Africa into their respective territories. 

Article 3. 

His Highness the Sultan of Muscat grants to the ships of Her Majesty’s Navy 
as well as to those of the East India Company, permission to seize and confiscate 
any vessels, the property of His Highness or of his subjects, carrying on slave 
trade, excepting only such as arc engaged in the transport of slaves from one 
port to another of his own dominions in Africa between the port of Lamoo to 
the north and its dependencies, the northern limit of which is the north point 
c.f Kuyhoor Island in 1° 57' (ono degree and fifty-seven minutes) South Latitude, 
and the port of Kulwa to the south and its dependencies, the southern limit of 
which is the Soiiga Manora or Pagoda Point in 9° 2' (nine degrees and two minutes) 
South Latitude, including the Islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and Monfca. 

Article 4. 

This agreement to commence and have effect from the 1st (first) day of Janu- 
ary 1847 (one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven) of the year of Christ, 
and the 15th day of the month of Mahanecrun 1263 (twelve hundred and sixty- 
three) of the Hegira. 

■ Done at Zanzibar this 2nd ( second ) day of October 1815 {one thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty -five) oj the year of Christ and 29th day of Ramzan 1201 {twelve hundred 
and sixly-one) of the llegira. 

Atkins Hamerton, 

Captain. 


On behalf of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, her heirs and successors. - . 


No. VII. 

Rules established by His Highness the Imam of Muscat in April 1846, in regard 
to the Duties to be hereafter charged on the cargoes of vessels putting into 
' His I-Iighness’s ports. 

In a letter, dated the 13th April 1846, Captain Atkins Hamerton, Her Majesty’s 
CoubuI, and Honourable Company’s Agent in the dominions of His Highness the 
Imam of Muscat, reported that His Highness the Imam of Muscat had ordered 



302 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NOS. VII— 184G AND VIII— 1854. 


the following Rules to be henceforth observed in regard to the landing or tran- 
shipment of the cargoes of vessels putting into Muscat or into any of His High- 
ness’s other ports : — 

Article 1. 

That the full duty of 5 per cent, shall be levied on all articles transhipped 
from one vessel into another in all the ports and harbours belonging to His High- 
ness the Imam. 

Article 2. 

That a vessel of any nation being obliged to put into any of His Highness’s 
ports through stress of weather, or for the purpose of refit, shall not be required 
to pay duty on any part of her cargo which may be landed and stored during the 
repair of the vessel provided it be re-embarked in her. ' ' — — 

Article 3. 

That no duty shall, under any circumstances whatever, be levied on stores 
the property of the British Government when landed at any of His Highness’^ 
ports. 


No. VIII. 


Deed of Cession of the Koria Moria Islands executed by His Highness the 

Imam of Muscat in the presence of Captain Fremantle, Commanding Her 

Majesty’s Ship Juno, under -date the 14th June 1854. 

From the humble Saeed bin Sultan, to all and every one who may see this 
paper, whether Mahomedans or others — 

There has arrived to me from the powerful nation (England) Captain Fre- 
mantle, belonging to the Royal Navy of the Great Queen, requesting from me 
the (Jesairi bin Colfaim) Koria Moria Islands, viz., Iielaneea, Jibleca, Soda, Haski 
and Gurzond ; and I hereby cede to the Queen Victoria the above-mentioned Is- 
lands, to be her possessions, or her heirs and successors after her. In proof •where- 
of I have hereunto affixed my signature and seal, on behalf of myself and mv 
son after me, of my own free will and pleasure, without force, intimidation, or 
pecuniary interest whatsoever. 

And be the same known to all to whom these presents may come. 

Done at Muscat, the 17th day of the month Shoival 1270, 14th July 1854. 

Given under my hand. 

Saeed Bin Sultan, 

Imam of Muscat. 

Done in the presence of me. 

Stephen G. Fremantle, 
Captain, H. Mis Ship “ Juno ” 

Muscat, the 14th July 1854. 



303 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NO. IX— 1861. 

No. IX. 

Letter to His Highness Syud Tiioivaynee bin Syeed bin Sultan of 

Muscat, — 18G1. 

Beloved and esteemed Friend ! 

I address Your Highness on the subject of the unhappy differences which have 
arisen between yourself and Your Highness’s brother, the ruler of Zanzibar, and 
for the settlement of which Your Highness has engaged to accept the arbitration 
of the Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

Having regard to the friendly relations which have always existed between 
the Government of Ilor Majesty the Queen and the Government of Oman and 
Zanzibar, and desiring to prevent war between kinsmen, I accepted the charge 
of arbitration between you, and in order to obtain the fullest knowledge of all 
the points in dispute, I directed the Government of Bombay to send an Officer 
to Muscat and Zanzibar to make the necessary enquiries. Brigadier Coghlan 
was selected for this purpose, an officer in whose judgment, intelligence, and im- 
partiality the Government of India reposes the utmost confidence. 

Brigadier Coghlan has submitted a full and clear report of all the questions 
at issue between Your Highness and your brother. 

I have given my most careful attention to each of these questions. 

The terms of my decision are as follows : — 

1st . — That His Highness Syud Majid bo declared ruler of Zanzibar and the 
African dominions of His lato Highness Syud Saeed. 

2nd . — That the ruler of Zanzibar pay annually to the ruler of Muscat a subsidy 
of 40J300 crowns. 

3rd . — That His Highness Syud Majid pay to His Highness Syud Thowaynee 
the arrears of subsidy for two j r ears, or 80,000 crowns. 

I am satisfied that these terms are just and honourable to both of you : and 
as you have deliberately and solemnly accepted my arbitration, I shall expect that 
you will cheerfully and faithfully abide by them, and that they will be carried 
out without unnecessary delay. 

The annual payment of 40,000 crowns is not to be understood as a recogni- 
tion of the dependence of Zanzibar upon Muscat, neither is it to bo considered as 
merely personal between Your Highness and your brother Syud Majid. It is to 
extend to your respective successors, and is to be held to be a final and permanent 
arrangement, compensating the ruler of Muscat for the abandonment of all claims 
upon Zanzibar, and adjusting the inequality between the two inheritances derived 
from your father, His late Highness Syud Saeed, the venerated friend of the 

British Government, which two inheritances are to be henceforward distinct and 
separate. 

I am. Your Iliglmess’s 
Sincere friend and well-wisher, 
Canning. 

5 


Fort William ; 
The 2nd April 1861. 


XI 



304 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NOS. IX— 1801 AND X— 1802. 


To His Exacted Excellency Loud Canning, Governor-General of. India, 

etc., etc., etc. 

In the name of the great God ! 

After Compliments . — At a most propitious and favourable time we weic 
honoured with the receipt of your esteemed letter and were highly gratified with 
its contents. What Your Excellency has stated is most satisfactory to us, more 
especially as regards your award betwixt us and our brother Majid. We heartily 
accept the same and are at a loss how to express our regret for having occa- 
sioned you so much trouble, and our appreciation of the kindness which has 
been manifested towards us in this matter. We thank God for your efforts on 
our behalf, praying also that your good will may be rewarded and that you may 
never cease to be our support. We further pray that our sincere affection may 
always be towards the Great (British) Government, and that it may increase 
continually : moreover, that your exalted affection and noble solicitude may 
always be exercised towards us, and that wo may never be deprived thereof. 
As regards our brother Majid, we pray God during our life-time he may never 
experience anything from us but kindness and hearty good will. Furthermore, 
we rely implicitly on your arbitration between us (being carried out). 

What your exalted Excellency may require in any way from your attached 
friend, a hint alone will suffice for its accomplishment, and we shall feel honoured 
in executing it. 

We pray finally that you may be preserved to the highest honours and in the 
most perfect health. We send you the salutation of peace as the best conclusion. 

From your truly sincere friend, the servant of God, who confides in him as 
the Giver of all good. „ 

Thowaynee bin Saeed bin Sultan. 

4th of Eb-Kaada 1277. 

15th Slay 1861. 


No. X. 

Declaration respecting the Independence of Muscat and Zanzibar, — 1862. 


Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
and His Majesty the Emperor of the 
French, taking into consideration the 
importance oi maintaining the indepen- 
dence of His Highness the Sultan of 
Muscat and of His Highness the 
Sultan of Zanzibar, have thought it 
right to engage reciprocally to respect 
the independence of these Sovere- 
igns. 


Sa Majeste la Heine du Boyaume 
Uni de la Grande Bretagne et de 
Tlrlande et Sa Majeste 1’Empereur 
des Franijais, prenant en consider- 
ation l’importance qui s’attache au 
maintien dc l’independance du 
Sultan de Muscat, d’une part, et du 
Sultan de Zanzibar de l’autre, out juge 
convenable de s’ engager recipro- 
quement a respecter l’independance 
de ces deux Princes. 



305 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NOS. X — 1802 AND XI— 1864. 


The undersigned, Her Britannic 
Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary at the Court of France, 
and the Minister Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs of Ilis Majest}' tho 
Emperor of the French, being furnished 
with the necessary powers, hereby de- 
clare in consequence that their said 
Majesties take reciprocally that engage- 
ment. 

Witness ■whereof tho undersigned have 
signed the present Declaration and have 
affixed thereto the seals of their arms. 

Done at Paths, 

The 10th March 1S62. 


Lcs Soussignfe, Ambnssndcur 
Extraordinaire ct plcnipotentiaire de 
Sa Majeste Britannique, prfcs la Cour 
do France, ct Ministre dcs Affaires 
Etrang6res de Sa Majeste PEmpereur 
dcs Fran$ais etant emmis de pouvoir 
a cot effet, dcclarent en consequence 
par le present Acte, quo lours dites 
Majestes prennent reciproquemcnt 
l’cngagement indique ci-dessus. 

En foi de quoi, les Soussignes 
ont signe on double la presento 
Declaration ct y ont oppose le cachet 
do lents armes. 

Fait a Paris, 
le 10 Mars 1862, 
Cowley. 

De Thoevenal. 


No. XI. 

Articles of Agreement agreed to before Lieutenant-Colonel Lewis Pelly, 
Her Britann o Majesty’s Political Resident in the Persian Gulp, 
- and Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Diserowe, Her Britannic Majesty’s 
Political Agint at Birka, Muscat, by. His Highness Syed Tiioweynee 
bin Saeed bin Sultan, the Sultan of Muscat, — under date this 17th day 
of November 1804. 


' Article 1. 

My ancicut and faithful ally, the British Government, is at liberty to con- 
ntruct one or more lines of telegraphic communication anywhere within the terri- 
tories appertaining to the State of Muscat. 

Article 2. 

The British G jvernment is further at liberty to construct one or more lines 
of telegraphic communication in any territories which I may hold in lense from 
the Shall of Persi.'. 

r 

Article 3, 

i 1 engage for myself, my heirs, and successors, to respect and abstain from 
all and every interference with telegraphic operations carried on by the British 
Govern^ cat in it near the territories of Muscat, 



306 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NOS. XM.864 AND XII— 1865. 


Article 4. 

And in the event (which God forbid) of any of my subjects or dependants 
committing an act of aggression or trespass on the said telegraphic lines and sta- 
tions, or other telegraphic materials, I will immediately punish the offender, and 
proceed to afford full redress upon the same being brought to my notice. 

Article 5. 

Nothing in these Articles shall be held as conferring any dominion or sovereign 
right on the part of the British Government over the territory of Muscat through 
which the line may pass, neither of any additional dominion or right on my part 
as Sultan of Muscat, over territory which I may hold in lease from the Shah of 
Persia. 

Article 6. 

In like manner nothing in these Articles shall be held as invalidating or derogat- 
ing from the title of the British Government to the station of Bassadore, that 
station having been freely granted to the British Government by my late illus- 
trious father of blessed memory, the late Imaum Syed Saeed bin Sidtan_,''ii_bch" 1 f 
of himself, his heirs, and successors. T 


Article 7. 

Nothing in these Articles shall be held as invalidating a ..ny Article of any Treaty 
entered into by myself or forefathers with our ancient and '* faithful ally, the British 
Government, from the year 1798 downwards. _ 

Dated Birka, Muscat, 17th November 1864. Signed in ou vx presence by Syed 
Thoweynee bin Saeed, Sultan of Muscat,- this 1 7th day of N^ovember 1864, and 
sealed in our presence by His Highness’s Minister, Hajee Aha'iied, at Muscat, this 
18th day of November 1864. | 

Lewis PellA', Lieut.-Col., 

H. B. M.’s Polll. Rjcscll., Persian Gulf, 


Herbert Disiv 
H. B. M.’s PoUl. Ag< 


No. XII. 


irowe, Lieut.-Col., 
\znt, Muscat. 


f 


Convention between the British Government and His $ Highness Syud 
Thowaynee bin Saeed bin Sultan, the Sultan of Muscat, for the exten- 
sion of the Electric Telegraph through the dominions subject to the 
sovereignty of His Highness in Arabia and Mekran, — ij ( 865. 

j 

Article 1. | 

That the British Government shall be at liberty to constr f uc t one or more 
telegraphic lines, and to erect Telegraph Stations, in any por^ on 0 f territory 



OMAN (MUSCAl')-NO. Xi 1—1886. 307 

subject to tbe sovereignty of His Highness, both in Arabia and Mekxan, which 
Bhall be most convenient to them. 

Article 2. 

That the cost of materials, landing charges, labour, housing, provisions, etc., 
etc., shall be paid by the British Government, who will make any arrangement 
they consider most convenient regarding their own supplies, labour, etc., the 
Sultan of Muscat undertaking that no impediment of any sort shall be thrown 
in their way in collecting them ; on the contrary, that every protection and 
assistance shall be given on his part. 

Article 3. 

That His Highness the Sultan of Muscat shall afford protection to the best 
of his ability to the lines of Telegraph, the Telegraph Stations, and the persons 
employed in their construction and maintenance. 

Article 4. 

Should any disagreements arise in the possessions of the Sultan of Muscat, 
situate neat Arabia, between the Telegraph officials and the subjects of Ifis High- 
ness, the said disagreements shall be referred to the British Political Officer at 
Muscat, if they cannot be satisfactorily settled on the spot. 

Article 5. 

In like manner, should any disagreements arise in the possessions of the Sultan 
of Muscat, situate in Mekran, between the Telegraph officials and the subjects 
of His Highness, the said disagreements shall be referred to the Assistant British 
Political Officer at Gwadur, if they cannot be satisfactorily settled on the spot. 

Article G. 

This Convention, together with any supplementary Articles that may here- 
after thereunto be added, is to bo considered dependent for completion and effect 
upon the approval of the British Government. 

Done at Muscat this nineteenth day of January in the year of Christ one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-five, corresponding with the twentieth day of the month Shabun 
of the Ilegira one thousand two hundred and eighly-one, day of the weeh Thursday. 

Herbert Disbrowe, lAcut.-Col., 

Ih B. M.’s Poltl. Agent at Muscat, 
on the part of the British Govt. 



303 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. Sill— 1873. 


No. XIII. 

Treaty between Her Majesty and tbe Sultan of Muscat for tlie Abolition 
of the Slave Trade, signed at Muscat, April 14th, 1873. 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and His Highness the Syud Toorkee bin Saeed, Sultan of Muscat, being desirous 
to give more complete effect to the engagements entered into by the Sultan and 
his predecessors for the perpetual abolition of the Slave Trade, they have agreed 
to conclude a Treaty for this purpose which shall be binding upon themselves, 
their heirs, and successors'; and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and. Ireland having appointed as her Plenipotentiary Sir Henry 
Bartle Edward Erere, Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the 
Bath, and Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of 
India, he, having communicated to the Sultan of Muscat his full powers found in 
good and due form, and the aforesaid Sultan of Muscat, Syud Toorkee bin Saeed, 
acting on his own behalf, they have agreed upon and concluded the following 
Articles : — 


Article 1. 

The import of slaves from the coasts or islands of Africa or elsewhere into the 
dominions of Muscat, whether destined for transport from one port of the Sultan 
of Muscat’s dominions to another, or for conveyance to foreign ports, shall entirely 
cease, and any vessels engaged in the transport or conveyance of slaves after this 
date shall be liable to seizure and condemnation by all such Naval and other 
Officers or Agents, and such Courts as may be authorized for that purpose on the 
part of Her Britannic Majesty ; and all persons hereafter entering the Sultan’s 
dominions and dependencies shall be free. 

Article 2. 

The Sultan engages that all public markets in his dominions for slaves shall 
be entirely closed. 


Article 3. 

The Sultan engages to protect, to the utmost of his power, all liberated slaves, 
and to punish severely any attempt to molest them or reduce them again to 
slavery. 


Article 4. 

Her Britannic Majesty engages that natives of Indian States under British 
protection shall, from aud after a date to be hereafter fixed, be prohibited from 
possessing slaves, and in the meanwhile from acquiring any fresh slaves. 



OMAN (MUSCAT) — NOS. XIII AND XiV-1873 AND XV-1875. 309 

Article 5. 

The present Treaty shall be ratified by Her Majesty, and the ratification shall 
be forwarded to Muscat as soon as possible.* 

In witness whereof, Sir Henry Bartle Edward Erere, on behalf of her Majesty 
the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Synd Toorkeo 
bin Saeed, Sultan of Muscat, on his own behalf, have signed the same and have 
affixed thereto their respective seals. 

Done at Muscat this fourteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-throe. 

H. B. E. Frere. 

Svud Tooricbe bin Saeed. 


No. XIV. 

Agreement entered into by the Sultan of Muscat relative to the jurisdiction of 
the Political Agent aud Consul over subjects of Native States in India 
residing in the Muscat Dominions, — 1873. 

Whereas it is desirable that all subjects of Native States in India residing in 
Muscat territories should be amenable to the jurisdiction of the Political Agent 
and Consul at Muscat, and it would appear that such jurisdiction is at present 
defective without the express consent of Ilis Highness the Saltan : It is hereby 
formally declared and consented to by His Highness Synd Toorkeo bin Saeed on 
behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, that subjects of Native States of India 
who may commit offences within the Muscat dominions shall be amenable to the 
Political Agent and Consul’s Court in the same way as British subjects whenever, 
in any particular case, the Political Agent thinks fit to exercise such jurisdiction, 
and that the words “ British subjects ” in all Treaties between the English Gov- 
ernment and the Muscat State shall include subjects of Native Indian States. 

Toorkee bin Saeed. 


No. XV. 

Translated purport of a letter from His Highness Syud Toorkee, Sultan 
of Muscat, to Major S. B. Miles, Her Britannic Majesty’s Political 
Agent and Consul, Muscat,— dated 3rd Mohurrum 1291— 10th February 
1875. 

I have received your letter of the 2nd instant, and have understood its coil- 
tents. I abide by the agreement made by my father with the British Govern- 
ment regarding the Customs duties leviable on goods landed from distressed 
vessels. F or example, if a vessel that puts into Muscat for repairs, lands her 
cargo in order to undergo such repairs, and re-ships her cargo or puts it into another 


"Delivered to tlw Sultan in September 1873 , 



310 OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO'S. XV— 1875 AND XVI— 1891. 

vessel, I forego all claim to duty for the sake of the unity between us and the 
British Government, and will raise no question concerning such goods, even though 
such were liable to duty in the time of our ancestors. 


No. XVI. 

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Great Britain 

and Muscat, — 1891. 

Signed at Muscat, March 19th, 1891. 

Ratifications were exchanged in 1892. 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Empress of India, and His Highness the Seyyid Feysal bin Turki bin Saeed, Sultan 
of Muscat and Oman, being desirous to confirm and strengthen the friendly rela- 
tions which now subsist between the two countries and to promote and extend 
their commercial relations, have named as their Plenipotentiaries to conclude a 
treaty for this purpose, that is to say : — 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Empress of India, Colonel Edward Charles Ross, Companion of the Star of India, 
Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Resident in the Persian Gulf ; and His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat in person ; who had agreed upon and concluded the 
following Articles 

Article 1. 

The Treaty concluded between the British Government and Sultan Seyyid- 
bin-Sultan of Muscat and Oman on the 31st May, 1839 (17 Rabia 1st, 1255), is 
hereby cancelled and declared void, and the present Treaty, when ratified, shall 
be substituted for it. 


Article 2. 

Subjects of Her Britannic Majesty shall, for the purposes of this Treaty, include 
subjects of Native States in India in alliance with Her Majesty. Such subject 
shall enjoy, immediately and unconditionally, throughout the dominions of His 
Highness the Sultan of Muscat, with respect to commerce, shipping and the exer- 
cise of trade, as in every other respect, all the rights, privileges, immunities, 
advantages, and protection of whatsoever nature, which are, or hereafter may be, 
enjoyed by, or accorded to, the subjects or citizens of the most favoured nation. 

They shall more especially not be liable to other or more onerous duties, im- 
posts, restrictions, or obligation of whatever description, than those to which 
subjects or citizens of the most favoured nation now are, or hereafter may be, 
subjected. 

Article 3. 

The two High Contracting Parties acknowledge reciprocally to each other the 
right of appointing Consuls to teside in each other’s dominions wherever the 



311 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NO. XVI— 1891. 

interests of commerce may require the presence of such officers and snch Consuls 
shall at all times he placed, in the country in which they reside, on the footing 
of the Consuls of the most favoured nations. Bach of the High Contracting 
Parties further agrees to permit his own subjects to be appointed to Consular 
Offices by the other Contracting Party, provided alwyas that the person so 
appointed shall not begin to act without the previous approbation of the Sovereign 
whose subjects they may be. The public functionaries of either Government 
residing in the dominions of the other, shall enjoy the same privileges, immuni- 
ties, and exemptions which are enjoyed within the same dominions by similar 
public functionaries of other countries. 

Article 4. 

There shall be perfect freedom of commerce and navigation between the High 
Contracting Parties ; each shall allow the subjects of the other to enter all ports, 
creeks, and rivers with their vessels and cargoes, also to travel, reside, pursue 
commerce and trade, whether wholesale or retail, in each other’s dominions, and 
therein to hire, purchase, and possess houses, warehouses, shops, stores, and lands. 
British subjects shall everywhere be freely permitted, whether personally or by 
agent, to bargain for, buy, barter, and sell all kinds of goods, articles of import, 
or native production, whether intended for sale within the dominions of His High- 
ness or for export, and to arrange with the owner or his agent regarding the price 
of all such goods and produce without interference of any sort on the part of the 
authorities of His Highness. 

His Highness the Sultan of Muscat binds himself not to allow or recognise 
the establishment of any kind of monopoly or exclusive privilege of trade within 
Iub dominions to any Government, Association, or individual. 

Article 5. 

Subjects of Her Britannic Majesty shall be permitted, throughout the domi- 
nions of His Highness the Sultan, to acquire by gift, purchase, intestate succes- 
sion, or under will, or any other legal manner, land, houses, and property of every 
description, whether moveable or immoveable, to possess the same ; and freely 
to dispose thereof by sale, barter, donation, or otherwise. 

Article 0. 

His Highness the Sultan shall bo permitted to levy a duty of entry not ex- 
ceeding 5 per cent, on the value of all goods and merchandise, of whatever de- 
scription, imported by sea from foreign countries into Ilis Highness’s dominions. 
This duty shall be paid at that port in His Highness’s dominions where the goods 
arc first landed, and, on payment thereof, such goods shall thereafter be exempt, 
within the Sultan’s dominions, from all other custom duties or taxes, levied by* 
or on behalf of, the Government of His Highness the Sultan, by whatever names 
these may be designated, and no higher import duty shall be claimed from British 
subjects than that which is paid by subjects or citizens of the most favoured nation. 



312 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NO. XVl— 1891. 

This duty, once paid, shall cover, from all other charges on the part of His 
Highness the Sultan, goods of whatever description coming from Foreign coun- 
tries by sea, whether these arc intended for local consumption or for transmis- 
sion elsewhere in bulk or otherwise, and whether they remain in the state in which 
they are imported or have been manufactured. 

There shall, however, be exempted from payment of all duty the following* 
namely : — 

(1) All goods and merchandise which, being destined for a foreign port, are 

transhipped from one vessel to another in any of the ports of His 
Highness the Sultan of Muscat, or which have been for this purpose 
provisionally landed and deposited in any of the Sultan’s Custom- 
houses to await the arrival of a vessel in which to be re-shipped abroad. 
But goods and merchandise so landed shall be exempted only, provided 
that the consignee or his Agent shall have, on the arrival of the ship, 
handed over the said goods to be kept under Customs seal, and de- 
clared them as landed for transhipment, designating at the same time 
the foreign port of destination, and also provided that the said goods 
are actually shipped for the said foreign port as originally declared, 
within a period not exceeding six months after their first landing, 
and without having, in the interval, changed owners. 

(2) All goods and merchandise which, not being consigned to a port within 

the dominions of the Sultan, have been inadvertently landed, provided 
that such goods are re-shipped within a month of being so landed and 
transported abroad. Should, however, such goods or merchandise, 
here spoken of, be opened or removed from the custody of the Customs 
authorities, the full duty shall then be payable on the same, 

(3) Coals, naval provisions, stores, and fittings, the property of Her Majesty’s 

Government, landed in the dominions of His Highness for the use of 
the ships of Her Majesty’s Navy. 

(4) All goods and merchandise transhipped or landed for the repair of damage 

caused by stress of weather or other disasters at sea, provided the 
cargo so discharged shall be re-shipped and taken a\Vay on board of 
the same vessel, or if the latter shall have been condemned, or her 
departure delayed, in any other manner. 

Article 7. 

No article whatever shall be prohibited from being imported into or exported 
irom the territories of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, and no export duties 
are to be levied on goods exported from those territories except with the consent 
of the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, such consent being subject to the 
conditions that may be laid down in the notifications intimating the same. 

Article 8. 

It is agreed and understood by the High Contracting Parties that, in the event 
of an arrangement being entered into hereafter between His Highness and the 



OMAtf (ilbsGAT)— NO. XVI— 1891. 


313 


Powers having Treaty relations with Muscat, and to which Great Britain shall 
be a consenting party, whereby vessels entering the port. of Muscat shall be charged 
with shipping, tonnage, or harbour dues, such dues to be administered under the 
control o£ a special Board for the improvement of the harbour and construction 
and maintenance of lighthouses, etc. ; nothing in the aforementioned provisions 
shall be construed so as to exempt British vessels from payment of suoh shipping, 
harbour, or tonnage dues as may hereafter be agreed upon. 


Article 9. ' 

It shall be at the option of the British subject in each case to pay the per- 
centage duties stipulated in Article G, either in cash, or, if the nature of the goods 
allows of it, in kind, by giving up an equivalent amount of the goods or produce. 

In the event of payment being made in cash, the value of the merchandise, 
goods, or produce on which duty is to bo levied, shall be fixed according to the 
ready money market price ruling at the time when the duty is levied. In the 
case of foreign imports, the value shall he fixed according to the market price at 
Muscat, and in tkat of native goods and produce by the market price at the place 
where the merchant shall choose to pay the duty. 

In the event of any dispute arising between a British subject and the Custom- 
house authorities regarding the value of such goods, this shall he determined by 
reference to two experts, each party nominating one, and the value so ascertained 
shall he decisive. Should, however, these experts not be able to agree, they shall 
choose an umpire, whose decision is to be considered final. 

Article 10. 

His Highness the Sultan of Muscat engages by the present Treaty to provide 
And give orders to his officials that the movement of goods in transit shall not 
be obstructed or delayed in a vexatious manner by unnecessary Customs formali- 
ties and Regulations, and that every facility will be given for their transport. 

Article 11, 

British vessels entering a port in the dominions of His Highness the Sultan 
bf Muscat, in distress, shall receive from the local authorities all necessary aid 
to enable them to re-victual and refit so as to proceed on their voyage. 

Should a British vessel be wrecked off the coast of His Highness’s dominions, 
the authorities of His Highness shall render all assistance in their power to the 
distressed vessel in order to save the ship, her cargo, and those on board ; they 
shall also give aid and protection to persons saved, and shall assist them in reach 
ing the nearest British Consulate ; they shall further take every possible care 
that the goods so recovered are safely stored, and kept for the purpose of beiim 
handed over to the owner, Captain, Agent of the ship, or British Consul, subject 
always to rights of salvage. J 



314 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NO. XVI— 1891. 


His Highness’s authorities shall further see that the British Consulate is at 
once informed of such disaster having occurred. 

Should a British vessel, wreoked on the coast of His Highness’s dominions 
be plundered, the authorities of His Highness shall, as soon as they come to know 
thereof, render prompt assistance and take measures to pursue and punish the 
robbers, and recover the stolen property. Likewise, should a vessel of His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat, or of one of his subjects, enter a British port in distress, 
or be wrecked off the coast of Her Majesty’s dominions, the like help and assist- 
ance shall be rendered by the British authorities. 

Article 12. 

Should sailors or others belonging to a British ship of war, or merchant vessel, 
desert, and take refuge on shore or on board of any of His Highness’s ships, the 
authorities of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat shall, upon request of a Con- 
sular official, or, in his absence, of the Captain of the ship, take the necessary 
steps in order to have them arrested and delivered over to the Consular official 
or to the Captain. 

In this, however, the Consular officer and Captain shall render every assistance, 

Article 13. 

Subjects of Her Britannic Majesty shall, as regards their person and property, 
enjoy within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat the rights of 
ex-territoriality. 

The authorities of His Highness the Sultan have no right to interfere in dis- 
putes with subjects of Her Britannic Majesty amongst themselves, or between 
them and members of other Christian nations ; such questions, whether of a civil 
or criminal nature, shall be decided by the competent Consular authorities. The 
trial and also the punishment of all offences and crimes of which British subjects 
may be accused within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan, also the hearing 
and settlement of all civil questions, claims, or disputes in which they are the 
defendants, is expressly reserved to the British Consular authorities and Courts, 
and removed from the jurisdiction of His Highness the Sultan. 

Should disputes arise between subjects of His Highness the Sultan or other 
non-Christian Power, not represented by Consuls at Muscat, and a subject of Her 
Britannic Majesty, in which the British subject is the plaintiff or complainant, 
the matter shall be brought before and decided by the highest authority of the 
Sultan, or some person specially delegated by him for this purpose. The proceed- 
ings and final decision in such a case shall not, however, be considered legal unless 
notice has been given and an opportunity afforded for the British Consul or bis 
substitute to attend at the hearing and final decision. 

Article 14. 

Subjects of His Highness the Sultan, or any non-Christian nation, not repre- 
sented by Consuls at Muscat, who are in the regular service of British subjects 



OMAN (MIJ BOAT) — NO. XVI— 1891. 


315 

wifcbin tlic dominions of His Higlincss the Sultan of Muscat, shall enjoy the same 
protection as British subjects themselves. 

Should they be charged with having committed a crime or serious offence 
punishable by law, they shall, on sufficient evidence being shown to justify further 
proceedings, be handed over by British employers, or by order of the British 
Consul, to the authorities of His Highness the Sultan for trial and punishment. 

Article 15. 

Should a subject of Her Majesty residing in the dominions of His Highness the 
Sultan of Muscat be adjudicated bankrupt, the British Consul shall take posses- 
sion of, recover, and realise all available property and assets of such bankrupt, 
to be dealt with and distributed according to the provisions of English Bankruptcy 
Law. 


Article 16. 

Should a subject of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat resist or evade pay- 
ment of the just and rightful claims of a British subject, the authorities of His 
Highness the Sultan shall afford to the British creditor every aid and facility in 
recovering the amount due to him. In like manner the British Consul shall afford 
every aid and facility to subjects of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat in recover- 
ing debts justly due to them from a British subject. 

Article 17. 

Should a British subject die within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat, or dying elsewhere leave property therein, moveable or immoveable, 
the British Consul shall be authorised to collect, realise, and take possession of 
the estate of the deceased, to be disposed of according to the provisions of English 
law. 


Artiole 18. 

The houses, dwellings, warehouses, and- other premises of British subjects, or 
of persons actually in their regular service, within the dominions of His High- 
ness the Sultan of Muscat, shall not be entered, or searched under any pretext, 
by the officials of His Highness without the consent of the occupier, unless with 
the cognizance and assistance of the British Consul or his substitute. 

Article 19. 

It is hereby agreed between the two High Contracting Parties that, in the 
event of an agreement being hereafter arrived at bewteen His Highness the Sultan 
of Muscat and the various Powers with which His Highness shall be in Treaty 
relations, including Great Britain, which must be a consenting party, whereby 
the residents of a district or town shall, without distinction of nationality, be 



316 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. XVI— 1801. 


made, subject to the payment of local taxes, for municipal and sanitary purposes, 
the same to be fixed and administered by or under the control of a special Board' 
nothing contained in this Treaty shall he understood so as to exempt British resi- 
dents from the payment of such taxes. 

Article 20. 

Subjects of the two High Contracting Parties shall, within the dominions of 
each other, enjoy freedom of conscience and religious toleration, the free and 
public exercise of all forms of religion, and the right to build edifices for religious 
worship. 

Article 21. 

The stipulations of the present treaty shall be applicable to all the Colonies 
and foreign possessions of Her Britannic Majesty so far as the laws permit, except- 
ing to those hereinafter named, that is to say, except to — 

The Dominion of Canada. 

Newfoundland. 

The Cape of Good Hope. 

Natal. 

New South Wales. 

Victoria. 

Queensland. 

Tasmania. 

South Australia. 

Western Australia. 

New Zealand. 

Provided always that the stipulations of the present Treaty shall be made appli- 
cable to any of the above-named Colonies or foreign possessions, on whose be- 
half notice to that effect shall have been given by Her Britannic Majesty’s Be* 
presentative in Muscat to His Highness the Sultan within two years from the 
date of exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. 

Article 22. 

The Present Treaty has been executed in quadruplicate, two copies being 
written in English and two in Arabic. These are understood to be of similar 
import and signification ; in the event, however, of doubt hereafter arising as 
to the proper interpretation of the English or Arabic text of one or other of the 
Treaty stipulations, the English text shall be considered decisive. The Treaty 
shall come into operation within one month after the date when the ratifications 
may take place, 



317 


OMAN (MUSCAT) — NOS. XVI AND XVTT 1891. 


Article 23. 

After the lapse of twelve years from the date on which the Treaty shall come 
into force, and on twelve months’ notice given by cither party, this Treaty shall 
be subject to revision by Plenipotentiaries appointed on both sides for this purpose, 
who shall be empowered to decide on and adopt such amendments as experience 
shall prove to be desirable. 

In witness whereof Colonel Edward Charles Ross, C.S.I., on behalf of Her 
Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India, and His 
Highness Soyyid Fcysal-bin-Turld, the Sultan of Muscat, on his own behalf, have 
signed the same and affixed thereto their respective seals. 

Done at Muscat, this 19th day of March 1891, corresponding to the 8th Slmbap 
of the year 1308 Hijreca. 

Edward Charles Ross, Colonel, 
Political Resident in the Persian Gulf. 

Signature in Arabic of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat. 


Protocol. 

The undersigned, in proceeding to the exchange of ratifications of the Treaty 
signed at Muscat on the 19th March, 1891, between Her Majesty the Queen of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and His Highness Seyyid Feysal- 
bin-Turki, Sultan of Muscat, have agreed to the present Protocol, which shall 
have the same force and validity as if it had been inserted in the body of the Treaty 
itself. 

It is agreed that under Article 23 of the said Treaty cither of the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall be at liberty, after the expiration of twelve years from the 
date on which the Treaty has come into force, to terminate the said Treaty at 
any time on giving twelve months’ notice. 

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorised for the purpose, have 
signed the present Protocol, in quadruplicate, and have affixed thereto their seals. 

Done at Muscat, on the 20th day of February 1892. 

A. C. Talbot, Licul.-Col., 
Political Resident, Persian Gulf. 

Signature in Arabic of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat. 


ANU. aVYAI. 


Agreement regarding the cession of Territory by the Sultan of Oman date 

20th March 1891. 

Praise be to God alone. 

The object of writing this lawful and honourable Bond is that it is herd 
covenanted and agreed between Ilis Highness Seyyid Fcysal bin Turki bin Scyyi. 



318 


OMAN (MU SC AT)— N OS . XVII— 1891 AND XVIII— 1902. 


Sultan of Muscat and Oman, on the one part, and Colonel Edward Charles Ross, 
Companion of the Star of India, Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Resident in 
the Persian Gulf, on behalf of the British Government, on the other part, that 
the said Seyyid Fcysal bin Turki bin Saecd, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, does 
pledge and bind himself, his heirs and successors never to cede, to sell, to mortgage 
or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, the dominions 
of Muscat and Oman or any of their dependencies. 

In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honourable Bond Seyyid Fcysal 
bin Turki bin Saecd, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, and Colonel Edward Charles 
Ross, Companion of the Star of India, Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Resident 
in the Persian Gulf, the former for himself, his heirs and successors, and the latter 
on behalf of the British Government, do each, in the presence of witnesses affix 
their signatures on this ninth day of Shaaban one thousand three hundred and 
eight (A.Il.) corresponding to the twentieth day of March (A.D.) 1891. 


E. 0. Ross, Goloncl, 
Political Resident, in the 
Persian Gulf. 


Seyyid Feysal bin Turki bin Saeed, 
Sultan of Muscat and Oman. 

LANSDOWNE, 

V iccroy and Governor-General of India. 


Ratified by His Excellency tiic Viceroy and Governor-General ol India, at 
Simla on the twenty-third day of May 1891. 


H. M. Durand, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 

Foreign Department. 


No. XVIII. 

Translation of an undertaking given by the Sultan of Oman on the 31st 
May 1902 to the British Political Agent at Muscat, regarding the 
Sur Coalfields. 

After the usual compliments .— Regarding the communication you made to 
me on the subject of the Geologist’s report and the views of Government on the 
subject of the coal deposits, Your Honour is at liberty to inform Government 
on my behalf, that for the present I have no intention of entering upon the work 
myself ; and that in the future if any Government or Company ask my permis- 
sion to embark upon the mining enterprise in question, I will not accord such 
permission without first communicating with Government, in order that they 
may themselves take up the work with me if they feel so inclined. This is what 
had to be written. May you be preserved. 



OMAN (MUSCAT) — NOS. XTX— 1921, XX— 1023 AND X.Xl-^1920 . 3 1 9 

No. XIX. 

Undertaking by the Sultan of Muscat to adhere to the Arms Traffic Con- 
vention of 1919, — 1921. 

Baled the Sth Jamadi-al-Akliar 1339, 17th February 1921. 

From — Taimur Bin Faisal (His Highness the Sultan). 

To— M r. R. E. L. Wingate, ITis Britannic Majesty’s Consul, Muscat.- 

After Compliments . — We received your letter, dated the JCth February 1921, 
and your friend understood what you mentioned in it with regard to the Inter- 
national Convention agreed upon in the matter of arms. Your Honour on behalf 
of your Government, invited our adherence to the Convention of the 10th Septem- 
ber 1919. We adhere to that Convention and agree to it. Wc accept the 
conditions of the Arms Traffic Convention. 


Taimur. 


No. XX. 

Undertaking by the Sultan of Muscat regarding Oil, — 1923. 

Translation of a letter, dated tlve 21st Jamadi I, 1341, i.e., 10th JanuaTy 1923, 
from Taimur bin Faisal (His Highness the Sultan) to Mjaor Rae, His Britannic 
Majesty’s Consul, Muscat. 

After Compliments . — We inform Your Honour in reply to your letter No. 1751, 
dated 16th December 1 922, that we agree that wc will not exploit any petroleum 
which may be found anywhere within our territories and will not grant permission 
for its exploitation without consulting the Political Agent at Muscat and without 
the approval of the High Government of India. What wc heard about the 
existence of the mineral oil in our territory at Masirah is not still certain. Wo 
are beginning to enquire into the existence of this mine and after wc know about 
it there will be a discussion between Your Honour and us regarding its ex- 
ploitation, taking measures, arrangement of works and necessary condilions. It 
will of course be a monopoly. Wc believe in the complete assistance of the High 
Government of India in this important matter as it has always assisted ns tor 
which we are grateful. 


No. XXL 

Agreement tor the prolongation of the Muscat Commercial Treaty of 1891,— 

1929. 

Note. 

We, the undersigned, have agreed to what follows That the Treaty of Friend- 
ship, Commerce and Navigation between Great Britain and IVlagkat, signed on the 



320 OMAN (MUSCAT)— NO. XXI— 1929 AND Sohar — NO. XXII— 1839. 


eighth day of Shaban 1308-H., corresponding to the 19th March 1891, -will he 
prolonged by this writing, notwithstanding all, or any, correspondence between 
His late Highness Sayid Faisal bin Turki and the Glorious British Government 
in the matter of the revision of that Treaty. And it will remain in force for a 
period of one year from this eleventh day of February 1929 corresponding to 
the 17tli Ramathan 1347-H., unless a suitable Treaty by agreement between His 
Highness the Sultan of Maslcat and Oman and the Glorious British Government 
be substituted for that ancient Treaty aforesaid. It is also understood that it 
shall be open to the Dominion of Canada and Irish Free State to withdraw from 
the aforesaid Treaty at any time on notice being given to that effect by His 
Majesty’s Representative at Maskat. 


It is also understood that the Commonwealth of Australia have withdrawn 
from participation in the aforesaid Treaty as per notice given by His Majesty’s 
Representative at Maskat in his letter No. 6, dated 3rd December 1923. 


In confirmation thereof, wo that is, we, Mr. B. S. Thomas, O.B.E., and 
Haji Zuber bin Ali, Members of the Council of State, Maskat, on behalf of His 
Highness Sayid Sir Taimur bin Faisal, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., Sultan of Muscat and 
Oman, and I, Major G. P. Murphy, I. A., duly authorised agent for that purpose 
on behalf of the Glorious British Government have signed this writing and five 
copies and have affixed our seals thereto. 

Done at Maskat this eleventh day of February 1929, corresponding to 17th Rama- 
than 1347-H. 


British Consulate and 
Political Agency, Maskat. 


G. P. Murphy, Major, 
Political Agent, Maskat. 


No. XXII. 

Translation of a Treaty of Peace between His Highness Syud Saeed bin 

Sultan, the Imam of Muscat, and Syud Humood, the Chief of Sohap.,— 

1839. 

Praise be to Him who has caused peace to be the means of adjusting the affairs 
of mankind, and who is the promoter of friendship in every class of life. 

The object of writing this paper and these words of truth is, that peace has 
been established between His Highness the Imam of Muscat, Syud Saeed, the 
son of Syud Sultan, and the Chief of Sohar, the Honourable Syud Humood, the 
son of Syud Azan, through the mediation of CaptainTIennell, the British Resi- 
dent in the Persian Gulf, this 17th day of Showal, a.h. 1255, corresponding with 
the 23rd December a.d., 1839, upon the following conditions : — 

V Article 1. 

That from this day there shall be a perfect, lasting, and established peace 
'between the two contracting parties. 



321 


OMAN (MUSCAT)— Sohar— NO. NXII— 1839. 

Article 2. 

Tiiat the subjects of tlie two contracting parties shall carry on a free inter- 
course with each other’s territory for purposes of trade without hinderance or 
molestation. 

Article 3. 

Whenever subjects of either of the two contracting parties remove volun- 
tarily from the territories of the one and take up their residence in those of the 
other, no blame shall attach to the ruler of tlie territory in which they settle, and 
moreover it shall not be incumbent upon him to cause them to return to their 
original country unless ho thinks proper to do so. 

Article 4. 

That neither of the two contracting parties shall commit any sort of aggres- 
sion upon the territories of the other, neither openly nor secretly, and shall not 
excite others to do so. 

Article 5. 

In the event of either of the two contracting parties proceeding to punish 
any rebellious person among his own subjects, the other shall not assist or sup- 
port such rebel, either openly or secretly, nor shall encourage him in his rebellion 
by word or by letter. 


Article 6. 

As the district of Roostak, which belongs to Syud Humood bin Azan, is sur- 
rounded by the territory of Ilis Highness Syud Saeed bin Sultan, the communi- 
cation and road between the aforesaid district and the other territories of Syud 
Humood shall not be interrupted or closed. 

Article 7. 

In the event of an enemy arising against Syud Humood and making war upon 
him, His Highness Syud Saeed is to support him in every way to the utmost of 
his power and ability. 

These are the conditions upon which this engagement has been made on both 
sides and with the consent of both parties, and to this the Almighty is a witness . 

Dated Muscat , the 17 Ih Showal 1255 , A.H., corresponding with the 23rd December 
A.D. 1S39. " ' ' 


Seal of Syud Humood bin Azan. 


Seal of Syud Seed bin Sultan. 



322 


OMAN (MU SC A3 ') — Sob nr — NO. XXlll— 1849. 


No. XXIII. 

Translation of an Engagement entered into by Syud Syf kin Humood, Chief 
of Sohar, for the abolition of the African Slave Trade in his ports, — 
1849. 

It having been intimated to me by Major Hennell, the Resident in the Per- 
sian Gulf, that certain conventions have lately been entered into by the Ottoman 
Porte and other Powers with the British Government for the purpose of prevent- 
ing the exportation of slaves from the coast of Africa and elsewhere, and it having, 
moreover, been explained to me that, in order to the full attainment of the objects 
contemplated by the aforesaid Conventions, the concurrence and co-operation 
of the Chiefs of the several ports situated on the Arabian coast of the Persian 
Gulf are required, accordingly I, Syud Syf bin Humood, Chief of Sohar, with a 
view to strengthen the bonds of friendship existing between me and the British 
Government, do hereby engage to prohibit the exportation of slaves from the 
coast of Africa and elsewhere on board of my vessels and those belonging to my 
■subjects or dependants, such prohibition to take effect from the 29th Rujut 1265, 
or the 21st June A.D. 1849. 

And I do further consent, that whenever the cruisers of the British Govern- 
ment fall in with any of my vessels, or those belonging to my subjects or depen- 
dants, suspected of being engaged in the slave trade, they may detain and search 
them, and in case of their finding that any of the vessels aforesaid have violated 
the engagement by the exportation of slaves from the coast of Africa, or else- 
where, upon any pretext whatever, they (the Government cruizers) shall seize 
and confiscate the same. 

Dated this 20lh day of Jcmmadecood Akhir A. II. 1204, or 22nd day of May 1849. 

Syud Syf Bin Humood. 

Approved by the Government of Bombay on 4th August 1849, 



PART IV 


Treaties, Engagements and Sanads 

relating to 

i 

Baluchistan. 


B ALUCHISTAN comprises the territory hounded by the, borders of 
Sind and the lower Deraj at on the east, the Arabian Sea on the 
south, Persia on the west, and Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier 
Province on the north. The most important divisions of Baluchistan 
are as follows ; — - ' 

1. Habit State, including Kalat proper or the Niabats under the 
direct control of the Khan, the divisions of Sara wan, .Thalawau and 
Kachhi, Maki’an with its two divisions of Kerb and Panjgur, and the 
Cliiefships of Las Bela and Kharan. 

2. The Bolan Pass. 

3. The Marri-Bngti tribal area. 

4. British Baluchistan. 

5. The assigned Niabats of Quetta, Nushki and Nasirabad. 

6. Chagai and the Sinjerani country. 

7. Bori and Zhob tribal areas. 

Of these divisions, (1) and (2) are included in the Kalat Agency, 
Kalat State being under political control, while the Bolan Pass is ad- 
ministered by the Political Agent of Kalat in accordance with paras. 2,. 
3 and 4 of the Agreement of IS83 (No. XIY). 

(3) The territory of the Marris and Bugtis has been administered 
separately from Kalat by the Agent to the Governor-General since the 
Treaty of Jacobabad in 1876 (No. XII). It is included in the Sibi 
Agency. 

(4) British Baluchistan, including Sibi, Pishin, Ohaman and 
Shorarud, was acquired in 1879 by annexation from Afghanistan niter 
the. second Afghan War. 


( 323 ) 



324 


BAl/UCEtfSTAN. 


(5) The Kalat Niahats of Quetta, Nushki and Nasiraliad are field froiii 
tlie Kb a u on a quit-rent, the two latter in perpetuity, and are included 
in tbe districts of Quetta, Cbagai and Sibi respectively (Nos. XIY, 
XXYI and XXYIII). 

(6) Cbagai and tbe Sinjerani country, wbicb came under British 
administration by tbe demarcation of tbe Iudo-Afghan boundary in 189G 
(see Vol. XIII, Afghanistan No. XIX), and are politically administered, 
are included in tbe Cbagai Agency. 

(7) The Bori and Zhob tribal areas, which came under British adminis- 
tration in 1889-90, are administered by the Political Agents, Loralai and 
Zhob respectively. 



BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 325 


KALAT AGENCY. 

1. Kalat. 

The nucleus of the Kalat State was formed from the few tracts of 
irrigated land in the immediate neighbourhood of Kalat. About the 
15th Century the D eh war inhabitants of the tracts, finding' themselves 
unable to withstand the depredations of Pathau and Brahui tribes, in- 
vited a Brahui Chief to rule over and protect them. The dynasty thus 
formed brought in five tribes of their own kin, still known as the Khan’s 
Ulus, and later formed a loose alliance with other Brahui tribes and 
tribes of Patlian origin which acquired the language and customs and 
later the name of Brahui. 

The first noteworthy Khan of Kalat was Abdulla Khan. At the 
commencement of the eighteenth century, lie affected to be independent 
of the Delhi empire, and reduced several provinces to his rule. During 
the reign of his son Mahabat Kliau, Nadir Shah invaded India, and 
annexed the whole of the territories west of the Indus. On the 
dismemberment of the Persian • empire after the death of Nadir 
Shah, Kalat formed part of the territories over which Ahmad Shah 
Ahdali established his supremacy. Mahabat Khan, who was unpopular 
with his Chiefs, was deposed by Ahmad Shah, and his younger brother 
Nasir Khan was appointed to rule in his stead. From, this time the 
power remained with the younger branch of the family, till the attempt 
which the British Government made after the first Afghan War to change 
the succession. 

Nasir Khan I (the Great) was by far the most distinguished of the 
Khans of Kalat. It was he who devised the peculiar polity the main 
principles of which still govern the relations between the Khan and the 
tribal chiefs of Sarawan and Jhalawan. His policy was to attach more 
completely to his interests the nomad Brahui ti-ibes of the highlands 
and to weld them into a weapon sufficiently strong to enable him to 
assert a virtual independence of Delhi. The means were at hand in the 
recently acquired province of Knehhi, which had been granted to liis 
predecessor Mahabat Khan in lieu of blood money for Abdullah Khan, 
who was murdered by a Kind when fleeing wounded after an encounter 
with the Kalhora. 

Nasir Khan granted the chiefs of the Brahui nomad tribes fiefs in 
tbe rich plain of Kachbi, on condition that they supplied him with a 
certain quota of men at arms. By tbe acquisition 1 of Kacblii he also 
acquired control over certain Balueh tribes of tire plains, .and a less firm 
control over the Marri and Bugti. With the aid of these tribal con- 
tingents he extended his authority to the south-west over Makran. 



326 BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agcncij. 

Nasir Khan was succeeded in 1795 by his son Mahmud Khan, and 
he in 1819 by his son Melirab Khan, in whose time the political connec- 
tion of the British Government, with Kalat began. 

Melirab Khan was a well-meaning but weak ruler. He disgusted his 
Chiefs by surrendering himself to the influence of one Daud Muhammad, 
a man of low extraction, for whom he sacrificed the hereditary minister, 
Fateh Muhammad. Daud Muhammad, however, was killed by Fateh 
Muhammad’s son, Naib Mulla Muhammad Hasan, who was restored to 
the hereditary office; but he never forgave the injury done to his father., 
and the misfortunes which subsequently overlook Melirab Khan were 
due to his revenge. 

On the failure of Shah Shuja’s first attempt to recover his dominions 
in 1833, he found refuge for a short time at Kalat before his return to 
his exile at Ludhiana. When the expedition of 183S for the restoration 
of Shah Shuja was determined on, a British officer. Lieutenant Leech, 
was sent to Kalat to secure the co-operation of Melirab Khan, through 
whose territories the armies had to march. Mulla Muhammad Hasan, 
however, contrived to create enmity between the Khan and Lieutenant 
Leech, who left without attaining his object. The treacherous minister 
further caused it to be believed that the Khan had seized stores of grain 
which had been collected for the British troops, and wrote orders in the 
Khan’s name, but without his knowledge, inciting the tribes to rise and 
harass the British army on its line of march. Sir Alexander Burnes was 
deputed to Kalat to allay the supposed hostility of the Khan and to 
negotiate a Treaty (No. I) with him. The treaty was signed contrary 
to the secret wishes of Mulla Muhammad Hasan, and the Khan agreed 
to proceed to Quetta to pay his respects to Shah Sliuja. Sir A. Burnes 
preceded him ; but on his way Mullah Muhammad Hasan caused him to 
be robbed of the draft treaty which the Khan had signed. The belief 
that this was done at the instigation of the Khan was studiously impressed 
on the British Government, and the Khan himself was prevented from 
going to Quetta by Mulla Muhammad Hasan, who frightened him into 
the belief that the British intended to make him a prisoner. The proofs 
of the Khan’s hostility were now apparently complete, and it was resolved 
to punish him when a fitting opportunity occurred. 

Accordingly, when General "Wiltshire’s brigade was returning from 
Kabul in 1839, a detachment was sent to Kalat, to punish the Khan. 
The town was taken on the 13th of November, Melirab Khan fell in 
the assault, and his son Husain Khan fled. From the papers discovered 
in the fort the treachery of Mulla Muhammad Hasan was fully proved, 
and he was made a prisoner. With the British army was one Shah 
Nawaz Khan, a youth of fourteen, descended in the direct male line from 
Mahabat Khan who had been deposed by Ahmad Shah. This youth and 
his brothel 1 , Fateh Khan, had been imprisoned by Melirab Khan but had 



lialat Agehc 1/. 327 

} 

effected their escape. Shall Nawaz Khan was ' set up by the British 
Government as Khan ot Kalnt, but the provinces of Sarawan and KaeJi 
Gandawa were annexed to the dominions of the ruler of Kabul. 

Shortly after the accession of Shah Nawaz Khan, a revolution broke 
out, headed by Mehrab Khan’s son Husain Khan, who had assumed the 
name of Nasir Khan. Shah Nawaz Khan was deposed, the British repre- 
sentative at Kalat was murdered, and there was open war between Nasii 
Khan and the British Government. As the only means of quieting the 
country and doing- tardy justice to the memory of the unfortunate Mehrab 
Khan, the British Government reversed its policy, established Nasir 
Khan in power, and restored to him the districts which had been annexed 
to Kabul. A Treaty (No. II) was concluded with him in 1841, the main 
feature of which was that it recognised Kalat as a dependency of Kabul. 


After the withdrawal of the British army front Kabul, this Treaty 
became a dead letter. In 1842 a proposal was made to conclude a 
supplementary treaty, by which pecuniary aid should be substituted for 
military support to the Khan; but this suggestion was not acted upon. 
In 1854, however, when war between England and Itussia was threatened, 
and it became of importance to strengthen British influence on the western 
frontier, a new Treaty (No. Ill) was concluded with the Khan. This 
abrogated the Treaty of 1841, and renewed the obligations of the Khan 
to oppose all enemies of the British Government, to act in subordination 
to the British Government, to enter into no negotiations with other states 
without their consent, and to receive British troops into his country if 
such a measure should be deemed necessary ; while the British Govern- 
ment granted the Khan an annual subsidy of Its. 50,000 on condition 
that lie prevented his subjects from committing outrages within or 
near British territory, protected merchants, and permitted no exactions 
on trade beyond certain specified duties. > 


Nasir Khan died in 1857, his death being generally believed to have 
been caused by poison. There were three claimants for the succession, 
Azim Khan, brother of Mehi-ab Khan, his son of the same name, and 
Khudadad Khan, his half-brother, Khudadad Khan was selected by the 
Chiefs of the country, but soon quarrelled with them. He also had to 
contend against the pretensions of Eateli Khan, brother of the British 
nominee Shall Nawaz Khan, who was supported by Azad Khan of 
Kharan. But for the countenance and support of the British Government 
Khudadad Khan could not have maintained himself in power. In 185.9 
the British Government gave him Its. 50,000 in addition to the subsidy 
paid under the Treaty, to enable him to strengthen his hands and meet 
tlie cost of reducing the rebellious Marri tribe, who had harassed the 
British frontier. This additional grant was paid for four successive 
years, liut little good resulted from it. The leading Chiefs of Kalat 
conspired against Khudadad Khan, and in March 18G3 proclaimed his 



328 


BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 


cousin Sherdil Khan as their ruler. The town, and the fort of Kalat 
were surrendered to tlie rebels without a show of defence, and Khudadad 
Khan retired to Nasirabad in Kachhi. Slierdil Khan was murdered by 
bis own guards in May 1SG4, and Khudadad Klian was re-elected Chief 
of the State. He was recognised by the British Government as Khan of 
Kalat, and the payment of the subsidy of Rs. 50,000 under the Treaty of 
1854, which had been suspended during the disturbances in the country, 
was renewed. 

In 1802 the Khan of Kalat signed an Agreement (No. VI) by which 
the boundary between Sind and Kalat was defined. A portion of this 
boundary, on the border of tlie Shikarpur district, was for some years 
disputed, but was finally settled in 1S8T by an order of the Government 
of India. 

In 18G7 the Ruler of Kalat was granted a permanent salute of 19 
guns. 

The Telegraph Agreements made, directly or indirectly, with the 
Khan of Kalat in 1861 (No. IV), 1862 (No. V), 18G3 (No. VII), 1869 
(No. VIII) and 1870 (No. XI), as well as those made with certain 
Chiefs of Persian Baluchistan in 18G9 (Nos. IX and X), are mentioned 
under a later heading ( Makran Telegraph Line, q. v.). 

The history of Kalat after the restoration of Khudadad Khan was 
marked by constant conflicts between the Khan and his turbulent subjects. 
Taj Muhammad Khan, the Chief of the Jhalawan country, was taken 
prisoner and placed in confinement, where he soon afterwards died : and 
the Jam of Las Bela was forced to take refuge in British territory. But 
in 1871 a combination of the Brahui Chiefs ended in open rebellion. 
The causes of their discontent were alleged to be the resumption by the 
Khan of their hereditary lands and the introduction of changes which 
deprived them of their due share in the administration . Binding himself 
unable to coerce his subjects, the Khan asked for British aid and dele- 
gated to the Commissioner in Sind full powers to mediate a settlement. 
The malcontents were summoned to Jacobabad, and an arrangement 
was effected by which the Khan consented to restore to the Sardars their 
confiscated lands; to grant them the allowances customary in the time 
of Nasir Khan II; and to allow them to live on their estates so long as 
they paid him proper allegiance. They, on the other hand, ay ere to 
restore all property plundered during their rebellion, the Khan consent- 
ing to forego all claims in regard to his OAvn property. The opportunity 
was taken to impress upon the SardaTS the duty of obedience to the 
legitimate authority of the Khan, and to warn the Khan that high- 
handed interference with the rights of his subjects would not be 
countenanced. 

These arrangements, however, were distasteful to the Khan, who 
resented the part taken in promoting them by his minister the Sliahgasi 



BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 


329 


Wali Muhammad Khan. He then came under the influence of unworthy 
favourites, and quarrelled with Wali Muhammad: and it was not until 
the Political Agent, whose appointment had been revived after remaining 
in abeyance since 1864, was on the point of leaving Kalat, that he con- 
sented to restore the minister to his former position and dismiss the 
favourites. Finding his efforts to procure the recall of these men un- 
availing, the Khan ceased to look after his administration, and took no 
steps to remedy the disorder which prevailed in Las 13ela, dr to compen- 
sate merchants for the plunder of their caravans. This led to the depar- 
ture of the Political Agent, accompanied by Wali Muhammad, from Kalat 
territory in .1873, and to the withholding of the payment of the annual 
subsidy under the terms of the Treaty of 1854. The Khan was also 
informed that his obligations under the Treaty to protect trade and secure 
the peace of the frontier remained unaltered ; but that, in the event of 
disturbances occurring on the frontier, the British Government would 
be compelled to take their own measures for preserving order. 

During the rebellion against the Khan the attitude of the Marri 
and Bugti was uncertain: at its close an attack, said to have been 
instigated by the Khan, was made by the Brahui on the section of the 
Marri to which the protection of the Bolan Pass had been entrusted. 
The Marri retaliated by plundering caravans, and a state of chronic 
disorder ensued. In these circumstances the Khan was informed that, 
until he showed both willingness and ability to put an end to plundering 
and outrages near the British frontier, the Government of India would 
take their own measures to protect their territories and subjects. Subjects 
of Kalat committing offences in British territory, if apprehended there, 
would receive the utmost penalty of the law: and, if they succeeded in 
escaping into Kalat, they would be followed and punished. At length 
the state of anarchy prevailing on the frontier became so intolerable 
that the Government of India decided to depute a special agent to effect, 
if possible, some settlement between the Khan and his Sardars. Captain 
Sandeman, the officer selected for this duty, convinced himself, during 
his first mission in 1875, that a modus vvvendi, could be arranged between 
the contending parties through the mediation of the British Government. 
The result of his labours was considered so far satisfactory that in the 
spring of the following year he was again deputed to Baluchistan; and 
at k Dai bar held at Mastung in July 1876 lie effected a formal reconci- 
liation between the Khan and the leading Brahui Chiefs, the Baluch 
Chiefs being absent. 

In December of the same year tile Khan met the Viceroy at Jaeobabad, 
and a new Treaty (No. XII) Was concluded on the 8th of that month. 
It re-affirmed the engagements made in 1854; and provided, among other 
things, for the location of troops in, and the construction of railway and 
telegraph lines through, Kalat territoiy; political officers, with suitable 



330 


BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 

escorts, were to be posted in tbe Khan’s dominions; and tlie British 
Government undertook to pay the Khan an annual subsidy of one lakh 
of rupees, which was to be supplemented by a contribution of Its. 20,500 
a year for the development of traffic on the trade routes running through 
his country* This treaty was the foundation of the Baluchistan Agency. 
On the 21st February 1877 Major Sandeman was appointed Agent to the 
Governor-General, his headquarters were fixed at Quetta and British 
troops were cantoned at Quetta and Mitri. 

During the Afghan War Khudadad Khan loyally acted up to his 
engagements, and proved his willingness to- assist the British Government 
by all means in his power. 

In 1880 the Khan made over to the British Government with full 
jurisdiction (No. XIII) the lands on which the Kandahar State Bail way 
had been constructed. 

In 1879 it had been arranged that the district immediately surround- 
ing Quetta should be administered by British officers, any surplus 
revenue being made over to the Khan. In 1SS3 a fresh Agreement (Nd. 
XIY) was entered into, by which Khudadad Khan agreed to lease the 
Quetta Niabat to the British Government for an annual rent of 
Rs. 25,000 : and at the same time, in consideration of a yearly payment 
of Its. 30,000, he surrendered his right to collect tolls on the trade 
passing through the Bolan Pass. 

In 1893 certain murders were committed at Bhag in Kalat territory, 
for which Khudadad Khan was found to be responsible. The Khan 
himself asked the Government of India to accept his resignation and to 
recognise Mahmud Khan as his successor. The Government of India, 
while holding that Khudadad Khan’s conduct would justify his deposi- 
tion, decided, in consideration of the fact that he had been an ally of the 
British Government for many years, and in deference to his position and 
rank, to accept his abdication. Khudadad Khan accordingly abdicated 
in 1893 in favour of his eldest son the present Khan Mahmud Khan, 
born in 1864. He was installed by the Agent to the Governor-General 
on the 10th November 1S93. He enjoys a personal salute of 21 guns. 

In 1894 the Khan of Kalat ceded (No. XX) full jurisdiction over the 
lands required for the Mushkaf-Bolan It nil way. 

The frontier between Kalat and Persia from the sea to Kuhak had 
been settled, but not demarcated, by ' an. Anglo-Persian Commission in 
.1872. In 1896 a joint British and Persian Commission, which had been 
appointed to decide upon and demarcate the Perso-Balueh boundary 
from Kuhak to Koh-i -Malik Siah, surveyed and demarcated (No. XXII) 
part of the boundary northward from Kuhak. 11 boundary pillars were 



P ALXJOHISTAN — Kalat Aqcncy. 331 

! i 

ceh up; but the Persian Government failed to send a surveyor to work 
with the British surveyor, and the boundary north of pillar No. 11 was 
not actually marked out on the ground, but was merely described and 
marked on the existing maps, which were subsequently found to be 
inaccurate. Some tension afterwards resulted, particularly regarding 
the possession of Mirjawa : . and it was decided that the undemarcated 
boundary should he marked out by a joint Anglo-Persian Commission . 
Later, it was decided to dispense with any actual delimitation, provided 
that a suitable arrangement could he concluded with the Persian Govern- 
ment: and in May 1905 an Anglo-Persian Agreement (No. ANN) was 
signed, under which Great Britain withdrew the claim to Mirjawa, while 
the Persian Government undertook to permit the British post at Padalia 
to procure water from the Mirjawa side, and duo provision was made 
for supplies for the neighbouring British posis. In consideration of 
this settlement, the two Governments agreed to abandon the further 
examination of the boundary by a joint commission. 

In 1899 the Kban transferred tlio Nusliki district and Niabnt in 
perpetuity to the Government of India in consideration of an annual 
quit-rent of Rs. 9,000 (No. XXYI) ; and in 1903 he similarly transferred 
the Niabat of Nnsirabad, including the Mnnjuti lands, for a quit-rent of 
Rs. 1,17,500 (No. XXYIII). 

Full jurisdiction over the lands required for the Nushki Railway 
was ceded (No. XXIX) by the Khan in 1903. 

The administration of Kalat proper, or the Kban of Kalat’s Niabats, 
is now in the hands of a Wazir-i-Azam, whose services are placed at the 
disposal of the Khan by the Government of India, and the Kban enjoys 
a civil list of Rs. 3,50,000 per annum. The administration of the tribal 
area has passed into the hands of the Political Agent; hut every endeav- 
our is made to encourage the Snrdars to manage their own tribes. 

In 1917 the Khan agreed to the regularization of the finances of tin; 
State. An Audit Office was established, and all revenue is paid into the 
State Treasury: payments can only be made in accordance with the 
sanctioned budget which, after being sanctioned by the Kban, is approved 
by the Agent to the Governor-General, who appoints the Audit Officer 
and his staff. 

In 1927 the Khan issued a decree abolishing slavery throughout his 
dominions. 

According to estimates made in 1921 the area of Kalat, including 
Kharan and Makran, is 73,278 square miles, and the population 328,281. 
The revenue has in recent years amounted to between 10 and 17 lakhs 
of rupees, inclusive of the payments made to the Kban by the Govern- 
ment of India. 

The military forces of Kalat consist (1926) of 154 Cavalry, OR Jnfnnirv 
and 20 Artillery men, with 12 serviceable and 23 unserviceable guns. 



332 


BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 


1 

• l 

2. Make. an. 

British Makran, the South Western Province of Kalat State, .is divid- 
ed into two districts, Panjgur which consists of the valleys of the Giclik 
and Rakhslian Rivers, and Kech which consists of the valleys of the 
Kecli and Rilling Rivers, Kolwa and the coastal tract. 

The Gfichkis, the ruling family in British Makran, are reputed to he 
of Rajput origin. They originally settled in the Gichk valley and from 
that base gained control of the whole of Panjgur. Early in the 
eighteenth century a younger branch succeeded in ousting the Buledas, 
who then ruled over Kech, 'and established themselves there. 

About 1750 Rasir Khan I, after more than one expedition to Makran, 
extracted from both families of Gfichkis an agreement whereby he under- 
took to protect them from external aggression and internal dissension in 
return for half the land revenue of the country. The Gichlds shook off 
the Kalat yoke in the time of Mahmud Khan, but his successor Mehrab 
Khan re-established his rule over them. 

The Khan of Kalat frequently selected a Gichki as his Raib in Kech 
and Panjgur, but occasionally sent a Raib from a Brahui Sardarkkel; 
for instance Eaqir Muhammad, Bizanjo, who maintained peace in Kech 
for over 30 years. During this time Panjgur was ravaged by inter- 
necine strife between Mirs Gajian and Isa, claimants to the Sardari of 
Panjgur, whom the Khan favoured in turn. 

At the signing of the Treaty of 1876 (Ro. XII) at Jacobabad, Lord 
Lytton promised the Khan that Colonel Sandeman should proceed to 
Makran to settle the country. The Second Afghan War, however, 
intervened, and Colonel Sandeman was not able to visit Makran till 1884, 
by which time Eaqir Muhammad was dead, and Kech was in as disturbed 
a state as Panjgur. 

The Government of India then decided to undertake only the mini- 
mum of co mm itments in Makran. In 1896 the services of a Hindu 
official were lent to the Khan as Razim of Makran. The Khan himself 
went to Makran to instal the Razim, but within two years the country 
had risen. The rising, which was headed by Mir Mehrab Khan, half- 
brother of Sardar Shell TTmar, son of Sardar Mir Baian of Kech, needed 
a column of all arms for its suppression. The rebels were defeated at 
Gokhprosht, and Mehrab Khan fled across the border. Sardar Shell 
TJmar and his cousin Abdul Karim, Raib of Kech, remained loyal to 
the British Government. 

The Government of India then decided that a new Razim should be 
selected, who should not take a direct hand in the collection of revenue, 



BALUCHISTAN —Tv alai Agency. 


333 


but should see that the Naibs did their duty, and should keep the Khan 
informed of what went on in the country. The Local Administration 
was at the same time enjoined not to interfere in the details of the 
administration of Makran. 

The possibility of adhering to these prohibitions was in any case 
doubtful; but the choice of the new Nazim made such a course impossible. 
Mir Mehrullak Khan, uncle of the Raisani Sardar, was the man selected. 
Described as the strongest man in Baluchistan, he had recently headed 
a demonstration against the British Government in Sarawnn, and was 
at the head of a faction of Sardars who claimed to be independent of the 
Khan. He soon created an autocracy entirely independent of the Khan 
except for financial support : an autocracy in which the rightful Sardar 
Shell Umar was pushed on one side in favour of his disloyal half-brother 
Mir Mehrab Khan, who had headed the recent rising. 

In 1904 the Makraii Levy Corps was raised, and an Assistant Political 
Agent, who was ex-officio Commandant of the Corps, was stationed in 
Panjgur. His duties were confined to frontier affairs and the control of 
the Corps, and the Nazim continued to rule Malcran nominally on behalf 
of the Khan. 

In 1917 Mir Melirullah Khan retired and the post of Nazim 
was held by Indian Officials lent to the Kalat Stale until 1922, when the 
Khan of Kalat’s brother Nawab Bahadur Mir Azam Jan was sent to rule 
the country on behalf of the Khan. This experiment proving unsuccess- 
ful, a Naib Wazir was appointed to take charge of Makran under the 
Wazir-i-Azam. The peculiar status of the Gichkis was provided for by 
placing them under the Assistant Political Agent who is also in control 
of the frontier. 

The area of Makran is estimated at. 23,2(59 square miles. The popu- 
lation, according to the Census of 1921, is 71, SCO: and the revenue, in 
1926-27, showed a surplus of Its. 75,791. 

Pcrso-Kalat Frontier . — The construction of the Indo-European Tele- 
graph Line necessitated the defining of relationships with the petty Chiefs 
who then dominated the country to the west of Keoh. Dissensions 
among these Chiefs and their raids on Persian territory afforded Persia 
opportunities, which she was not slow to seize, of extending her frontier 
to the eastward until she had not only exacted tribute from the whole 
of Makran west of Keoh, except a portion of the sea coast about 
Chahbar and Gwadar, but had asserted claims of sovereignty over Kech 
and its dependencies, which were under the authority of the Khan of 
Kalat. ! 

i 

The British Government, having treaty relations with Kalat, could 
not view with indifference the threats of aggression which were constantly 
held over the Khan’s subjects in Kech, and the expediency of putting a 
stop to these proceedings on the part of the Persian frontier authorities 


334 


BALUCHISTAN — Kalnt A { H'-ncy, 

» 

was impressed on the minister of the Shah. A proposal was then made 
hy the Shah that the boundaries between Persia and Kalat should be 
defined by Commissioners on the part of 'Ragland, Persia and Kalat. 
To this the British Government assented, and the frontier from the sea 
at Gwattur Bay to Kuhak was settled, but not demarcated, by a Frontier 
Commission whose award was accepted by the Shah in 1871. According 
to this Paujgur and Parom and their dependencies, with Kuhak, Boleda, 
including Zamiran, and their dependencies, Mand, including Tump, 
Nasirabad, Kecli and all districts, delis, and dependencies to the east- 
ward, and Dasli t with its dependencies as far as the sea, were declared 
to be beyond the Persian frontier. 

Claims were afterwards put forward by Persia to the small district of 
Kuhak below the frontier districts of Jalk and Kalugan on the Persian 
side. Without pronouncing any opinion as to whether Kuhak was Per- 
sian territory or not, the British Government agreed that the boundary 
line of Kalat should be drawn to the east of Ivuhak. Kuhak was occupied 
by the Persians in May 1874, and was formally included in Persia in 
1896 by the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission Agreement (No. XXII). 

In 1902 a joint Jirga of Sardars of British and Persian Baluchistan 
agreed to adopt* certain measures for the periodical settlement of border 
cases. Among other provisions it was agreed that there should be an 
annual meeting- on the border between the Nazim and the Deputy. 
Governor of Bampur. At the same time the Governor-General of 
Kerman undertook! to do all in his power to check the traffic in arms 
through Persian Baluchistan. 

As the result of the entente thus established the Political Agent, with 
an escort consisting of eight British officers and 500 men of all arms, 
accompanied the Persian Governor on a march through Persian Balu- 
cliisfan and assisted in destroying several forts which had afforded 
asylum to raiders. 

Persian control of the province of Persian Baluchistan ceased in 1908, 
and the Governorship of Bampur was usurped by an adventurer, Mir 
Bahrain Khan, Baranzai. The frontier entente came to an end and 
raids into British Makran became frequent. 

In 1915 Mir Bahrain Khan invaded British territory with 1,400 men 
and 2 gnns which he had taken from the Persians. His force was re- 
pulsed from Mand Post by its garrison of 36 men of the Makran Levy 
Corps, though the post was several times set on fire by bursting shells. 


* See Appendix No. III. 
+ See Appendix No. TV. 



BALUCHISTAN — Kalai Agency. 335 

Makran Telegraph Line . — Since 1861 various agreements have been 
entered into, from time to time, with, some of the Chiefs, in connection 
with the construction and protection of the Makran telegraph line. J.he 
first to be made was with the Jam of Las Bela in December 1861 (No. 
IV), whereby he was granted a subsidy of Its. 10,000 a year for the 
protection of the portion of the lino passing through his territory. In 
January 1862 a similar Agreement (No. V) was made with Mir Fakir 
Muhammad, at that time the Khan of Kalat.’s Naib in Kech , for the 
protection of the line from Naim at to Gwadar. These agreements 
were made with the knowledge and consent of the Khan of Kalat, 
and were approved by the Government of India in August 1862. 
At the same time it was proposed that an agreement should be 
made with the Khan of Kalat setting forth that, in consideration of the 
sum of Its. 16,000 being annually paid into the hands of the Political 
Agent at Kalat, to be disbursed by him to the Jam of Las Bela (Its. 10,000) 
and to the Naib of Kecli (Its. 6,000) for the protection of the line of 
telegraph, the Khan would undertake to do all in his power to maintain 
the line. Subsequently an Agreement (No. VII) dated the 20th February 
186-3 was concluded with the Khan, whereby, in return for an annual 
subsidy of Its. 5,000, he undertook the protection of the line between the 
western boundary of the province under the rule of the Jam of Las Bela 
and the eastern boundary of the Gwadar territory. Under article 6 of 
the agreement tire Khan was to suggest in what proportions he wished 
the Political Agent to distribute the sum to the various Chiefs to whom 
he would entrust the conservation of the line. In May 1S6-3, however, 
it was ordered that, as Kalat was in the hands of the revolted Baluchis 
the engagement should be considered in abeyance. In the same month 
the Government of India sanctioned the increase of the Jam’s subsidy 
to Its. 15,000. 

In December 1863 it was decided that the Naib of Koch’s subsidy 
under the agreement of January 1862 should he fixed at Its. 5,000 a 
year, and that Us. 1,000 a year should he granted to Bahrain Khan of 
Pasni for the protection of the line through Pasni. 

In I860, in continuation of the Agreement of 1862, another was made 
with the Naib of Kech (No. VIII), whereby, in return for a subsidy of 
Ks. 1,500 a year, he undertook on behalf of himself and Mir Bhnian, 
Gichki, the protection of the line from Gwadar to the Balm boundary. 
The cost of the line riders Avas to be deducted from the subsidy by the 
tel egr a ph super i n ten d ent. 

In the same year Jam Mir Khan, then ruler of Las Bela, rebelled 
against the Khan and .Avas defeated; his country lapsed to the Khan and 
the subsidy of Us. 15,000, as well ns the conditions for the protection of 
the line, Avere also transferred to him. In August 1S70, owing to the 



336 


.BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 


difficulty experienced in protecting tlie line from Kalat, the Klian agreed 
(No. XI) to pay Its. 6,600 a year to the Telegraph Department to arrange 
for guards, etc. He also consented to allow the e.r-Jam of Las Bela 
Its. 8,000 a year so long as the latter remained under British protection. 
The balance of Us. 400 out of the subsidy of Its. 15,000 was retained 
by the Khan. This arrangement took effect from the 1st January 1870. 
Subsequently, in 1877, Mir Khan was allowed to return to Las Bela, 
and it was decided in November of that year to revert to the terms of 
the agreement of 1861, and to pay the whole amount of Its. 15,000 to the 
Jam direct. 

In 1881 an annual subsidy of Its. 4S0 was granted to Mir Mandu, the 
Chief of Chahbar in Kolwa, but no agreement was taken from him. 
Before that time the Jam of Ins Bela appears to have paid this amount 
to the Chief out of his own subsidy, for the protection of the line near 
Ormara. On Mir Mamin’s death in 1S83 it was continued to his son, 
Mir Yar Muhammad. The subsidy is now paid to Mir Dur Muhammad 
Bizanjo of Chahbar (Its. 320) and Sardar Siddiq of Chahbar (Rs. 160). 

In July 1S91 it was decided to pay the Kech subsidies through the 
administrative officer of Kech-Makran. After Fakir Muhammad’s death 
the sums had been equally divided between Sardar Bhai Khan and 
Shahdad, less Its. 1,980, which had been paid by the Telegraph Depart- 
ment to the line guards. In 1895 a similar ai’rangement was made 
whereby the Pasni and Chahbar subsidies were to be disbursed to the 
Chiefs through the Political Agent, Southern Baluchistan. This system 
having proved unsuccessful, it was decided in June 1S99 to revert to 
the method by which the Kech, Pasni and Chahbar subsidies were paid 
direct to the Chiefs by the Persian Gulf Telegraph Department. At that 
time the Kech subsidy was shared by Sardar Shell Umar, Gicliki, and 
Mir Abdul Karim, Gicliki, Naib of Kech; but it was then decided to 
re-distribute the amount and to pay Its. 2,260 to Mir Melirab Khan, 
Gicliki, and Us. 1,130 each to Mir Abdul Karim, Gicliki, and Mir Shah 
Kasim Khan, Gicliki. 

In June 1S99 an Agreement (No. XXY) was entered into with Mir 
Mahmud Khan, Kalmati, of Pasni for the protection of the telegraph 
line in Pasni on conditions similar to those which had been made with 
his father Bahrain Khan. A sum of Its. 520 is at present paid on 
this account to Mir Bijar Motabir of Kalmat, Pasni. 

A new line of the Indo-European Telegraph Department was com- 
.pleted from Karachi to Nok-Kundi in 1907. For its protection, in addi- 
tion to the amounts shown in the statement below, a sum of Its. 800 a 
year is distributed to the tribal Chiefs in the form of Khillats ; but no 
agreements were entered into. 



BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 


Telegraph Subsidies. 

The following subsidies are paid by the Director, Indo-European 
Telegraph Department, for the various lines passing through Makran : 


-■ 

Amounts’ paid 
ammolly 
to tho Chiofs. 

Amounts paid 
direct by tho 
Director General, 
Persian Gulf 
Telegraphs, to tho 
Telegraph 
establishment, 

TOTAI.. 


Old lino. 

Now lino. 

Old line. 

Now lino. 

Old line. 

New lino. 

1, Jam of Las Bela . 

8,400 

1,200 

0,600 

••• 

15,000 

1,200 

2. S.B.Mir Melirab 
Khan, Gichki. 

2,200 ' 

\ 





Mir Abdul.Karim, 
Gichki; 

2,130 

- ... 

l,9S0 

... 

0,500 

... 

Mir Shoh Kasim, 
Gichki, 

1,130 


1 




3< MirBijarMotahir 
of Kalurnt, Pasni. 

520 


4S0 

... 

1,000 : 

• «« 

4. Mir Dur Muham-I 1 
mad Bizanjo of 
Chalibar. 

320 

... 


... 

320 

• •• 

S. S’ardar Siddin of 
Cbahhar. 

100 


• •• 

... 

ICO 

... 

6. Sardar Mnrnd 

Jan, Gichki. 

... 

400 


... 

.... 

400 

7. *Shah Nawaz 

Khan Nanshcr- 
wani of Ifolwa. 

... 

200 

... 

... 

... 

' 200 

8. Malik Dinar 

Naushcrwani of 
Kolwa. 

... 

200 

... 

... 

... 

200 

9. S. B- Nawab 
Habibnlla Khan, 
Chief of Kharan. 

... 

4,000 

... 

... 

... 

4,000 

113,920 

0,000 

9,000 

... 

22,9S0 

0,000 


* Died on tho 18th November 1921 and subsidy i stopped from tbo 19th November 1921. 


It may be noted that similar Engagements (Nos. IN and X) were mode 
in 1809 with the Persian Baluchistan Chiefs (1) of Balm and Dashtyari 
for the protection of the telegraph line from Kecli to Chahbar, and (2) 
of Giali for the security of the portion from Chahbar to Sadeich, by 
which the two former received annual subsidies of Its. 1,000 each and 
the latter Its. 3,000, ' 


2 a 2 














338 


BALUCHISTAN — Kalat Agency. 


With effect from the 1st January .191 1, the Ginh subsidy was re-dis- 
tributecl as follows: — . 


Rs. 


per annum. 

To Sirdar Syed Khan of Giah 1,000 

To thirteen local headmen 3,000 

Reserved for the pay of a Native Assistant at Banipur, but 

at present available for special presents . . . . 400 

Total ' . 0,000 

In 1924, for the better protection of the telegraph lines, the services 
of six headmen were dispensed with and the subsidy was re-distributed as 
follows : — 


Rs. 

per annum. 

To Sirdar Husain Khan ....... 1,000 

To Mir Ayub Khan 500 

To Mir Nagdi Khan . . . . . . 000 

To five local headmen . 500 

Reserved for the pay of a Native Assistant at Bampur, but 
at present available for special presents .... 400 


Total . 3,000 


Since 1902 and 1904 respectively the Balm and Dashtyari subsidies 
were re-distributed as follows: — 


To Mir Subhau of Balm . 

To Mir Ahmed Khan of Balm 
To Mir Din Mohamed of Dashtyari 
To Mir Dnrra Khan of Dashtyari 


Rs. 

per annum. 
GOO 
400 
500 
600 


Total . 2,000 


Th ese subsidies ceased on the 1st July 1920, owing to the old coastal 
line being dismantled. 

In 1917 a new inland telegraph line was constructed passing through 
the Bahu and Dashtyari districts between Snldjikaur (Suntsar) and 
Cliahbar. The following subsidies were sanctioned for the Chiefs of the 
two districts : — 


Rs. 


To Mir Subha n of Bahu 
To Mir Ahmed Khan of Balm 
To Mir Din Mohamed of Dashtyari 
To Mir Durra Khan of Dashtyari . 


per annum. 
500 
500 
500 
500 

Total . 2,000 


Th e, two Chiefs of the -Task district receive a subsidy of Rs. 840 per 


annum, 



BALUCHISTAN — Kaiat Agency. 339 

From ilie 1st January I91G, owing to tlio disturbed state of the 
country and tbe importance of tbe line for the Mesopotamian Expedi- 
tionary Force, extra subsidies amounting to Its. 2,000 a month were 
paid to the nine Chiefs of Makran by the Political Itesident, Bush ire, as 
follows : — 

Rs. 

Sirdar Syed Klian (after his death to his son, Husain Khan) 400 

Mir Barkat 300 

Islam Khan (after his death to his son, Yahya Khan) . . 200 

Mahmud Khan * 200 

Din Mohamod 200 

Asliraf Khan (after his deatli to his son, Mir Subhan) . . 200 

Ahmed Khan .......... 200 


Mustafa Khan 200 

Mir Hoti 100 


This amount was increased by Rs. 100 per mensem from the 1st 
January 1919 for Mir Nagdi Khan. These subsidies ceased from the 
30th November 1919. 

In September 1904 the Director of Persian Gulf Telegraphs was 
appointed an Assistant to the Political Agent, Kaiat, and a Justice of 
the Peace within the limits of Kaiat and Las Bela, with powers to com- 
mit European British subjects to the Chief Court of the Punjab. 

3. Las Bela. 

The State of Las Bela lies on the southern coast of Baluchistan. 
It is bounded on the north by the Jhalawan division of Kaiat, on the 
south by the Arabian Sea, on the east by the Kirthar range which 
separates it from Sind, and on the west by the Hala offshoot of the Pab 
range. Its early history is wrapped in' obscurity, but the army of 
Alexander the Great appears to have marched through the southern part 
of the State in 325 B. C. In the seventh centmy its ruler seems to have 
been a Buddhist priest but later Buddhism gave place to Islam. Little 
is known about the succeeding period, but Chiefs of the Gujar, Runjha, 
Gunga and Burfat tribes, which are still to be found in Las Bela, are 
said to have exercised a semi-independent sway previous to the rise of 
the Aliani family of the Jamot tribe of Kureslii Arabs, to which the 
present ruling Chief., known as the Jam, belongs. 

The first Chief of the line, Ali Khan I, surnamed Kathuria, estab- 
lished himself about 1742, and was succeeded by Ghulam Shah about 
1765. He was succeeded in 1776 by Mir Khan I, and he by Ali Khan 
II in 1818. 

The Jams appear to have held the province on some kiiid of tenure 
from the Khans of Kaiat, the original conditions of which were that the 
Jam should acknowledge the supremacy of the Khan and maintain a 
body of troops for service when required. 



340 


BALUCHISTAN —Kalat Agency. 


The Jam still acknowledges the Khan of Kalat as his suzerain: and 
the Jam of the day (Mir Khan II) signed the Mastung Convention as a 
Kalat Sardar and voted in the Jirga which recommended the deposition 
of Khan Khudadad Khan. 

Mir Khan II, who succeeded Ali Khan II about 1830, several times 
endeavoured to throw otf allegiance to Kalat and make himself indepen- 
dent. The last occasion was in 1S68, when the Jhalnwan Braliuis, with 
his connivance, laid waste the Khan of Kalat’s territories. On this 
occasion he appropriated the revenues of two State villages, and 
threatened to renew hostilities with the Khan. The latter took the ini- 
tiative and sent a force against the Jam, who sought refuge in British 
territory. At the instance of the British Government the Khan allowed 
him an income of' Its. 8,000 a year, on condition that he remained within 
the British borders and abstained from intriguing in the affairs of Kalat. 
This allowance the Jam declined to receive. He lived for a time at 
Karachi, but as he still continued to foment rebellion in Kalat and to 
hold treasonable correspondence with the subjects of the Khan, he was 
deported to Hyderabad (Sind), and thence to Poona. In 1874 his son, 
Ali Khan, escaped from Hyderabad, where he was under surveillance, 
and returned to Bela, which he ruled for the next three years. In 1877 
Mir Khan II was pardoned and restored to his former position. After 
his restoration he quarrelled with his son Ali Khan, who was deported 
from Bela and detained under surveillance at Sibi till his father’s death. 
Mir Klian II died in January 1SS8. The succession was disputed; but 
eventually Ali Khan was acknowledged and installed in January 1889, 
on certain conditions (No. XVIII). Ali Khan III died in January 1896 
and was succeeded by his eldest son Kamal Khan, who was formally 
installed in May of the same year. Kamal Khan on his accession sub- 
scribed to certain conditions (No. XXIII), the most important of which 
was the stipulation that, for five years at least after his accession, he 
would delegate all powers of administration to the Wazir selected by the 
Government of India. In 1901 these conditions were modified (No. 
XXVII) ; but the Jam was still required to employ a "Wazir approved 
by the Agent to the Governor-General, and to act in accordance with his 
advice. 

Kamal Khan was permitted to resign in 1921 owing to a quarrel with 
the Mengals caused by his divorcing his Mengal wife. He was succeeded 
by his eldest son the present Jam Ghulam Muhammad, on whose behalf 
the State was at first managed by a Wazir. In 1925 he was invested with 
extended powers on signing an Agreement (No. XXXII) re-affirming the 
undertakings given by his predecessors. 

The area of Las Bela is 7,132 square miles; the population, according 
to the Census of 1921, 50,696; and the average revenue Its. 4,03,000, 

The armed forces of the State consist of about 130 men. 



BALUCL1 fSTAX — Kahit Agency. 


341 


The Indo-European telegraph line runs through the Slate* and the 
Jam receives lis. 10,200 per annum for its protection. 


4. Kiiahan. 

The Simlar of Kharan is entitled io the third seat in Darbav iu the 
Sarawnn line. 

Kittle is known of the history of Klinran previous to the end of the 
seventeenth century, except, that it appeals to have formed part of the 
Persian province of Kerman. The Is usherwani Chiefs, on whom local 
interest centres, claim descent from the lvianiuu Maliks, and have 
at different times acknowledged subordination to Persia, Kalat and 
Afghanistan. There is evidence that in the time of Nadir Shall Kharan 
was still included in Kerman: but Nash* Khan 1 appears to have brought 
it under the control of Kalat, under which it remained until quarrels 
between Khududad Khan and Azad Khan, in the middle of the nineteenth 
century, threw Azad Khan into the arms of Afghanistan. In 1SS4 the 
Agent to the Governor-General visited Kharan and succeeded in settling 
the chief points of difference between Azad Khan and Klnuhulad Khan ; 
and Azad Khan acknowledged allegiance to the Khan of Kalat by taking 
his place among the Sava wan Savdars at a Durbar held at Panjgur. 
In 1 880 a Settlement (No. XVI) was made with Sardar Azad Khan, by 
which he undertook to do certain tribal service in consideration of an 
annual payment of Ks. 0,000. Azad Khan died in 1885, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Nauroz Khan. The settlement of 1885, which had 
been made with Azad Khan, was continued with Nauroz Khan. He 
died in 1009 and was succeeded !>v his son. Muhammad Yakub Khan, 
who was murdered on the 19th April 1911 by his own sepoys, at the 
instigation of Ins relative Amir Khan. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son, the present Sardar llabibullali Khan, who received the title of 
Sardar llaltadur in 1919 and of Nawab in 1921. 

In 1009 Muhammad Takub Khan had made an Agreement (No. 
XXXI) with the Government of India: and this was continued on the 
19th September 1911 with Sardar Bahadur Nawab llabibullali Khan. 

The Kharan Sardar holds from the Khan of Kalat a Jagir at Kliudu- 
badau in Panjgur. 

ihe area of Kharan is 1 8,ol>5 square miles: and the population, 
according to the Census of 1.921, 27,738. The greater part of Kharan is 
desert. The Indo-European Telegraph line runs through Kharan from 
Grawag to Ludgasht, and the Sardar receives Us. 4,000 per annum for 
its protection. 


o. Tut; Botax Pass. 

The boundaries of the Dolan Pass have never been defined. It 
extends from Bindli in ihe northern corner of the Kachlii plain to 


* For a fuller account of the agreements recanting the 
Lino ecu under hooding Mai: ran Telegraph Line, ante. 


Indo-European Telegraph 



342 BALUCHISTAN — Kalal Ag chclj. 

Darwaza in the hills where it opens into the Dasht plain. The reopenine 
to trade of this Pass, which had been closed in the civil wars between the 
Khan of Kalat and his tribes, was one of the main objects of Colonel 
Sandeman’s first visit to Kalat. 

The right to levy tolls passing within this area was handed over to 
the British Government by the Agreement of 18S3 (No. XIY) in return 
for a yearly payment of Its. 30,000 to the Khan and fixed animal pay- 
ments to certain Sardars for service in the Pass, representing their share 
of the transit and escort dues. In order to facilitate the collection of 
tolls, full civil and criminal jurisdiction and all other powers of admin- 
istration in the area, including certain lands purchased at Itindli, were 
ceded by the Khan at the same time. Similar jurisdiction, with the 
right of occupation, was ceded in 1894 (No. XX) for all railway lands 
in the Pass. The collection of tolls was abolished in 1884. 

With the establishment of settled administration, a revival of agri- 
culture in the few cultivable areas in the Pass was brought about. The 
revenue administration of these areas was carried out by the British 
Government under the Agreement of 1883, and the revenues collected 
were paid into the British treasury. Subsequent exploitation of minerals, 
however, raised the question of the right of the State to all forms of 
revenue accruing from the Pass: and an examination of the existing 
treaties showed that all such revenues vested in the Kalat State. Against 
these revenues the British Government had a reasonable claim for the 
cost of the administration which effected collection ; but this claim was 
waived, as was the State’s claim to past revenues: and the position under 
the existing treaties was affirmed. Thus the revenues accruing in the 
Bolan Pass are collected by the British Government and paid in full to 
the Kalat State at the end of each financial year. 



BALUCHISTAN— Sibi Agency. 


343 


SIBI AGENCY. 

The Mauri and Bugti Tribal Country. 

These tribes occupy a tract b£ country in the Sibi Agency situated at 
the southern end of the Suliman range. The northern part belongs to 
the Harris and the southern to the Bugtis. They are the strongest Balueh 
tribes in the Province. The three important elans of the Munis are the 
Gazni, Lolmrani-Shirani and Bijrani. The Bugtis include the Pairo- 
zani Nothani, Durragli Notbani, Ivhalpar, Massori, Mondrnni, Shambani 
and llalieja. The Chiefs levy no revenue, but usually receive a sheep or 
a goat from each flock when visiting different parts of their country. 

The early history of both tribes is obscure. The Harris are known to 
have driven out the Knpchanis and Hnsuis, while the Bugtis conquered 
the Buledis. Owiug to the poverty of their country both tribes were 
continuously engaged in plunder, and carried their predatory expeditions 
far into the adjoining localities. They came into contact with the British 
during the first Afghan War, when a small detachment was sent to occup}' 
Kalian and guard the flank of the lines of communication with Afghanis- 
tan ; but it was invested for five months and two attempts at relief were 
beaten off. The fort was, however, only surrendered after a safe retreat 
kad,been secured from Doda Khan, the Marri Chief . In 1845 Sir Charles 
Napier conducted a campaign against the Bugtis, who fled to the Kbet- 
raus, and the expedition was only a qualified success. Sir John Jacob, 
after much trouble with both tribes, but especially with the Bugtis, settled 
some of the latter on irrigated lands in Sind in 1847, but many of them 
shortly afterwards fled back to their native hills. Both tribes were subsi- 
dised by the Khan of Kalat after the Treaty of 1854, but in 185D Kliuda- 
dad Khan was obliged to make an expedition against the Harris. Another 
unsuccessful campaign followed in 1862, and systematic raids continued. 
Previous to 1867 the Punjab authorities had attempted to control the 
Bugtis by enlisting into their service some of the subordinate Chiefs 
with their clansmen, giving them land rent free, and places in the border 
militia. This policy, however, proved unsuccessful, partly owing to 
jealousies among the remaining Chiefs who had not been dealt with 
similarly, and partly to the different policy pursued by the Sind Govern- 
ment towards the sections of these tribes on its own frontier. In 18G‘7 
therefore, Captain Sandeman endeavoured to extend the same policy 
towards the Marne, who up to this time had been excluded from all 
friendly intercourse with the British : and a meeting took place at Itajan- 
pui , at which the Khetran, Bugtx and Marri Chiefs, with one exception, 
Wcre _ present. As a result it was arranged to place ten police sowars at. 
the Marri capital of Kalian and to bestow five places in the frontier 
militia on the Chiefs of the tribe : and similar action was taken in regard 



ui 


BALUCHISTAN — Sibi Agency. 


to the Bugti Chiefs. Some success attended these measures so far as the 
Punjab frontier was concerned, but the tribes continued to raid the Sind 
border. In February 1871 a conference of officials of the Punjab and 
Sind was held at Mithankot with a view to secure unanimity of action 
in the management of the tribes. In accordance with the - suggestions 
then made, it was determined that (1) the control of the relations of 
Government with these tribes should be placed in the hands of the Poli- 
tical Superintendent, Upper Siiul Frontier, and that, in respect of these 
tribes, the Deputy Commissioner of Dera Gliazi Khan should be placed 
under him ; (2) in addition to the sums which had previously been paid 
to the tribes for service on the border of the Punjab, Ks. 32,040 should 
be paid annually for the entertainment of horsemen belonging to the 
tribes, to maintain the tranquillity of the Sind as well as the Punjab 
frontier, and of the Kalat territory. The amount, the payment of which 
was provisional for one year, was to be handed over to the Chiefs in 
the name of the Khan. The rebellion against the Khan which broke out 
in Kalat in October 1S71, and the troubles which followed, prevented 
the execution of the second of the measures decided on at Mithankot, 
except for the payment of a small subsidy, Its. 5,520, to the Bugtis, who 
had behaved themselves. The state of affairs continued unsatisfactory: 
and in 1875 it was decided to put an end to the dual system of manage- 
ment from the Punjab and Sind. The conduct of the tribes was to he 
considered as a whole; and the Deputy Commissioner of Dera GJiasti 
Khan was, under the Commissioner in Sind, to he the medium of 
communications with the Harris and Bugtis in all their branches. In 
November 1875 Captain Sandeman was deputed to the hills to try and 
bring about an amicable settlement of the tribal quarrels and to provide 
for the security of the Bolau route. He succeeded in getting the Braliui, 
Marri and Bugti Chiefs to accompany him to Kalat and to attend a 
darbar held by the Khan. The result, however, was not completely 
satisfactory, as rebellious and raids continued. Captain Sandeman was 
despatched on a second mission to Kalat in 1876, from which resulted 
the Treaty of Jacobabad (No. XII) and a reconciliation between the 
Khan and his rebellious Sardars. It was then decided to continue to the 
Bugtis and Harris the allowances paid since 1875, and to deal with 
them independently of the Khan. In February 1877, on the establish- 
ment of the Baluchistan Agency, relations with the Harris and Bugtis 
became closer. The Bugtis have throughout behaved well. With the 
Harris relations remained on a tolerably satisfactory footing till the 
disaster of Maiwand in I860. On hearing of this the Harris broke out 
again and, besides committing - other acts of violence, attacked and 
looted a Government convoy on the Harnai line in August 1880. A force 
was sent into their country to exact retribution for these outrages : and 
the two leading Marri Chiefs, Mehrulla Khan and Karam Khan, came in 
and accepted the terms laid down by Government. These were the resti- 



BALUCHISTAN — Sibi Agency. 


345 


fcution of tlie treasure and bullocks plundered from tlie convoy ; tlie pay- 
ment of a line of Its. 20,000 to compensate private losses; tlie pay- 
ment of blood money according to tribal custom for tliose slain; an 
unopposed passage to the troops marching through the Marri oouutiy by 
Kalian to Harrnnd; and the giving of hostages for the future good 
behaviour of the clan. The tribe complied with those conditions, and 
friendly relations were resumed on the former basis of tribal payments 
and service. The Marris took part in the Sunari outrage in 1S9G, in 
which they killed eleven men, and also in the unrest which occurred in 
1S9S and which ended in the son of the Marri Chief emigrating tem- 
porarily to Afghanistan. 

Again in 1917, with the spread of false rumours of the impending 
victories of the Turks and Germans, the Marris began to get restless. 
The tribe broke into open rebellion in 1918, deserted their levy posts, 
cut the telegraph lines between Kohlu and Gumbaa and made several 
attacks on the Siml-Pishin Railway. The Political Agent, Sibi, was 
sent to make enquiries. Re found all tlie passes closed by hostile gangs, 
and while at Gumbaz was attacked by a large force of Marris, which was 
driven off with heavy loss. The Marris retired and, assisted by the 
Khctraus, destroyed Government buildings at Kohln, Barkhan, Bawata 
and Port Munro, besides looting the Barkhan treasury. A punitive 
expedition was despatched and a fight ensued at Mannmd, where the 
Marri Chief finally surrendered unconditionally and accepted the 
Government terms which, in addition to compensation for private 
and Government damages, included confiscation of all Mvafis and 
titles: the return of all Government rifles and ammunition captured 
during the rebellion : an increase in the revenue : the permanent cession 
of the land temporarily laid out as an Aerodrome, and its further main- 
tenance at the expense of the tribe: and an undertaking to meet the 
expenses of a cart road through the country whenever called upon to make 
it. 

Since this much needed lesson the internal affairs of the country and 
the tribe have been satisfactory. 

Petroleum having been discovered in the Marri country, the Tuman- 
dar, Sardar Mehrulla Khan, executed in October 1SS5 au Agreement 
(No. XT II) by which he ceded to the British Government his rights to 
petroleum and all other mineral oils in consideration of an annual cash 
payment. This agreement was formally cancelled by the Government 
of India in 1927, when the Turn and ar was left free to enter into negotia- 
tions for the exploitation of mineral oil in the Marri country. 

In September 192o the Indo-Burma Petroleum Company, with the 
sanction of the Governor-General in Council, entered into an agreement 
with the Bugti Tumandar Muhammad Melirab Khan, to explore the 
Bugti area for petroleum; hut, owing to the refusal of the Tumandar to 



340 


BALUCHISTAN -Sibi Agency. 


agree to certain terms offered by them, the Company decided in Septem- 
ber 192S to discontinue the operations. 

The present Bugti Tumandar is Sardar Bahadur Nawah Muham- 
mad Mehrab Khan, wlio succeeded his father Slialibaz Khan in 1917. 
He received the title of Sardar Bahadur in 190G, and the personal title 
of Nawab ill 1918. 

The present Marri Tumandar is Khan Bahadur Muhammad Mehrulla 
Khan, who succeeded his father Mir Khair Baklish Khan on the 28th 
January 1925. He received the title of Khan Bahadur in 1927. 

Both tribes are under the control of the Political Agent in Sibi. The 
task of the political officers is chiefly confined to the settlement of inter- 
tribal cases either between the Marris and Bugtis themselves, whose 
relations are frequently strained, or with the neighbouring tribes of the 
Loralai district and the Punjab. 

The area of the Marri country is 3,392 square miles, and that of the 
Bugti country 3,876 square miles. The population of the two areas was, 
in 1921, 37,02 H 



BALUCHISTAN- British -Baluchistan and Agency Territories, 347 


BRITISH BALUCHISTAN AND AGENCY TERRITORIES. 

British Baluchistan consists of the tahsils of Pishin anti Chaman, 
which form the Pishin District : the tahsils of Sihi and Shahrig, which 
form the Sihi District : the Duki District which forms part of the Loralai 
Agency: and the Shorarud District which forms part of the Chagai 
Agency. Tlie Agency Territories are the assigned Niahats of Quetta, 
Nasirabad, the Bolan Pass and Nusliki : the Loralai Agency, except 
the tahsil of Duki: the Zhob Agency: and the Chagai and Western 
Sinjerani country, except the tahsil of Shorarud. 

The ' districts of Pishin, Sihi with its dependencies of Thal-Chotiali 
and Harnai, Duki and Shorarud are under the administration of the 
Agent to the Governor-General in his cx-offwio capacity as Chief Com- 
missioner of British Baluchistan. Till 1878 they formed part of the 
dominions of the Amir of Afghanistan. When war with Afghanistan 
was declared in that year they were immediately occupied by British 
troops, and under the Treaty of Gandamak (see Yol. XIII, Afghanistan) 
executed in May 1879, their administration was to remain with the 
British Government, any surplus revenue being paid to the Amir. In 
September 1879, however, war broke out again, and ended in the abdica- 
tion of Yakub Khan and the accession to power of Amir Abdur Rahman 
Khan. He was informed that these districts had ceased to form part of 
Afghanistan; and they have since remained in the possession of the 
British Government. They were incorporated with British India in 
1887, and are officially known as the Province of British Baluchistan. 

Loralai, Zhob and Chagai Agencies . — The Bori and Zhob Valleys lie 
to the north of Harnai and Thal-Chotiali. In consequence of outrages 
committed by the Kakars of Zhob a punitive expedition was sent against 
them, Shah Jahan, the leading Zhob Chief, was deposed, and a relation, 
Sardar Shahbaz Khan, was set up in his stead. An Agreement (No. 
XY) was taken in November 1884 from the Maliks of Zhob, Bori and the 
Musa Khel, by which they undertook to put a stop to raiding into British 
territory; to prevent Shah Jahan and his chief adherent, Saifulla Khan, 
from returning to Zhob; to pay a fine of Rs. 22,000; and to raise no 
opposition to the location of British troops in Zhob and Bori. In 1887 
a British force was stationed at Loralai in the Bori valley for the protec- 
tion of the frontier road from Dera Gliazi Khan to Pishin. In the same 
year Bori, and the country of the Khetvan tribes lying between Thal- 
Chotiali and the Punjab, were, with the acquiescence of the Chiefs and 
people, brought more directly under the political and administrative 
control of the Baluchistan Agency. About the same time Shah Jahan 
and Saifulla Khan submitted and were permitted to return to their 
homes; and Sardar Shnhbaz Khan, who .was in delicate health, deputed 
liis authority to Shah Jahan’s eldest surviving son Shingul Khan, 



348 BALUCHISTAN — British Baluchistan and Agency Territories. 

In 1888-89 Sardar Shahbaz Khan, Shah Jahan Khan, Sliingul Kli an 
and the chief Zhob Maliks made a request that Zhob as well as Bori 
might be brought under niore direct British control. When in 1889-90 
it was decided to open up the Gonial Pass, the occupation of Zhob was 
sanctioned : and a Political Agent was appointed to take charge of the 
district, which included Bori and the country of the Klretran, Kibzai 
and Musa Kliel. The country of the Bargha Shiranis, Zimarais, Isots, 
Jafirs and Kh arshins, tribes occupying different parts of the Suliman 
range and intervening between Zhob and the Punjab, was subsequently 
added to the district. In 1903 the Bori valley with the Barkhan, Musa 
Khei and Tlial-Chotiali (Duki) tahsils, and the Sinjawi sub-tahsil, were 
formed into a separate district, called the Loralni district. 

The Khanai Hindubagh Railway was constructed in 1917. The 
extension from Hindubagh to Port Sandeman of the Zhob Yalley Railway 
was completed in 1929. 

In 1890 the Government of India decided that the line of the Gonial 
river, between its junction with the Kundar and Zhob rivers, should be 
the limit of tribal jurisdiction between the North-West Frontier Agency 

i then the Punjab Government) and the Baluchistan Agency. 

By the Durand agreement of 1893 the Sinjerani country, extending 
from Ohagai to Sistan, came under the administration of the Baluchis- 
tan Agency. The boundary of this tract was demarcated in 1896, and a 
road suitable for camel traffic was constructed in 1897-99 between Quetta, 
Nushki and Sistan. The Quetta-Nusliki Railway was opened at the close 
of 1905. 

The Nushki Extension Railway, which reached Duzdap in February 
1919, was opened in April 1919, while the portion from Ahmedwal to 
Dalbaudin was opened in October 1919. 

In July 1926 the Sliorarud Yalley was transferred from the Quetta 
District to the charge of the Political Agent, Ohagai. 

Nushki, Ohagai and Western Sinjerani country were incorporated in 
Baluchistan Agency territories in May 1929. 

At the beginning of 1890 negotiations in connection witli the opening 
of the Gonial Pass were entered into with the Bargha Shiranis, as a result 
of wdiich they were taken into service (No. SIX), and given an allowance 
of Rs, 7,680 a year. In 1891 the arrangement whereby the Bargha 
Shiranis were placed under the Baluchistan Agency, which had been made 
after the Zhob Expedition of 1890, was confirmed by the Government of 
India. In the same year the tribe was called upon to pay revenue for 
the first time. In 1894 the Bargha Shiranis agreed to submit a long 
standing boundary dispute with the Mianis to the arbitration of the 
political authorities, and accepted their decision. In 1895 the boundary 
line between the Bargha and Largha Shiranis, the latter of whom are 
under the jurisdiction of the North-West Frontier Province, was settled 



BALUCHISTAN — British Ualvchistan and Agency Territories. 349 

1 ■ ; | | 
with tlie consent of both parties (No. XXI). In the same year the tribe 

was fined Its. 4,200 for its complicity in certain outrages committed on 

the Dhana road in the Shirani country when Lieutenant Home, E.E., 

and his attendants were murdered. The Barg-ha Shiran is rendered lojml 

assistance in 1902 during the disturbance connected with the murder of 

Arbab Farid Khan, Extra Assistant Commissioner in the Largha Shirani 

country. 

In 1897 an Agreement (No. XXIV) was made with the Suliman 
Kliel Ghilzai, whereby the. sections of the tribe in the Zliob district were 
to pay tirni (grazing fees) for their animals while grazing within the 
British border and, among other conditions, to be responsible for tlie 
good behaviour of their sections while within the Zliob tracts, and for 
the detection of offences committed within the limits where their 
sections resided. They were, in return, granted an annual allowance of 
Bs. 1,550. Owing to the difficulty, however, of collecting the tirni from 
the sections of the tribe on the Punjab frontier, the agreement remained 
inoperative in .1898; but the sections in the Zliob district then agreed in 
writing to act independently of their brethren in this matter for the 
future, and since 1899 the allowances have been regularly paid. With 
the sanction of the Government of India, the rates mentioned in the 
Agreement were doubled in 1923, both in the North-West Frontier Pro- 
vince and Baluchistan. 

In 1918 the Khetrans belonging to the Loralai District rose in revolt, 
in sympathy with the Harris. The rising was put down by a small 
expeditionary force which entered the Marri country rid Gumbaz and 
proceeded via Kohlu to Barklian. Terms were imposed on the Khetrans. 

In 1919 Loralai was made the Headquarters of the Zliob Area, which 
includes Fort Sandeman and the Zhob Valley: and tlie force was brought 
up to the strength of an Independent Brigade. 

Between 1919 and 1922, owing to the Afghan disturbances and the 
defection of a considerable portion of the Zhob Militia, a series of raids 
took place in various parts of the Loralai district. 



350 


BALUCHISTAN— NO. 1—1839. 


No. I. 

Articles of an Engagement concluded between the British Government and 
Mekrab Khan, the Chief of Rabat, — 1839. 

Whereas a Treaty of lasting friendship has been concluded between the British 
Government and His Majesty Shah Slvuja-ul-Mulk, and Mclirab Khan, the Chief 
of Kalat, as well as his predecessors, has always paid homage to the Royal House 
of the Saddozais ; therefore, with the advice and consent of the Shah, the under- 
mentioned Articles have been agreed upon by Mekrab Khan and his descendants 
from generation to generation. As long as the Khan performs good service, the 
following Articles will be fulfilled and preserved : — 


Article 1. 

As Nasir Khan and his descendants, as well as his tribe and sons, held possession 
of the country of Kalat, Kaehhi, Khorstan, Makran, Kej, Bela and the port of 
Soumiani in the time of the lamented Ahmad Shah Durani they will in future be 
masters of their country in the same manner. 


Article 2. 

The English Government will never interfere between the Khan, his depend- 
ants, and subjects, particularly lend no assistance to Shah Nawaz Fateh Khan, 
and the descendants of the Mahabbatzai branch of the family, but always exert 
itself to put away evil from his house. In case of His Majesty the Shah’s displeasure 
with the Khan of Kalat, the English Government will exert itself to the utmost 
to remove the same in a manner which may be agreeable to the Shah and according 
to the rights of the Khan. 

Article 3. 

As long as the British army continues in the country of Khorasan, the British 
Government agrees to pay to Mehrab Khan the sum of one and a half lakh of Com- 
pany’s rupees from the date of this engagement by half-yearly instalments. 


Article 4. 

In return for this sum the Khan, while he pays homage to the Shah and con- 
tinues in friendship with the British nation agrees to use his best endeavours to 
procure supplies, carriage, and guards to protect provisions and stores going and 
coming from Shikarpur by the route of Rozan, Dadar, the Pass of Bolan, through 
Shal to Kuchlak from one frontier to another. 

Article 5. 

All provisions and carriage which may be obtained through the means of the 
Khan, the price of the same is to be paid without hesitation. 



BALUCHISTAN — NOS. 1—1839 AND II— 1841. 351 

Article 6. 

As much as Mohtab shows his friendship to the British Government by service 
and fidelity to the Saddozai family, so much the friendship will be increased 
between him and the British Government and on this he should have the fullest 
relianco and confidence. 

This agreement having been concluded, signed and sealed by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sir Alexander Burnes, Kt., Envoy on the part of the Bight Ilon’ble George, Lord 
Auckland, G.C.B., Governor-General of India and Mclirab Khan, of Kalat, on the 
part of himself, the same shall be duly ratified by the Bight Ilon’blc the Governor- 
Gcnctal. 

Done at Kalat, the 2Slh day of March, A.D. 1S89, corresponding mlh the 12th day 

of Mvharram, A. II. 1255. 

A. Burnes, 

Envoy to Kalat. 


Bo. II. 

Treaty ontered into between the Government of India and Meer Nusseer 

Khan, Ciiief of Khelat, — 1841. 

Whereas Mccr Nusseer Khan, son of Mehrab Khan, deceased, having tendered 
his allegiance and submission, the British Government and Ilis Majesty Shah 
Suja-ool-moolk recognise him, the said Nusseer Khan, and his descendants as Chief 
of the principality of Khelati-Nussccr on the following terms : — 

Article 1. 

Meer Nusseer Khan acknowledges himself and his descendants the vassals 
of the King of. Cabool, in like manner as his ancestors were formerly the vassals 
of His Majesty’s ancestors. 

Article 2. 

Of the tracts of country resumed on the death of Meer Mclirab Khan, namely, 
Cutchce, Moostung, and Shawl, the two first will be restored to Meer Nusseer Khan 
and his descendants through the kindness of His Majesty Shah Suja-ool-moolk. 


Article 3. 

Should it be deemed necessary to station troops, whether belonging to the 
Honourable Company or Shah Suja-ool-moolk, in any part of the territory of 
Khelat, they shall occupy such positions as may be thought advisable. 


Article 4. 

Meer Nusseer Khan, his heirs and successors, 
ad vice of the British officer residing at his Durbar. 

XI 


will always be guided by the 

. 2 B 



352 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. IT— 1841 AND TTT— 1854. 

Article 5. 

The passage of merchants and others into Afghanistan from the river Indus 
on the one side, and from the sea-port of Soumecanee on the other, shall be pro- 
tected by Meer Nnssecr Khan as far as practicable, nor will any aggression be 
practised on such persons, or any undue exactions made beyond an equitable toll 
to be fixed by the British Government and Meer Nusseer Khan, 

Article 6. 

Meer Nusseer Khan binds himself, his heirs and successors, not to hold any 
political communication or enter into any negotiations -with foreign powers without 
the consent of the British Government and of His Majesty Shah Suja-ool-moolk, 
and in all cases to act in subordinate co-opeTation with the governments of British 
India and of the Shah ; but the usual amicable correspondence with neighbours 
to continue as heretofore. 

Article 7. 

In case of an attack on Meer Nusseer Khan by an open enemy, or of 
any difference arising between him and any foreign poweT, the British Government 
will afford him assistance or good offices as it may judge to be necessary or proper 
for the maintenance of his rights. 

Article 8. • 

Meer Nusseer Khan will make due provision for the support of Shah Newaz 
Khan, either by pension to be paid through the British Government, on condition 
of that Chief residing within the British territory, or by grant of estates within 
Khelat possessions, as may hereafter be decided by the British Government. 

Bone at Khelat, this 6th day of October A.D. 1841, corresponding with the 20lh Shaban 

A.H.1257. 

Meer Nusseer Khan. AUCKLAND. 

Batifiod and signed by the Bight Honourable the Governor-General of India 
in Council, at Fort William in Bengal, this 10th day of January 1842. 

T. II. Maddock, 

Secretary to the Government of India. 


No. III. 

Treaty between the British Government and Nusseer Khan, Chief of Khelat’ 
concluded on the part of the British Government by Major John Jacob, C.B.’ 
in virtue of full powers granted by the Most Noble the Marquis of Dal- 
housie, Kt., etc., Governor-General of India, and by Meer Nusseer Khan, 
Chief of Khelat, — 1854. 

Whereas the course of events has made it expedient that a new agreement 
should be concluded between the British Government and Meer Nusseer KhaUj 



BALUCHISTAN— NO. Ill— 1864; 353 

Chief of Khelat, the following Articles have been agreed on between the said govern- 
ment and His Highness : — 

Article 1. 

The Treaty concluded by Major Outnqn between the British Government and 
Meer Nusseer Khan, Chief of Khelat, on the 8th October 1841, is hereby annulled. 


Article 2. 

There shall be perpetual friendship between the British Government and Meer 
Nussoer Khan, Chief of Kholat, his heirs and successors. 

Article 3. 

Meer Nusseer Khan binds himself, his heirs and successors, to oppose to the 
utmost all the enemies of the British Government, in all cases to act in subordinate 
co-operation with that Government, and to enter into no negotiation with other 
States without its consent, the usual friendly correspondence with neighbours 
being continued as before. 

Article 4. 

Should it be doomed necessary to station British troops in any part of 
the territory of Khelat, they shall occupy such positions ns may be thought advisable 
by the British authorities. 


Article 5. 

Meer Nusseer Khan binds himself, his heirs and successors, to prevent 
all plundering or other outrage by his subjects within or near British territory : 
to protect the passage of merchants to and fro between the British dominions and 
Afghanistan, whether by way of Sindh or by the seaport of Soumeeanec, or other 
seaports of Mokran, and to permit no exactions to be made beyond an equitable 
duty to be fixed by the British Government and Meer Nusseer Khan, and the 
amount to be shown in the Schedule annexed to this Treaty. 

Artiole 6. 

To aid Meer Nusseer Khan, his heirs and successors, in the fulfilment of 
these obligations, and on condition of a faithful performance of them year by year, 
the British Government binds itself to pay to Meer Nusseer Khan, his heirs and 
successors an annual subsidy of fifty thousand (50,000) Company’s Rupees. 

Article 7. 

If during any year the conditions above mentioned shall not be faithfully 
performed by the said Moor Nusseer Khan, his heirs and successors, then the annual 

2 b 2 



354 


BALUCHISTAN— NO. Ill— 1854. 


subsidy of fifty thousand (50,000) Company’s Rupees -will not be paid by the 
British Government. 

Done at Musloong, this fourteenth clay of May one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 

four. 


Mustoong. 
liih May 1854. 


John Jacob, Major, 
Political Superintendent and Commandant 

on the frontier of Upper Sindh. 


Schedule showing amount of duty to he levied on merchandize passing through 
the dominions of the Khan of Kliclat refened to in Article 5 of this Treaty. 

On each camel-load, without respect to value, from the northern frontier to 
the sea, either to Kurrachee or other port, Company’s Rupees 6. 

On each camel, as above, from the northern frontier to Shikarpore, Company’s 
Rupees 5. 

The same duties to be levied on merchandize passing in the contrary direction 
from the sea, or from Sindh to the Khelat territory. 

John Jacob, Major, 
Political Superintendent and Commandant 
on the frontier of Upper Sindh. 

The foregoing Articles of Treaty having been concluded between the British 
Government and the Khan of Khelat, and signed and sealed by Major John 
Jacob, C.B., on the one part, and Meer Nusseer Khan on the other, at Mustoong 
on the 14th May A.D. 1854, corresponding with 16th Shaban A.H. 1270, a 
copy of the same will be delivered to His Highness, duly ratified by the 
Governor-General in Council, within two months from this date. 

DALHOUSIE. 

J. Dokin. 

J. Low. 

J. P. Grant. 

B. Peacock. 


Ratified by the Most Noble the Governor-General in Council, Fort William, 
this 2nd day of June 1854. 


G. F. Edmonstone, 
Secretary to the Government of India. 



BALUCHISTAN — NO. IV— 1861. 355 

No. IV. 

Translation of a Telegrapli Agreement with the Jam of Beyla, dated the 21st 

December 1861. 

Whereas it is in contemplation to carry on, as far as India, the communication 
now opened between Great Britain and other high States of Europe and Asia by 
continuing the line of Electric Telegraph from Constantinople and Bagdad, through 
Persia and Beloochistan, to Kurrnchee, and whereas in the prosecution of this 
scheme of universal benefit, it has become necessary to take measures for the 
security and protection of the said contemplated line, the high government of 
Bombay have deputed Major E. J. Goldsmid for the special purpose of entering 
into such negotiations with the several Chiefs holding territory between Kurrachee 
and Gwadur as may be deemed necessary for the due furtherance of the aforesaid 
undertaking. 

Now the line of coast from the Hubb river to Khos Kulmut or its vicinity, a 
distance of 240 measured miles, being within the territory of Jam Meer Khan, 
Chief of Lus Beyla, the undersigned, Major E. J. Goldsmid, on the part of the 
British Government, and with the knowledge and consent of its firm ally Khodadad 
Khan, ruler of the sovereign State of Khelat, hereby makes agreement with Jam 
Meer Khan aforesaid for the construction, maintenance, and protection of the line 
of Telegraph between the above-mentioned places. 

The detailed agreement is as follows : — 


Article 1. 

The materials for the line may be landed on any part of the coast between the 
Hubb river and Khos Kulmut, and all reasonable assistance will be rendered by 
the local authorities in insuring its security and facilitating its construction, duo 
payment being made for labour or articles supplied. 


Article 2. 

There will bo two Telegraph stations erected for the residence and office of 
signallers, one at Soumeeancc and one at Ormara. 


Article 3. 

All individuals authoritatively employed in the construction, maintenance 
or use of the line aforesaid, shall receive such protection and assistance from the 
local authorities as will enable them to prosecute their work without let 
or ldndrance, due payment to be made for labour or articles supplied. 



356 


BALUCHISTAN— Bd. IV— 1861. 


Article 4. 

A sum of Rupees 10,000* yearly shall be paid by the Political Agent at Klielat 
to the Jam of Bcyla, on the understanding tliat lie keeps up an establishment of 
not less than men, on salaries of Rupees ■ per mensem in tbe aggregate, for 
tlic due protection of the line, and rendering sucb assistance as from time to time 
may be required by the Telegraph employees stationed on the coast. 


Article 5. 

Should it be authoritatively reported at any time that the said establishment 
is insufficient, and such injury be done to the line as would lead to the belief that 
duo care was not exercised in its protection, the Political Agent, Klielat, will he 
empowered to call upon the Jam of Beyla to make such additional payment 
as will not exceed in the whole the amount of full yearly subsidy. 


Article G. 

The annual payment to the Jam will commence from the date that five miles 
of Telegraph wire may be reported set up, all intermediate payment being made 
according to labour or articles supplied as previously provided. 


Article 7. 

Complaints against individuals in the employ of the Telegraph Department 
not capable of satisfactory adjustment will be referred to the Political Agent at 
Khclat. Any cases of urgency, whether in the nature of a complaint or otherwise 
affecting such persons, may be referred to the Magistrate or Commandant of 
Police at Kurraclieo as exceptional, should occasion require. 


Article 8. 

Continued obstruction or injury to the lino may cause revocation of this agree- 
ment on the part of Government at any time. 

The agreement made between the parties hereto as above defined, is to be 
bonsidered dependent for completion and effect upon the approval of tho Bombay 
Government. 

Approved by the Governor-General of India in Council on 19th August 1862. 


* Tlio amount of yearly payment must depond on further roicrenco as to tho actual work 
required. But tho undersigned is of opinion that tho full sum may bo double that fixed for tho 
pay of a watching establishment hore entered. For-instanco, supposing such establishment to 
bo Rupees 330 per mensem, tho yearly amount would ho Rupees 3,000 of which the doublo 
would bo Rupees 7,920. This would bo estimated in round numbers at Rupoes 8,000. 



iSALUCi-lisi’AN — NOS. V AND VI — 18G2. 3i>7 

No. V. ' 

Abstract Translation of an Agreement passed, under date the 24th January 
1862, by Faqueer Mahomed Bkzunjo, Naib of Kedje, to Major 
F. J. Goldsmid, Assistant Commissioner in Sind, on behalf of the British 
Government, — 1862. 

Under instructions from Ills Highness the Khan of Khclat, Fa queer Mahomed 
Bczunjo has presented himself before Major F. J. Goldsmid, Assistant Commis- 
sioner in Sind, and learnt all the arrangements contemplated for the establish- 
ment of the proposed line of Telegraph. He states in the presence of that officer 
and Rais Ralnnutoollah Khan, Agent of His Highness, that if the British Govern- 
ment intend to set the Electric Telegraph on the Mckran coast, lie will use his best 
endeavours to protect and maintain it from Kulmut-bundcr to Gwadur-bundei> 
and will provide the men required for that purpose. For this service he shall 
receive through the Political Agent, Khelat, and with the consent of the Khali > 
the sum assigned and deemed proper by the British Government. He will also 
lend assistance to the due establishment of the Electric Telegraph by protecting 
the materials and stores in such manner that there shall he no obstruction to the 
work. It is understood that all articles supplied to the persons connected with 
the Telegraph shall be duly paid for by the receivers. 

Provided always that his responsibility in tbc above matter depends on 
his holding the office of Naib of Kedje. 

Signed in the presence of Major F. J. Goldsmid, Assistant Commissioner in 
Sind, and in the presence of Rais Rahmutoollah, Agent of His Highness the Khan, 
under date the 24th January 1862. 


Note written before Faqueer Mahomed of Kedje, and .signed by Rais Rajjmu* 
toollah Khan on tbc 1st February 1862. 

The word “ Gwadur-bundcr ” shall be understood to comprise all lands within 
the recognized boundary of Gwadur. 

Approved by the Governor-General of India in Council on 19th August 1802. 


No. VI. 

Translation of an Agreement made by His Highness tbc IChan on Khelat, 
dated 24th Suffer 1279, corresponding with A.D. 21st August 1862. 

I, Meor Khodadad Khan, the Khan of Khelat, do hereby voluntarily state 
that a Surveying Officer, on the part of the British Government, and Shahbaz Khan 
Agent on the paa of the Government of Beloochistan, Were appointed to define 
tfie boundary between my territory and that of the British. 



358 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. VJ— 1802 AND VII— 1803. 


They thoroughly examined the boundary according to the detail of durees or 
pillars numbered 1 to 8 and 14 to 30 : the settlement of this portion was accepted 
and approved by my late brother, Meer Nussecr Khan, and I also accept and 
approve of the same. 

The following is the detail of boundaries defined subsequent to the demise of 
my brother between pillars Nos. 8 and 14, and approved by the Governments 
both of British India and of Beloochistan. This definition I also accept and 
approve : — 

Details. 


1. Koh Siali Ali. 

2. Rungoo. 

3. Mogro. 

4. Kukro. 

5. Halloo. 

C, Kliubar Gulo. 

7. Hunger. 

8. Jeliluk. 


9. Cluing. 

10. Hara. 

11. Kuchruk. 

12. Koh ICulan. 

13. Slmkloo. 

14. Dang Clinngo. 

15. Gogird Dana. 
1G. Loandce. 

17. Gnro. 


No. VII. 

Convention between the British: Government and IIis Highness Khodadap 
Khan, Ktian of Kiielat and Beloochistan, for the extension of the Electric 
Telegraph through such portions of the dominions of His Highness in Mekran 
as lie between the western boundary of the province under the feudatory 
rule of the Jam of Bcyla and the eastern boundary of the territory of 
Gwadur, — 18G3. 

Article 1. 

That His Highness the Khan of Khelat shall afford protection to the line of 
telegraph and to the persons employed in its construction and maintenance through 
the tract of the country lying between the western boundary of the province under 
the rule of the Jam of Beyla and the eastern boundary of the Gwadur territory. 


Article 2. 

That the British Government shall be at liberty to erect stations in such parts 
of the said country as they may deem most convenient for telegraph purposes. 


Article 3. 

That the material of the telegraph may be landed, free of duty, wherever the 
British Government may think most convenient on His Highness’s coast. 



BALUCHISTAN — NO. VII— 1803. 359 

Article A. 

That the cost of material, labour, landing charges, housing, provisions, etc., 
shall be borne by the British Government, who will also make any arrangements 
thoy may consider most convenient regarding their own supplies, labour, etc., 
His Highness the Khan undertaking that no impediment shall be thrown in their 
way, but that, on the contrary, every protection and assistance shall be afforded 
on his part. 


Article 5. 

That for the protection of the line and thoso employed upon it, the British 
Government will agree to pay the annual sum of Rupees five thousand (5,000), 
and HisJIighncss the Khan of Khelat is not to be called upon to go to any further 
expense than the above sum. 

Article 6. 

That. His Highness the Khan shall give notice through the Political Agent 
to the British Government of the proportions of the sum above mentioned which 
ho may wish to be paid to the various Chiefs to whom he will entrust the conserva- 
tion of the line, it being understood that the whole sum paid by the British Govern- 
ment for that purpose will be expended amongst the Chiefs and people through 
whoso country the line passes. On receipt of Ilis Highness’s wishes in this respect, 
the sums will be paid to the named parties through the Political Agent or other 
officer appointed by the British Government. 


Article 7. 

That annual payment will commence from the date that the telegraph officers 
may report that 50 miles of the line have been erected, and that its conservation 
is complete for that distance. 


Article 8. 

That any disagreement between the Telegraph officials and the subjects of His 
Highness the Khan of Khelat shall he referred to the Political Agent at Khelat 
if it cannot bo satisfactorily settled on the spot by the telegraph officers in com- 
munication with the Agent of His Highness, 


Article 9. 

Continued obstruction or injury to the line may cause revocation of this 
agreement at any time on the part of the British Government. 


Camp Ktjshmore ; 
The 20lh Feb. 1S63, 


. M. Green, Major, 

Aclg. Political Agent to the Court, of 

His Highness the Khan of Khelat. 



360 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. Vll— i863; V)lI AND JX-18G9. 

Additional Clause ' (10) of a Convention with His Highness the Khan 
of Khelat for the passage of the Electric Telegraph through his Mckran 
territory. 

.Article 10. . 

That His Highness the Khan of Khelat, with the view Of accelerating the erec- 
tion of the Electric Telegraph, agrees that the English Government may subsidize 
and make their own arrangements with the tribes (his subjects) in Mckran. 

It being understood that the above shall not include any cession of Khelat 
territory without his (the Khan’s) consent, and that, should offices or buildings 
be erected, their sites shall always be considered as belonging to the Khelat 
Government. 

On the part of the British Government. 

Jacobabad, Upper Sind ; M. Green, Major, 

The 23rd March 1S63. Aclg. Political Agent at Khelat. 

Khodadad Khan, 
Euler of Khelat. 


No. VIII. 

Translation of a Telegraph Agreement entered into by the Naib of Kedj,— 

1869. 

In continuation of, and in the terms of, the Agreement concluded in the year 
1862 with the consent of the Khan of Beloochistan, Sirdar Mecr Fu queer Mahomed, 
Naib of Kedj, now undertakes to guarantee the protection of the Telegraph line 
from the Gwadur to the Baho boundary, and also gives a similar assurance on the 
part of Mecr Bhayan, Gitchki. The British Government to pay the said Sirdar 
the sum of Rupees 1,500 annually, the Sirdar to place at the disposal of the Tele- 
graph Superintendent two line-riders on Rupees 20 monthly each, to be stationed 
between Gwadur and Baho. The pay of these guards to be deducted from tho 
said sum of Rupees 1,500 and paid to the men through the Telegraph Superin- 
tendent. This agreement to have effect from 1st January 1869. 

The above memorandum was written on 11th February 1869, sealed by 

Fuqueer Mahomed. 

Original sealed before me by Mulla Dora. 

No. IX. 

Translation of an Agreement made with the Chiefs of Baiio and DustyarEE 
for the protection of the Telegraph Line, — 1869. 

In consideration of the annual sum of Rupees 2,000 in equal shares of Rupees 
1,000 each guaranteed to be made over to us by Colonel Goldsmid, Chief Director 
of the Telegraphs between India and the Telegraphs of other Governments, we 



BALUCHISTAN— NOS. IX AND X—1SG9. 3G1 

Dccn Mahomed and Maliomcd Ali, being the Chiefs of Baho Dustyaree, pledge 
ourselves to afford all security and protection in our power to the line of Telegraph 
about to be constructed by tho British Government from the boundary of the 

kedj territory up to Charbar. . 

AVc also agree to assist in every way the officers and employes of the said Tele- 
graph, and to place at the disposal of the Telegraph officers, whenever required, 
at least four sowars at Rupees 20 each per month payable by the said officers. 

This agreement to come into immediate effect, payment of subsidy being made 
half-yearly by Captain Ross or other British officers stationed at Gwadur, tho 
first instalment being calculated from 1st January 1S69. 

Failure to fulfil the conditions here specified will cancel all claim to the subsidy. 
Sealed by the above-named Mecr Deen Mahomed and Mcer Mahomed Ali 
iu the presence of Colonel Goldsmid and Captain Ross, whose signatures arc 
affixed iu token of their engagements herein. 


No. X. 

Translation of an Agreement made with Suae Nusrut, Representative of the 
CntEF of Gain, for the protection of the Telegraph Line, — 1869. 

In consideration of tho annual sum of Rupees 3,000 guaranteed to ho made 
over to Shall Nusrut, on behalf of the widow of the late Mir Abdullah Klmn, of 
Gaili, by Colonel Goldsmid, C.B., Dircctor-in-Chicf, Indo-European Telegraph, 
the aforesaid Shah Nusrut, on his own part and as representative of the Chiefdom 
of Gaili, pledges himself to afford security and protection to the line of Telegraph 
about to be constructed from Charbar to Sndeich. 

He further agrees in every way to assist the officers and employes of the said 
Telegraph in the work of construction and maintenance, on the understanding 
that they shall obtain, from the Chief of Gaili, as many mounted men ns may be 
requisite, to be paid by the Telegraph officers at the rate of Rupees 20 per mensem 
for each man. 

Payment of the said subsidy shall he made half-yearly by Captain Ross or 
other British officer stationed at Gwadur; the first instalment to be calculated 
from 1st January 1S09. 

Should the aforesaid Shah Nusrut, on the part of the Chief of Gnih, fail to fulfil 
the above specified conditions, lie slinli forfeit all claim to the said subsidy, and 
this agreement shall be cancelled. 

Sealed by Shall Nusrut and Nowraz Khan in presence of Colonel Goldsmid 
and Captaiu Ross, whose signatures arc affixed in token of their engagement herein 
at Charbar, this fifth day of March 1SG9. 

Seal of Shaii Nusrut. Seal of Nowrak Kiian. 

F. J. Goldsmid, 

Lieutenant-Colonel . 
E. 0. Ross, 

Captain , 



362 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. XI— 1870 AND Xll— 1876. 


No. SI. 

Literal translation op a deed passed by His Highness the Khan op Khelat 
RECEIVED WITH LETTER No. 1213, DATED 29th AUGUST 1870, PROM THE POLI- 
TICAL Superintendent, Upper Sind Frontier, — 1870. 

At the present time, I, Khan Sahib Meer Klioodadad Khan, Ttuler of Khelat, 
conform to tliis subject. 

That I became acquainted with the purport of letter No. 4718, dated 4th August 
1870, from Colonel Sir William Mcrewether, Commissioner, Sind. In reference 
to this, I do agree and accept that from the sum of Rupees 15,000 which is paid 
me by the British Government on account of the Electric Telegraph, District of 
Lus Beyla, I will disburse the sum of Rupees 666-8 to Meer Khan Jamote during 
his lifetime, and for the salaries of supervisors of the Telegraph line, Rupees 50 
for two Jemadars, and Rupees 500 for 25 mounted men, at the rate of Rupees 20 
each per mensem. The aforesaid expenditure I agree to, the balance of the Electric 
Telegraph money which the British Government deemed reasonable will be sent 
to me. For this reason, I have given this written agreement, admitting the above 
expenditure, dated this 24th day of Jamadi-ool-Awul 1287. 


No. XII. 

Treaty between the British Government and the Khelat State, — 1876. 

Whereas it has become expedient to renew the Treaty of 1854, between the 
British Government and Naseer Khan, Khan of Khelat, and to supplement the 
same by certain additional provisions calculated to draw closer the bonds of friend- 
ship and amity between the two Governments, the following additional Articles 
are herewith agreed upon between the Right Honourable Edward Robert Bulwer 
Lytton, Baron Lytton of Knebworth, in the County of Hertford, and a Baronet 
of the United Kingdom, Viceroy and Governor-General of India, and Grand .Master 
of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, on behalf of the British Government 
on the one hand, and His Highness Meer Khodadad Khan, Khan of Khelat, on the 
other : — ' - 


Article 1. 

The Treaty concluded between the British Government and Meer Naseer Khan, 
Khan of Khelat, on the 14th of May 1854, is hereby renewed and re-affirmed. 

Article % 

There shall bo perpetual friendship between the British Government and Meer 
Khodadad Khan, Khan of Khelat, his heirs, and successors. 


See also Appendices Nos. I and II. 




BALUCHISTAN— NO. XII— 1876. « 363 

Article 3. 

Whilst on his part, Moor Khodadad Khan, Khan of Khclat, hinds himself, 
his heirs, successors, and Sirdars to obsorvo faithfully the provisions of Article 3 
of the Treaty of 1854, the British Government on its part engages to respect the 
independence of Kholat, and to aid the Khan, in case of need, in the maintenance 
of a just authority and the protection of his territories from external attack, by 
such means as the British Government may at the moment deem expedient. 

Article 4. 

For the further consolidation of the friendship herewith renewed and 
rc-afiirmod betweon the two Governments, it is agreed on the one hand that British 
Agents with suitable escorts shall be duly accredited by the British Government 
to reside permanently at the Court of the Khan and elsewhere in His Highness’s 
dominions, and on the other hand, that a suitable representative shall be duly 
accredited by His Highness to tho Government of India. 

Aritcle 5. 

It is horeby agreed that should any dispute, calculated to disturb the peace 
of the country, arise hereafter between the Khan and the Sirdars of Khclat, the 
British Agent at the Court of His Highness shall in the first place use his good offices 
with both parties to ofiect by friendly advice an amicable arrangement between 
them, failing which the Khan will, with the consent of the British Government, 
submit such dispute to its arbitration, and accept and faithfully execute its award. 

Article G. 

Whereas the Khan of Khclat has expressed a desire on the part of himself and 
his Sirdars for the presence in his country of a detachment of British troops, the 
British Government, in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of the Treaty of 
1854, and in recognition of the intimate relations existing between the two countries, 
hereby assents to tho request of His Highness, on condition that the troops shall 
bo stationed in such positions as the British Government may deem expedient, 
and be withdrawn at the pleasure of that Government. 

Article 7. 

It is also agreed that such lines of telegraph or railway as may be beneficial 
to tho interests of the two Governments shall be from time to time constructed 
by the British Government in the territories of the Khan, provided that tho condi- 
tions of such construction bo a matter of previous arrangement between that 
Government and the Government of His Highness. 

Article 8. 

There shall bo entire freedom of trade between the State of Khclat and the 
territories of the British Government, subject to such conditions as the British 



364 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. XI.T-187G AND XIII— 1880. 

Government may, at any time, in concert -with tlie Khan of Khelat, deem necessary 
for the protection of fiscal interests. 

Article 9. 

To aid Moor Kliodadad Khan, his heirs, and successors, in the efficient fulfilment 
of the obligations contracted by them under the Treaty of 1854, and the present 
supplementary engagement, the British Government hereby undertakes to pay 
to the said Khan, his heirs, and successors an annual sum of one lakh of rupees, 
so long as they shall faithfully adhere to the engagements heretofore and hereby 
contracted. 

Article 10. 

The British Government further undertakes to contribute Bupees twenty 
thousand five hundred annually towards the establishment of posts and develop- 
ment of traffic along the trade routes in His Highness’s territories provided such 
money is expended by the Khan in the manner approved of by the British Govern- 
ment. 

Executed at Jacobabad, this eighth day of December one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six Anno Domini. 

LYTTON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

Seal of Khan of Khelat. 


No. XIII. 

Translation of a Sanad dated 7th Rajab (16th June 1880) granted by His High- 
ness Mir Khodadad Khan, Khan of Kelat, to the British Government. 

I, Mir Khodadad Khan, G.C.S.I., Khan of Kelat, do hereby make over in 
perpetuity to the British Government in gift the lands within my dominions on 

which the Kandahar State Bailway has been construct- 
ed, together with the lands on either side of the line of 
railway for a distance of 200 yards, as well as those lands 
on which all railway stations and buildings have been 
erected. The object of my making this gift to the 
British Government is to show the friendship with 
which I regard the alliance existing between the British 
Government and the Kelat State, *and to enable the 
British Government to make their own arrangement 
for the protection of life and property within the limits of the railway without 
reference to the laws of the Kelat State. "[But I beg that this may not affect my 
right to realise the usual transit dues (sung) on merchandise. 

Seal of Mir Khodadad Khan, 

. Khan of Kelat, 


* This should run — 

“ Tho British Govern- 
ment is at liberty to make 
its own arrangement,” 
etc. 

F. H. 

t Should be — 

. “ Without prohibiting 
the realisation of the 
usual transit dues (sung) 
Which I receive.” 

F.H. 



BALUCHISTAN— NO. XIV— 1883, ' 365 ’ 

No. XIV. 

Agreement entered into by His IliCiHN’E&b the Khan of Herat Mir Khudadad 
Khan on the one part and by Sir Robert Sanbeman, K.C.S.I., Agent to 
the GoVernor-Qeneral in Baluchistan, on the other part, subject to 
the 'confirmation of His Excellency the Viceroy in Council executed 
at the Dasht f lain on the 8th clay of June 1883. 

Whereas in the year 1879 an arrangement was finally agreed, to between the 
British Government and His Highness Mir Rhudadad Khan of Kclat by which 
the district and Niabat of Quotta were placed under the administration of the 
British Government on certain conditions and for a certain period, and where- 
as the period fixed by the said arrangement is almost expired, and whereas it has 
been found by experience to he to the advantage of both Governments that the 
district and Niabat of Quetta should be exclusively managed by the officers of 
the British Government, and whereas it appears desirable to His Excellency the 
Viceroy and Governor-General of India and to His Iligbness the Khan of Kclat, 
that a similar arrangement should be made regarding the levy of dues and other 
matters connected therewith in the Rolan Pass in consideration of the losses 
suffered by His Highness the Khan of Kclat owing to the opening of the Hurnai 
route by the British Government, it is hereby declared aud agreed ns follows : — 

1. Mir Khudadad Khan of Kclat on behalf of himself and his heirs and suc- 
cessors hereby makes over and entrusts the entire management of the Quetta 
District and Niabat absolutely and with all the rights and privileges as well ns 
full revenue, civil and criminal jurisdiction, and all other powers of administration, 
to the British Government with effect from 1st April 1883 on the following con- 
ditions : — 

(1) That the said District and Niabat shall be administered on behnlf of tho 
British Government by such officer or officers as the Governor-General in Council 
may appoint for tlic purpose. 

(2) That in lieu of the annual surplus of revenue hitherto paid to His High- 
ness tho Khan under the arrangement of 1879 nbove cited, tlic British Govern- 
ment, shall pay to Ilis Highness on the 31st March in every year, beginning from 
tho 31st March 1881, a fixed annual rent of Rupees 25,000 (twenty-five thousand) 
which has been settled as a fair average equivalent of His Highness the Khan's 
right to the annual not surplus of the revenues of the said District and Niabat. 

(3) The aforesaid sum of Rupees 25,000 (twenty-five thousand) shall bo paid 
to His Highness without any deductions for cost of administration, so long as tho 
said District and Niabat are administered by the British Government. 

2. His Highness the Khan hereby transfers to the British Government, ab- 
solutely, with effect from the 1st day of April 1883, all his rights to levy dues or 
tolls on the trade travelling through tho Bolan to and from British India and 
Afghanistan, as well as to and from Kaehi and Khorasan, as provided by the 
Treaty of 1854, or on the trade travelling to and from British India and the dis- 
tricts of Sihi, Quetta, and Pishin, 



366 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. XIV— 1883 AND XV— 1884. 

3. In return for tlie concession last mentioned tlio British Government agree 
to pay to His Highness the Khan the sum of Rupees 30,000 (thirty thousand) 
per annum free of all deductions, in two half-yearly instalments, on the 1st Octo- 
ber and 1st April of each year beginning from the 1st October 1883. In addi- 
tion the Viceroy and Governor-General agrees to pay to the Sara wan and Kurd 
Sirdars a fixed sum yearly for certain service in the Pass representing their shares 
respectively of the transit and escort fees. 

4. In order to facilitate the arrangements of the British Government for the 
collection of tolls on its own behalf in the Bolan Pass, His Highness the Khan 
hereby cedes to the British Government full civil and criminal jurisdiction and all 
other powers of administration within the limits of the said pass and within the 
land purchased by the British Government at Rindali for a railway station and 
other buildings. 

Seal of Mir Kiiudadau Khan. 


Quclla Residency , 
Slh June 1S83. 


R. G. Sandeman, 

Agent, Governor-General, Baluchistan. 

RIPON, 

Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 


This agreement was ratified by Ilis Excellency the Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India at Simla on Wednesday .this 12th day of September 1883. 


C. Grant, 

Secretary to the Government of India, 
Foreign Department. 


No. XV. 

Translation of the settlement made between Sardar Shaubaz Kuan and 
the Maliks of Zhob, Bori, and Musakhel, and the British Government,— 
1884. 

1. That we, Sardar Shahbaz Khan, Maliks Dost Muhammad, Tajudin and 
Muhammad Mir, Jclalzai Jogizais, as well as all other Maliks of Zhob, Bori, and 
Musakhel, now present execute this agreement in token of our submission to the 
power and supremacy of the British Government, and we engage to prevent our 
tribesmen from raiding or committing crimes in British territory. Should any 
tribesman commit a raid or an outrage we will seize him and make him over to 
the British authorities. 



BALUCHISTAN — NO. XV— 1884. 


367 


2. That we, Sardars and Chiefs of Zhob, engage to prevent the return to Zhob 
of Shah Johan Sardar Khail, excepting with the sanction of the British Govern- 
ment, after Shah Johan and the other chiefs who have fled with him have made 
full submission to the British Government, and on condition that such a. request 
shall only be made by Sardar Shahbaz Khan, and a majority of the Council (Jirga) 
of the headmen of Zhob. 

3. That we Maliks of Zhob and Bori agree to pay within three months from 
this date a fine of Us. 20,000 indicted on us as a punishment for all attacks or 
offences committed by ns against the British Government or its subjects. 

4. That wo the Musakhcl Maliks agree to pay within throe months a fine of 
Rs. 2,000 in condonement of the outrages committed by us in the raid on the 
coolies, and all other offences committed in British territory. Further that we null 
within this time produce Maliks Baik Khan and Wnzi Khan to tender their 
submission. 

5. That wc give the following men with two Motahars of the Sardar Khail, 
approved of by the Agent to the Governor-General for Baluchistan, as host- 
ages foT the fulfilment of these terms ; and they will remain present with the Gov- 
ernment o fticors at Thai Chotiali until the amount of the above fine is paid by us, 
or as long as the British Government consider their presence to he necessary. 

fi. It is distinctly agreed to by us, Sardars and assembled Chiefs, that the 
British Government has the right to protect the railway line and trade routes 
by placing troops in Bori or in any way that may he deemed desirable by the 
British Government. Should it he finally decided to occupy Bori, all the Sardars 
and Maliks will recognise the justice of the measure by becoming the faithful 
and loyal subjects of the British Government. 

7. If the Government of India consider it necessary, in order to secure the 
satisfactory fulfilment of the terms now settled, to place troops in Zhob or else- 
where, they have the right to do so. 

8. The request of the Zhob, Bori, and Musakhcl tribes, that the British Gov- 
ernment should take measures to protect the trade routes in their countries and 
settle internal quarrels and feuds between Sardars and Chiefs in the same manner 
as they do now with regardto the Maris, Bugtis, Khetrans, Kakars, and other tribes 
of the Thai Chotiali district, will be forwarded by the Governor-General's Agent 
for Baluchistan for the consideration and orders of the Government of India. 


{Here follow the signatures.) 


Camp Dun ax, 

The 22nd November l SSI. 


R. G. Sandrman, President , 

Agent to the Governor-General.- 
2 c 


XI 



3GS 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. XYI AND XVII— 1885. 


No. XVI. 

Agreement entered into between Sir It. G. Sandeman, IC.C.S.I., Agent to the 
Governor-General in Baluchistan, on behalf of the British Government, on 
the one park- and Sirdar Azad Khan of Kharan on the other part, dated 
Quetta, 5th June 1885. 

Whereas the British Government has been pleased to grant me an allowance 
of Rs. 6,000 (six thousand only) per annum, I am very grateful for this allowance, 
and do hereby agree to employ it in the following manner : — I shall appoint one 
of my sons as a Ressaldar on Rs. 100 (one hundred only) per mensem and 20 sowars 
of my tribe on Rs. 20 (twenty only) per mensem each. They will protect the trade 
routes passing through Kharan, and maintain peace to the best of their power 
on the frontier. Should traders or British employes travel by any of the routes 
situated in my district, I shall bo responsible for their safety. Should the British 
Government open a district road from Nushld to the ITelmand, I shall be respon- 
sible that no injury shall happen to any traveller along that part of the route 
which lies in the Kharan territory. Should British officers require the sendees 
of the Ressaldar and sowars mentioned in this agreement when visiting my district, 
or in proceeding to the frontier, the sowars and Ressaldar will accompany them 
without excuse ; and if the British Government should station them along the 
route from Nushld to the Helmand, on the road to Chagcli, or at any place on the 
Kharan frontier, they will remain at such place. Should British officers proceed 
on duty to Kharan district, there will be no objection made to their doing so ; 
on the contrary, every precaution will be taken to look after their safety and to 
help them in every way. 

I write these lines as an agreement. 

P.S . — The allowance mentioned above has been granted to me by the British 
Government for the protection of traffic and management of the frontier. But 
should the Government at any time hereafter ask me to furnish them with a large 
tribal force, the said Government will have to make extra provision for the pay 
and expenses of such force. 


No. XVII. 

Translation of an Agreement between the British Government on the one side 
and Sardar Mehrulla Khan, Marri Chief, on the other side, — 1885. 

I, Sardar Mehrulla Khan, son of Nur Muhammad Khan, Bahawalanzi Guzni 
Marri, do hereby, in consideration of receiving from the British Government an 
allowance in the form of service to the amount of Rs. 300 (three hundred) to be 
increased to Rs. 500 (five hundred) per mensem in the event of the experiment 
proving successful, cede in perpetuity to the said Government the exclusive right 
to all petroleum or other mineral oil whatsoever already found or which may 
hereafter be found at Khatan or in any other part of the Marri country with full 



369 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. XVII — 1885 AND XVIII— 1889. 


liberty for the said Government to extract and removo such petroleum or other 
oil in any manner and by any way that to it may seem fit. 

I empower the British Government to transfer to others all or any of the rights 
which it acquires under this agreement. 

I do further agree that in the event of the wells being abandoned the allowance 
shall cease. 

According to the old custom and procedure in force such mineral rights are 
the property of the Ruler or of the Sardar himself. I am therefore responsible 
to answer to any claim or claims that may hereafter bo brought forward by the 
Marris, and should any claims be proved before the Governor-General’s Agent 
for Baluchistan, I hereby bind myself, to carry out his award. 


The 24th October 1S85. 


Seal of S. Mehrulla Khan, 

Tumandar of Morris. 


Witnesses. 


r 1. Seal of Jalab Khan, son of Murad Khan, 

J Gazni Marri. 

(_2. Mik Hasan Khan, son of Baluch Khan, 

Gazni Mam. 


Executed in my presence. 


R. I. Bruce, 

Agent to the Govr.-Genl. in Baluchistan. 


No. XVIII. 

Memorandum of conditions subscribed to by Jam Alt Khan on his succession to 

the Chief ship of Las Bela, — 1889. 

Whereas His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General has been pleased 
to sanction my succession to the Chiefship of the Las Bela State, I, the under- 
signed, Sardar Haji Jam Ali Khan, hereby accept the following conditions which 
have been explained to me personally by Sir Robert Sandcman, Agent to the 
Governor-General in Baluchistan. 

First.— I will always conduct the administration of the Las Bela State in ac- 
cordance with the advice of the Agent to the Governor-General. 

Secondly.— I will employ a Wazir approved by the Agent to the Governor- 
General. 

Thirdly .— For a term of five years I will make no important change in the cus- 
toms of the country or in the system of administration now established with- 
out the concurrence of the Agent to the Governor-General. I will particularly 
avoid imposing fresh burdens of taxation, and resuming muafi grants. Further 

2 c 2 



370 BALUCHISTAN — NOS, XVTTT — 1S89, XTX— 1890 AND XX— 1894. 


before causing sentences of death to be executed, I will obtain the sanction of the 
Agent, to the Governor-General. 

Fourthly. — I hereby grant a free pardon to all who have been hostile to me 
in the past. I will not revenge myself upon them, nor harass them, in any way. 

Fifthly . — I will make such allowances from the revenues of the Las Bela State 
as the Agent to the Governor-General may now, and in future from time to time, 
recommend for the widow, sons and family of my late father. I will similarly 
make suitable provision for Akhundzada Muhammad Nur, Vakil Walidad Khan, 
Sardar Sahib Khan Chutta, and other servants of the Las Bela State, in accordance 
with the recommendations of the Agent to the Governor-General. 


No. XTX. 

Translation of a petition from Siierani Maliks of Bargha, including ITaripal, 
— dated Appozai, 21st January 1S90. 

We, the Siierani Maliks of the Bargha Division, including ITaripal and Kapip 
beg respectfully to represent that we arc grateful to Government for entertaining 
us in their service and granting us emoluments. Having unanimously accepted 
this service we have made distribution amongst ourselves according to our custom, 
and will carry out the Government service with loyalty and good faith. Our 
servants (levies) will serve in such posts as Government may fix and will obey 
Government orders. We have unanimously and unreservedly elected to become 
British subjects. Should Government wish at any time to establish any canton- 
ments or military posts in our country we will offer no objection. As the neigh- 
bouring tribes arc our enemies, we pray that the Government may help us in dis- 
posing of our quarrels with them in order to secure peace and prosperity in the 
country. The Sheranis of Largha Division have not as yet come in, and until they 
make their submission we will consider them as our enemies. In short, wc will 
regard the enemies of Government as our enemies. If any bad character of 
Bargha commits any crime and takes refuge with us we hold ourselves responsible 
for such person and will get him punished. We will lojuilly obey the orders of 
Government. We have honestly and truthfully submitted this application to 
you. We, the Maliks, will specially serve Government loyally. 

(Ilerefolloiv the signatures.) 


No. XX. 

Agreement entered into by the Kiian of Kalat regarding the cession of land 
together with jurisdiction thereon, required for the Mushkap-Bolan Bail- 
way, — 1894. 

In order to meet the wishes of Government I hereby grant, on behalf of myself 
and my successors, to the British Government the right to occupy and admin- 
ister and to exercise full civil and criminal jurisdiction over the lands of my 
(Kalat) State occupied and traversed or hereafter to be occupied or traversed 





n a t' B aluchistan— nos . lsys ^,xxiv— 1897. 


375 


by the Mub..iv.«-j 5 oTan Railway to the extent of 100 feet on v. 
required for railway stations and other buildings to the extern 
mile on each side, for so long as the said lands and premises sha 
railway purposes. 


, the Chiefship of 
’~' 1 Vas been 


No. XXI. 


Translation of an Agreement signed by the Largha and Bargha Maliks, 

1895. 

As the Government proposed to fix an administrative line of boundary bet- 
ween the tribes of Largha and Bargha Slieranis to prevent all future quarrels 
among the people of both these parts of the Sherani country, and to establish peace 
among them, we the maliks and inotabirs of the Largha and Bargha Slieranis 
personally and on behalf of our tribesmen, in presence of Captain Archer, Political 
Agent, Zhob, and Mr. Gee, Deputy Commissioner, Dora Ismail Khan, agree to ac- 
cept the boundary line which these two officers have fixed as under. 

From Katan Dabra to Shahkoh and from Shahkoh to Panga Narai, from 
Panga Narai to Mana Narai, and from Maua Narai to Sarwalai, and from Sarwalai 
to Zarghoon-Zawar, and Zarglioon-Zawar to Pazai Kotal at the head of Dhana 
Khidderzai, from Pazai Kotal to Tor Sar, and Oboshta Sokai at the north of 
Kaisargark, from Tor Sar and Oboshta Sokai to Gat valley, and from Gat valley 
to Narai Ghar and from Narai Ghar to Zao. 


This lino is considered to be the separating line of the jurisdictions, i.c., Punjab 
and Zhob. This will not afEcct any property of rights held by persons of either 
division on cither side of the line. 

( Ilcrcfolloiv the sujnulures.) 


No. XXII. 

Agreement relating to the demarcation of the Hound ary between Persian 

Baluchistan and Kalat, — 1896. 

In accordance with the agreement for the delimitation of the Perso-Kalat 
frontier from Kohak to Koh-i-Malik Siah, drawn up between Her Britannic Ma- 
jesty’s Minister at Tehran and His Highness the Sadar-i-Azam of Persia, dated 
the 27th December 1S95, this frontier has been demarcated as follows : — 

Commencing from the Mashkcl river it is defined by the bed of that river from 
pillar 1 to pillar 2. Pillar 1 is placed on a conspicuous hill on the left or north 
bank of the river, about a mile and a half below the junction of the Gazbastan 
stream with the Mashkcl, and almost immediately south of Kohak Fort. 

Pillar 2 is built on a well marked hill on the right or south bank of the Masli- 
kel river about 6 miles above the junction of the Mashkcl and Bakslian rivers. 
From pillar 2 the boundary runs in a north-westerly direction to a conspicuous 
peak on the subsidiary range which runs from the Tank-i-Grawag to the Si ah an 



-lLUOlii STAN:*- . 

370 BALFOUR!' by pillar 3. From pillar 3 it follows tlic^WlBhed of this 
j its junction with that of the Siahan Koh and thence it is de- 
before causin" nift i n watershed of the Siahan range to a point about 4 

Agent to the pass called Bonsar or Sharindor, on the main road connecting 

^ ' - with Jalk. At this point, which is marked by pillar 4, a subsidiary 
. .^erslied or spur runs northward, along which the boundary extends, leaving all 
drainage into the cultivated tracts of Kalagam on the Persian side. The bound- 
ary is here marked by a conspicuous peak, distinguished by a natural bluff resem- 
bling a tower on its summit. From this peak 5, it is carried to pillar G, which is 
placed on the main road leading a little south of east from the village of Kaladen 
towards the Mashkel river. Pillar G is 4 miles from the village of Kaladen. From 
pillar G the boundary runs direct to pillar 7 on the main road connecting Jalk with 
Ladgasht and Mashkel at 12 miles from Zirat-i-Pir-Omar at Jalk. 

From pillar 7 the boundary is carried in a northerly direction by a straight 
line to pillar 8. 

Pillar 8 is placed on tho road connecting the date groves of Ladgasht with 
those of Muksokhta or Muksotag, and it is erected at a distance of 3 miles from 
the southern edge of tho Muksotag grove, so as to divide the southern group of 
date groves, including Ladgasht and Kalag, from the northern group, which in- 
cludes Muksotag, Gorani and others. 

Ladgasht, with its date groves, becomes the property of Kalat, and Gorani 
with its date groves, has been allotted to Persia, on the understanding that the 
frontier Governors of the Persian Government in future become responsible for 
tho conduct of tho Damani cultivators of these groves. 

From pillar 8 the boundary runs 14 miles nearly north to pillar 9 at the south- 
eastern edge of tho Kindi date grove, and thence in the same direction for 31 miles 
to the north-eastern edge of the same grove of Kindi, where pillar 10 is erected. 

From pillar 10 the boundary runs II miles a little south of west so as to clear 
the northern edge of tho Kindi date grove, to pillar 11. 

Pillar 11 is on the edge of the right bank of the Talab watercourse, and about 
1 mile east of the northern end of the Gorani date groves. 

From pillar 11 northwards the Talab river becomes the boundary to its junc- 
tion with the Mirjawa river. From the point of junction it is carried by a straight 
line to the nearest point on the watershed of the Mirjawa range, which limits 
the drainage into the Mirjawa river on the north. 

Thence it follows the main watershed northward to the highest point of the 
Kacha Koh. 

From the highest point of the Kacha Koh the line is carried straight to the 
highest point of the Malik Siah Koh. 


Camp Jalic ; 
24th March 1S9G. 


T. H. Holdich, Colonel, It. E., 

II. M.’s Commissioner, Perso-Kalal Boundary. 


375 


JI ALU OUT STAN — X OS . XXIII— ISOGrA?— i.XXlV— 1807. 



Perso-Kai.at Boundary. 

Description of pillars, etc. 


tlic Cluefship of 



27 5 30 G3 17 25 A conical pile of stones, about 12 feet high, built on 

the summit of a hill overlooking tlio Masbkel river 
on its northom bank, about a mile and a half below 
the junction of the Gazbnstan stream with the Mnshkel. 

Azimuth of pillar 2 — 75°. 

Distance — 5} miles. 

27 G GO G3 22 30 A conical pile of stones about G feet high, built on n 

hill overlooking tho Masbkel river on its southern 
bank, about six miles above the junction of tho Rakb- 
ehan river with the. Mnshkel. 

Azimuth of pillar 3 — 335°. 

Distance — 7} miles. 


27 12 30 03 10 30 A conical pile of stones, about 5 or G feet high, bnilf. 

on a conspicuous peak of low rantre connecting tho 
Tnnk-i-Grawttg (where the Mashkol river passes 
between (lie Siahan and Koh-i-£s’abz ranges) with 
the Siahan. This low range is locally known ns the 
Grawag. From pillar 3 to 4 the line follows first 
the watershed of this subsidiary Grawag range to 
its junction with that, of the Sin'han, and the Sialinn 
watershed to pillar 4. 

Azimuth of pillar 4 — £73°. 

Distance — 30J miles. 


27 14 40 02 40 GO A pile of stones erected on a Hat-topped peak of the 

Siahan watershed, about. 4 miles east, of the llonsar 
or Slwrindor Kotnl or pass. From this point (he 
boundary diverges northward along tho eastern 
watershed of tho Kallagan river to peak 5. 

Azimuth of peak 5 — 0°. 

Distance — 8} miles. 

27 21 30 G2 50 30 A conspicuous peak on the watershed or spur which 

trends northward from pillar 4, It is marked bv a 
natural bluff resembling a tower on its summit. 

Azimuth of pillar G — 31*. 

Distance — 71 miles. ; 



j/oUGHiSTAN^, 


3Y0 BALUCHIS" Perso-Kalat Boundary — conoid. 


before causing 
i to tl>' 

Fr 


Agent, to t.l 


10 


11 


27 27 ‘10 


27 4(i 0 


28 1 40 


28 13 40 


28 10 35 


28 14 20 


Longitudo. 


02 53 20 


02 51 54 


02 48 30 


02 50 20 


02 50 10 


02 39 20 


General description. 


A pile of mixed earth and stones set up on the main 
road which runs eastward from the Kalladin village 
about 4 miles from the village. 

Azimuth of pillar 7 — 350°. 

Distance — 21 miles. 

A pile of mixed earth and stones erected on the main 
road, connecting Jalk with Ladgasht: about 12 miles 
from Jalk. 

Azimuth of pillar 8 — 319°. 

Distance — 18 miles. 

Pillar 8 is a small mound constructed of sand and hushes 
on rising ground about 3 miles south-east of tho south- 
ern edge, of the Muksolag grove, on the road between 
Muksotag and Ladgasht. 

Azimuth of pillar 9 — 7°. 

Distance — 135 miles. 

Pillar 9 is a small mound of mixed sand .and bushc3 
at the south-eastern end of Kindi date grove. 

Azimuth of pillar 10 — 359°. 

Distance — 34 miles. 

Pillar 10 is a small mound ol mixed sand and bushes 
on the north-eastern edge of the Kindi dale grove. 

Azimuth of pillar 11 — 255°. 

Distance — 11-?, miles. 


Pillar 11 is a small mound of mixed sand and bushes 
on a low range of sand hills, on tho right bank of tho 
Talab watercourse, and one mile cast of the northern 
end of tho Goorani date grove. 

Approximate azimuth along Talab river — 310°. 


T. H. Holdich, Colonel, R.E., 

II. M.’s Commissioner Perso-Kalat Boundary. 


Camp Park. ; 

4th March 1896. 



375 


BALUCHISTAN— NOS. XXIII— 1800 AND XXIV— 1897. 


No. XXIII. 

Conditions agreed to by Mm Kasim. Kiian on his succession to tbc Chiefship of 

Las Bela in 1890. 

Whereas His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor- General of India lias been 
pleased to sanction by succession to the Chiefship of the Las Bcyla State, I, the 
undersigned, Sirdar Mir Kamal Khan hereby accept the following conditions which 
have been explained to me personally by Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., K.E., Agent to the Governor-General in Baluchistan : — 

(1) I pledge myself to fulfil all contracts and obligations accepted by the 

late Jam and his predecessors. 

(2) Of my own free will I agree to delegate all powers of administration for 

five years at least to the Wazir selected or to be selected hereafter by 
the Government of India, who is to be guided by the Political Agent 
in all important matters. 

(3) I further agree that the question of my being granted further powers 

depends upon my conduct and capabilities as shown during the period 
the management remains in the hands of the AVaz.ir. 

Aim Kamal Khan. 

Raul by and signed in my presence by Kamal Khan. 


Dated 2nd May 1S%. 


James Bkowne, Major-General, 
Agent, Governor-General, Baluchistan. 


No. XXIV. 

Agreement executed with the Sulim an Kiiel Ghilzais, — 1897. 

Whereas we, the Maliks of the Sultan Khcl, Min/.ai and Sara/, sections which 
graze in the hills in British territory during the winter and spring, had submitted 
certain petitions to Government regarding the grant of allowances and of permis- 
sion to cultivate and whereas Government has been pleased to grant; our request 
on certain conditions, we on behalf of our tribes gratefully agree to t he offer made 
us by Government and accept the conditions imposed, as follows : — 

(1) Government will grant us fixed sums of the following amounts on our 
arrival in British territory each autumn and again each spring on our 
leaving fo